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ABSTRACT

Nowadays, building and accessing to vigorous and influential brand is one the first priorities in companies as it brings about lots of privileges and reputation for them. Branding is becoming ever more important as firms face an increasingly global and competitive marketplace. They remain a tool of differentiation according to the type of market and the brand positioning. Brand equity refers to the intangible value that accrues to a company as a result of its successful efforts to establish a strong brand. Creating a successful promotional mix plan that will increase results often takes experimenting and market research. In this paper, we study the influence of promotional mix elements on brand equity.

This is a research which is based on the impact on promotional strategies on brand equity with special reference to the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. Most of researches have found that promotional strategies influenced on brand equity in herbal cosmetics industry. Hence, the main objective of this study is to understand what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity.

Here researcher used promotional mix advertising, sales promotions, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing and event and experience. Those have been used as independent variables in order to implement this study. According to the research, researcher could found that advertising, sales promotions, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing and event ad experience have significant impact on brand equity.

Key words: Brand equity, Herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka, Promotional strategies.

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Chapter One- Introduction

1.1 Back ground of the study.

In the modern marketing environment consumers are becoming more and more demanding since the market is glutted with endless products and countless brands and offering them rich choices. In pursuit of achieving the best possible value for their money, modern day consumers are gradually becoming quite choosy about products or services on the basis of their intrinsic value. Gone are the days of the marketers with the placid assumption that a market once won is theirs. In view of the same, marketers of today frantically search strategies to maintain a set of consumers who are loyal to the products or services that they are offering for sale. This phenomenon is particularly significant for the low priced, daily use, non durable products which are purchased repeatedly by the consumers at frequent intervals popularly termed as fast moving consumer goods (FMCGs). The purchase behavior of the consumers for such products is of special interest to the marketer since these items are purchased repeatedly and it is this purchase that results in generating volumes and profits.

The word “cosmetics” is derived from the Greek word “Kosmos” meaning “to arrange”. In the late 10000 BC. Cosmetics were very important in Egyptain health and Hygiene (Journal week.com 2011) tracing the origin of cosmetics, the first recorded use of cosmetic is attribute to Egyptians. Cirea 4000 BC (Narada 2010). The ancient Sumerians and Hebrews also applied cosmetics. In other cases such as European cosmetic known as Cerus was used from the second century to the 19th century (Kaushik 2005). Cosmetics are products that are used to clean and beautify the skin (Millikan 2001). The first recorded use of cosmetics is attributed to Egyptians in 4000 BC (Rons et al 2004)

Malhotra (2003) described the main reasons for boom in cosmetic industry as increasing fashion and beauty consciousness coupled with rising incomes and focus on health and fitness. To complement this, beauty culture or cosmetology has emerged as a major occupational avenue with significant commercial potential. New scientific developments, techniques, products and media hype, has contributed the Indian fashion industry in generating mega revenues and this has in turn added to the growth of cosmetic industry.

Rising hygiene and beauty consciousness due to changing demographics and lifestyles, deeper consumer pockets, rising media exposure, greater product choice, growth in retail

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segment and wider availability are the reasons reported by (Euro monitor International, 2010). Over recent years, India has seen increasing literacy levels, penetration of satellite television, growing urbanization and greater beauty awareness among women, which has resulted in rewarding growth opportunities to cosmetics and toiletries manufacturers. Around 44.6 % of value sales (2009) of cosmetics & toiletries market in India are with three market leaders i.e. The Unilever Group, Colgate Palmolive Ltd., and Dabur India Ltd. The rest is very fragmented with hundreds of companies trying to penetrate into India and maintain if not increase their market share. These include well known Indian Brands like Marico, Godrej, etc. and International brands like Avon , Oriflame, P&G, L‘Oreal , Revlon, Christian Dior, Estee Lauder, Nivea, Chambor, Lancome , Calvin Klein, Elizabeth Arden, Johnson & Johnson , etc.

Cosmetics refer to all products used to care for and clean the human body and make it more beautiful. The main goal of such products is to maintain the body in good condition, protect it from adverse effects of the environment and the aging process, change the appearance and make the body smell nicer. Thus the products used for the purpose of cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering one‘s appearance are termed as cosmetics. Any of the several preparations (excluding soap) applied to the human body for beautifying, preserving or altering one‘s appearance or for cleansing, colouring, conditioning or protecting the skin, hair, nails, lips, eyes or tee

The earliest known cosmetics were in use in Egypt in the 10th millennium B.C. The Romans and Ancient Egyptians used cosmetics containing mercury and often lead. In the western world, the advent of Cosmetics was in the middle ages, although restricted to use within the upper classes. Cosmetics use was also questioned at some points in history when in the 19thcentury, Queen Victoria publicly declared make up improper. It was viewed as degrading and acceptable only for use by actors. By the middle of the 20th Century, Cosmetics were in wide spread use in nearly all societies around the world.

The contemporary concept of wellness includes beauty, health, fitness and anti-aging treatments, and is expected to become a US $1 trillion business by 2010. According to Euromonitor International's recent Industry report, today's consumers clearly prioritize age-prevention above any other category of cosmeceuticals. Hence the naturals and wellness segment basically targets consumers in the 15–55 age groups for anti-aging cosmeceuticals, and even teens who want to postpone the aging process.

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Cosmeceuticals are topical cosmetic pharmaceutical hybrids intended to enhance health and beauty through ingredients that influence the skin's biological function. The various topical application products that delay and or reverse visible signs of aging are termed anti-aging cosmeceuticals. Research trends in anti-aging skin care products are moving towards developing new plant extracts and botanical ingredients based on their traditional medicinal uses.

Ayurveda is one of the most ancient medical traditions practiced in India, Sri Lanka and other South Asian countries, and has a sound philosophical and experiential basis. Ayurveda has several formulations for management of aging and related conditions. Its literature describes over 200 herbs, minerals and fats to maintain and enhance the health and beauty of the skin. Today there is once again a revival of preference for natural products.

Cosmeceuticals are not regulated as such in the European Union, United States or Japan. In the EU, most are considered cosmetics; in the United States, most are seen as drugs, that have probably not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In Japan, they are regulated as quasi-drugs. Today, new challenges are presented to government regulatory agencies as new molecules from natural sources with true biological activity are being discovered and tested. Traditional recipes of historical significance have become important segments of the cosmeceutical market. Whereas there are clear guidelines for manufacturing and advertising drugs as compared to cosmetics, the same is lacking for cosmeceuticals. Being hybrids, cosmeceuticals are difficult to classify. The tightening of government regulations for products claims and safety testing are on the horizon. Natural and organic cosmeceuticals is one of the fastest growing segments of the health and wellness market place. US Market Research Data shows that sales of natural and organic personal care products totaled $7.9 billion in 2008, and is expected to exceed $10 billion by 2010. The US is a less mature market than Europe with lower penetration, and hence is expected to grow at the faster rate of 8.2% as against 4.6% for Europe.

In the earlier times, marketers could arrive at a fair understanding of consumers through the daily experience of selling products to consumers. However, growth in the size of firms and markets has removed many marketing decision makers from direct contact with their consumers. Increasingly marketing managers have to turn to consumers. They are spending more than ever before to study consumers and to understand who buys? How do they buy? When do they buy? &Why do they buy?

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1.1.1 The Global Cosmetics Industry

The Cosmetics Industry today is a multinational, multibillion dollar industry. In 2009, the Global Beauty and Personal Care Market were valued at U.S. $ 406.5 billion, up 17% from U.S. $ 348.7, in 2005 (in fixed exchange rate terms). A look at the global distribution of Cosmetics Consumption in the year 2009 revealed that Europe was the Leader with 39.5 % Market Share, North and South America together followed with 34 %, and Asia – Pacific had a Market Share of 26.4 % . Global market shares of the cosmetics products according to their revenues amounted to 27.2 % Over The Counter Health care Products, 17.1% % Skin care Products, 10.5 % Hair care Products, 7.9 % Colour Cosmetics and Remaining 29.7% comprised Shares of Other Categories of Cosmetics Products. Of the major players in the Cosmetics industry in 2009, were the oldest and the largest is L‘Oreal, founded in France as a hair colouring company. The market was developed in the U.S.A. during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein and Max Factor which were followed by Revlon before and Estee Lauder just after the World War II. As of 2009, In terms of Global Company Shares, Procter & Gamble Company, together with its subsidiaries, which manufactures and sells various consumer products worldwide is the largest player in the Global Cosmetics Industry with a market share of 11.7% , followed by The L‘Oreal Group with 10.1% market share, And Unilever Group with a market share of 6.8% . And so far as Brand Shares in 2009 were concerned, the World‘s Leading Brand was Avon with a Market Share of 3.4%, followed by L‘Oreal Paris in second place, with a Market Share of 3.2% and Nivea with a Market Share of 2.8% in third place.

1.1.2 The Indian Cosmetics Industry

The Indian Cosmetics Industry is growing in terms of product development and marketing. The preference of Indian consumers is changing from merely functional to more `advanced and specialized‘cosmetics items. In 2005 the sales of Cosmetics & Toiletries in India stood at nearly Rs.176.025 billion, which was a 7 % rise over the Cosmetics & Toiletries sales in the year 2004 which were Rs.164.614 billion. And in the year 2009 the sales reached Rs. 277.302. Thus, a 58% growth in the Retail Sales of Cosmetics and Toiletries in India was observed over the five years spanning from 2005- 2009. India is one of the fastest growing markets of Cosmetic & Toiletries in the world.

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The entry of many multinationals into the Indian Cosmetics and Toiletries industry post 2005 has made it an extremely challenging and dynamic market. Foreign players are focusing more on product innovation; re launches and brand extensions spread across multiple price points and enhanced product penetration by extending their distribution networks. Briney has described an interesting trend among Indian Consumers; while global countries are taking to the traditional Indian herbal and ayurvedic applications for beauty solutions, Indian consumers are increasingly attracted to international personal care brands as lifestyle enhancement products in the belief that the association with the use of international brands confers upon oneself a sophisticated and upper class image .

1.1.3 The Sri Lankan Cosmetics Industry

Cosmetic Industry in Sri Lanka plays a significant role in economic development and growth of the country. The need for cosmetics in seen from ancient days. People were using variety of very ancient days. People were using a variety of cosmetic products both as curative purpose as well as for enhancing beauty.

In the Sri Lanka, the Food and Drug Administration which regulates cosmetics defines cosmetics as "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap and face wash from this category.

The Sri Lankan cosmetic industry has witnessed rapid growth over last couple of decades, registering an average 15% to 20% growth rate. This has turned beauty care business into 3000 core industry.

Many of the world popular cosmetic brands entered Sri Lankan market since 1990, growth has mainly low and medium prices cosmetic products which accounts for 90% of the cosmetic market in terms of volume. Sri Lankan consumers are like to use the herbal cosmetics for their beauty solutions.

Nature Secrets, ReeBonn, 4ever, Janet, Lady, Vendol, Kumarika, Siddhalepa, Enspa, British Cosmetics, Dreamron are leading cosmetics companies in Sri Lanka.

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1.2 Research Problem

The cosmetics market today is very competitive. This widespread competition results in continuing changes, a large sum of money is spent by companies in research and development. This accounts for changes in consumer behaviors. The companies, which learn to give more preference for the likes and dislikes of customers alone, will succeed. Therefore, knowing the consumers' behaviour and what is in the minds of customers is very essential to capture the market. The people are the best budgeters. All the products for sale are to satisfy some needs of the people. Likewise, Herbal cosmetic is also to satisfy some needs of the people like build their attractiveness and healthy. The manufacturer and the marketer also study the needs of the people and try to produce their products in such a way so that they can give greater and greater satisfaction to the people. One of the few common denominators with all of us, no matter whatever education, income, and age is that above all we are consumers. It is worth study of the tastes and preferences of consumer. People having their own preferences, are eager to get what they like.

Previous researches have shown that it is the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity. Now a day herbal cosmetic industry has huge competition. They use different promotional strategies to influence on brand equity such as advertising, sales promotions, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing and event and experiences.

Much researches focus on developing brand equity measurement tools (Keller, 2003) little empirical research attempts to understand or measure the process of brand equity formation over time through an examination of antecedents ( Borwise, 1993). Consumer promotions have positive effects on brand equity, because repeated promotions that the brand needs promotions of justify consumer consideration and purchase. Some studies establish that promotions correlate negatively with finds positive, more complex, relationship (shivakumar, 2009).

The promotional strategies affect to the brand equity, domestic researches contribute their ideas for that. In globally many researches conduct their researches about promotional mix and brand equity therefore, considering things. This is a timely requirement to clarify “the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity with special reference to the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.”

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1.3 Research Objectives

Key Objective

∑To understand what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity.

Specific Objectives

∑To evaluate relationship between advertising and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

∑To understand relationship between sales promotion and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

∑To understand relationship between personal selling and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

∑To understand relationship between direct marketing and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

∑To evaluate relationship between public relations and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

∑To understand relationship between event and experience and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

1.4Significance / Justification of the study

This study will be focused on “the impact on promotional strategies on brand equity: with special reference to the herbal cosmetics industry in Sri Lanka” the main objective would be to identify to what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity.

This study will be identifying to what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity. This study will be covered the areas such as whether this has affected on select most efficiency promotional strategies. This research study will be useful for cosmetics companies in Sri Lanka.

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This study will be useful for brand managers in cosmetics industry. They can get ideas for developing their brand management strategies and increasing their brand equity.

On the other hand, this study will be useful for anyone who is planning to enter in to the cosmetics industry in Sri Lanka. They can come up with innovative strategies by referring this study.

There may be many people who are interested in evaluate the promotional strategies, this research will be a good source for that.

This study attempts to investigate the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity. Therefore these findings of study can be useful for advertising companies. They can maintain their service quality.

1.5 Hypotheses

H1-There is a positive relationship between advertising and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

H2-There is a positive relationship between sales promotions and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

H3-There is a positive relationship between public relations and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

H4-There is a positive relationship between personal selling and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

H5-There is a positive relationship between direct marketing and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

H6-There is a positive relationship between event and experience and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

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1.6Research Methodology

1.6.1 Source of Data Collection

Preliminary Study

To find out a solution for the research problem, a preliminary study will be done using the observation method. However, this will not be enough for the study because it is needed to obtain customer feedback about their buying patterns.

Secondary data Collection

Secondary data collection sources will be service provider websites, annual reports, newspaper articles, business magazines and other research studies on the melamine issue.

Primary Data Collection

In order to collect primary data, a sample survey will be executed by selecting a sample of 150 consumers. A systematic and well-designed questionnaire will be distributed in order to collect information.

1.6.2Method of Sampling

Convenience sampling method will be used in order to collect necessary information.

1.6.3 Method of Data Analysis

Collected data from primary and secondary sources will be summarized using all accepted and standard format. It has been planned to use SPSS package to analyze the data. Therefore, results will be so perfect and effective due to using efficient data. It has been planned to use systematic presentation method and format using clear understandable tools like pie charts, bar charts, line charts, tables, symbols and colors. Therefore, research presentation method will be attractive to user to systematic standard format.

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1.7 Limitations of the Study

The researcher took all possible care to avoid shortcomings and errors in the collection of data. All possible care and skills were exercised to derive the conclusions and bring out the findings of the study. In spite of all the efforts taken by the researcher in this regard, the present study is subject to the under mentioned limitations.

Time Period

As the research to be carried out individually by the researcher himself, the period will not be sufficient to carry out a comprehensive study.

Secondary Information

There is a problem of gathering suitable secondary information. There is an issue regarding the accuracy of that information.

Information Gathering Barriers

Some consumers may provide in accurate information on their consumption and buying behavior.

When collecting data through interviews and questionnaire, there is a probability of having personal bias of the interviewees having an impact on the data collected.

1.8 CHAPTERIZATION

This consist with six chapters namely Introduction, Literature Review, Conceptualization and Operationalization, Methodology, Data Presentation and Analysis & Summary and Conclusion. These all chapters are very important for ultimate users to understand about the research.

Chapter 01: Introduction

The first chapter deals with what is the major problem considered in the report and how it affects the society. This chapter includes the information about herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka, global context, history of cosmetics, what are the main hypothesis use to study and so on.

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Chapter 02: Literature Review

This chapter is used to discuss about the previous research information about the topic and those information can be used to take a sound knowledge regarding the concepts, theories the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity with herbal cosmetic industry. It also shows the approaches to solve the problem statement.

Chapter 03: conceptualization and operationalization

The third chapter shows a purpose of study, conceptual framework, hypothesis, defining the variables, research type, research technique, population and sampling design, time horizon and data analysis methods.

Chapter 04: Methodology

This chapter consists with the formulation of hypothesis, methodological choice, method of data collection, sampling plan and data processing and scales. Moreover, this chapter will discuss about all the information relevant to the data collection process.

Chapter 05: Data Presentation and Analysis

This shows how the data were analyzed by using statistical methods and the analysis were supported based on past research findings. The entire hypotheses that were formulated in the previous stage will be tested in this stage.

Chapter 06: Summary & conclusion

Finally, it gives the overall summary for this study and provides ultimate conclusion. Furthermore, this chapter provides the suggestions for further researches which can be used as the Literature review for future studies by the interested parties. In addition to that, the appendix, bibliography and references are also mentioned under this chapter.

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Chapter Two - Review of Literature

2.1 Introduction

In chapter will contain the theories, concepts and models which were relevant to brand equity and explain brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and other brand assets. Then chapter explain promotional strategies to relevant models and concepts. Further this chapter will help to identify research gap.

2.2. Theoretical Background of The Brand Equity

Brand equity is a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or to that firm's customers (Aaker, 1991; Aaker, 1996). For assets or liabilities to underlie brand equity they must be linked to the name or symbol of the brand. If the brand's name or symbol should change, some or all of the assets or liabilities could be affected and even lost, although some might be shifted to a new name and symbol. The assets and liabilities on which brand equity is based will differ from context to context. However, they can be usefully grouped into five categories: Brand loyalty, Name awareness, Perceived quality, Brand associations in addition to perceived quality and other proprietary brand assets—patents, trademarks, channel relationships, etc.

Brand equity is the differential effect of brand recognition on consumer response to the marketing of that brand (Keller, 1993). Brand equity is a power that a brand may have achieved it in a market because of its name, sign and logo (Farquhar, 1989).

Kim & Hyun Y.J. (2011), developed a model to examine the relationships among marketing mix efforts (channel performance, value-oriented price, promotion, and after- sales service), corporate image, three dimensions of brand equity (brand awareness with associations, perceived quality, and brand loyalty), and market performance. The model considers three distinctive aspects of business markets. After-sales service is taken as a key marketing-mix effort. Corporate image is placed as a mediator from the marketing- mix efforts to the dimensions of brand equity. Personal selling is defined as a main component of promotion. The model is tested in the context of a Korean IT software sector. The test results show that all the marketing-mix efforts positively affect the overall value of brand equity (Maedeh & Moakher, 2007). This is a proxy of market

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performance, via the three dimensions of brand equity. Corporate image mediates the effect of the marketing-mix efforts on the three dimensions of brand equity.

Kyung et al. (2008) study brand equity in hospital marketing. They identify five factors that influence the creation of brand equity through successful customer relationships: trust, customer satisfaction, relationship commitment, brand loyalty, and brand awareness. An empirical test of the relationships among these factors suggests that hospitals can be successful in creating image and positive brand equity if they can manage their customer relationships well.

Brand equity from the customer perspective suggests that positive brand equity occurs when the customer responds more favorably to a marketing activity (e.g., advertising and promotion, direct marketing, personal selling) for the brand than they do to the same activity for an unbranded product or service from the same category (Keller, 1993). Conceptualising brand equity from this perspective is useful: it gives both specific guidelines for marketing strategies and tactics and areas where research can be useful in assisting managerial decision making (Keller, 1993). For example, measuring customer brand equity overtime allows managers to understand how the firm’s marketing activities affect brand knowledge held by customers, and how changes in such knowledge affect sales. To realise such important insight, a number of brand models have been developed for the distinct purpose of understanding the elements of customer-based brand equity (Aaker, 1991; Berry, 2000; Keller, 1998)

Valette et al. (2009) assess the relative impact of a long-term brand management instrument (brand personality) and a short-term marketing mix instrument (sales promotions) on brand equity formation. The authors measure consumer perceptions of promotional intensity and brand personality and model their impact on brand equity. They find a positive impact of brand personality and a negative impact of sales promotion intensity on brand equity at the aggregate level. In line with research that identifies varying consumer responses to promotional deals, this study posits that the relative impact of the two elements varies across consumer groups. Three homogeneous consumer groups differ according to the relative impact of brand personality and consumer promotions on brand equity, following an application of a finite mixture partial least squares procedure.

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According to Keller (1998) the concept behind the Brand Equity Model is simple: in order to build a strong brand, you must shape how customers think and feel about your product. You have to build the right type of experiences around your brand, so that customers have specific, positive thoughts, feelings, beliefs, opinions, and perceptions about it.When you have strong brand equity, your customers will buy more from you, they'll recommend you to other people, they're more loyal, and you're less likely to lose them to competitors.

The model, seen in Figure 1.1, illustrates the four steps that you need to follow to build strong brand equity.

Figure 1.1 – Keller's Brand Equity Model

Source: www.mindstool.com

The broader concept of brand equity is well established in the marketing literature (Chernatony & McDonald, 1998; Keller, 2008; Riezebos, 2003), and is generally defined as the incremental value added to a product or product portfolio that is attributable to a brand name, brand logo or other branding devices (Aaker, 1991; Farquhar, 1989; Keller, 1993). The issue of brand equity has emerged as one of the most crucial topics for marketing management in the 1990s (Leuthesser, 1988; Keller, 1993; Walgren et al 1995; Lassar et al 1995; Aaker, 1996; Dyson et al 1996). Brand equity has been considered in many contexts: the added value endowed by the brand name (Farquhar, 1989); brand loyalty, brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations, and other proprietary brand assets (Aaker, 1991). Brand equity is defined as ‘‘a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value

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provided by a product or service to a firm and to that firm’s consumers (Aaker, 1991)’’.Brand equity can be grouped into five categories:(1) Brand Loyalty, (2) brand awareness, (3) perceived quality, (4) brand associations and (5) other brand assets.

2.2.1. Brand Loyalty

A definition has been given (Oliver, 1999) as: "a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, there by causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior." The brand loyalty of the customer based is the core of a brand’s equity (Aaker, 1991). Lassar et al. (1995) noted that ‘‘brand equity stems from the greater confidence that consumers place in a brand than they do in its competitors. This confidence translates into consumers’ loyalty and their willingness to pay a premium price for the brand’’. The ability to create customer loyalty is a major goal of brand management. Keller (2003) operationalized brand loyalty as the main source of customer-based brand equity. Brand loyalty was defined as the attachment a customer has to a brand (Aaker, 1991).

2.2.2. Brand Awareness

Huang and Emine (2011) examine the relation between brand awareness and market outcome and explore the relation between brand awareness and brand equity. The study also investigates the effects of marketing mix elements on brand awareness. Results reveal consumers' brand usage experiences contribute to brand awareness, implying experience precedes awareness in some contexts. The results also confirm positive association between brand awareness and brand equity. Lastly, the current work demonstrates the importance of distribution and price promotion in building brand awareness in a consumer-packaged goods category.

Brand awareness refers to whether consumers can recall or recognize a brand, or simply whether or not consumers know about a brand (Keller, 2008). Brand awareness precedes building brand equity. The brand name provides the memory nodes in consumers' minds (Aaker, 1991). Consumers may link the related brand knowledge to the brand name, which finally constitutes brand equity (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993). Hence, brand awareness provides a kind of learning advantage for the brand (Keller, 2008). Brand awareness affects consumer decision-making, especially for low-involvement packaged

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goods. Brands that consumers know are more likely to be included in the consumers' consideration set (Hoyer and Brown, 1990; MacDonald and Sharp, 2000). Consumers may use brand awareness as a purchase decision heuristic (Hoyer and Brown, 1990; MacDonald and Sharp, 2000). Therefore, brand awareness increases brand market performance.

2.2.3. Perceived Quality

A brand will have associated with a perception of overall quality. The quality perception may take different forms of different types of industries. Perceived quality means different for BMW or Lada. It will always be measurable brand characteristics. Perceived quality will directly influence purchase decisions and brand loyalty. When the customers believe in or are satisfied with the quality of a brand, they may continue to buy the brand again and again. Perceived quality can be the basis for a brand extension. If a brand is well regarded in one context – industry – the assumption will be that it will have high quality in a related context. Disney have a highest quality perception. They first establish a theme park after that a movie studio came and a TV channel and Disney Stores follow that. All of these resources aimed at the same target market group. If you have a perceived highest quality it give you to ease to extend.

2.2.4. Brand Association

Brand association is anything which is deep seated in consumer’s mind about the brand. Brand should be associated with something positive so that the consumer relates your brand to being positive. Brand association is the attribute of brand which come in to consumers mind when the brands talked about.

2.2.5. Other Brand Assets

Other brand assets represents the patents, trademarks and channel relationships. These assets can take several forms. For example, a trademark will protect brand equity from competitors who might want to confuse customers by using similar name, symbol or package. A patent if strong and relevant to customer choice, can prevent direct competition. A distribution channel can be controlled by a brand because of a history of brand performance. Asset, to be relevant must be tied to the brand. If distribution is on basis for equity, it needs to be brand not a firm.

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2.3. Promotional Strategies

Most companies or organization have various methods of promoting their product and services. There are several forms of promotion available as noted by William et al (2000). They are as follows: Personal selling, Advertising, Direct marketing or mass selling, Publicity and public relation, Sales promotion and Event and experience.

Each of these promotional, tools has its own unique characteristics, cost, strength and limitations. However, a marketing manager uses them in combination thereby creating a promotion mix. Below is a diagrammatic basic promotion method and strategy planning.

Advertising and sales promotion becomes much easier if products and services are branded. Admittedly, undifferentiating and unbraiding create innumerable promotion related problems for the marketers since they lack distinctiveness and therefore suffer from identity crisis. The brand becomes an important attribute in and of itself. It is a focal point around which other product attributes can be grouped to form a clear product image. In a purchasing environment, consumers come across a host of products and services having identical features and attributes. The branded ones are often those which the shopper is most familiar. In the contemporary world, consumers usually get little time for shopping and indeed wish to spend little on the same. And hence, the branded products and services which have been well advertised, to a great extent are pre sold. For that reasons, self service stores and shopping malls rely heavily on customer acceptance of their products by promoting branded commodities.

Mangold and Faulds (2009) argue that social media is a hybrid element of the promotion mix because in a traditional sense it enables companies to talk to their customers, while in a nontraditional sense it enables customers to talk directly to one another. The content, timing, and frequency of the social media-based conversations occurring between consumers are outside managers direct control. This stands in contrast to the traditional integrated marketing communications paradigm whereby a high degree of control is present. Therefore, managers must learn to shape consumer discussions in a manner that is consistent with the organization’s mission and performance goals. Methods by which this can be accomplished are delineated herein. They include providing consumers with networking platforms, and using blogs, social media tools, and promotional tools to engage customers.

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Brand extension feedback, The role of advertising Montaner et al (2009) propose and estimate a theoretical model, using the structural equation methodology. The results of the estimation indicate that the attitude towards the extension influences brand image and that this attitude is a consequence of the initial brand beliefs and the coherence of the new product. A multi sample analysis also reveals that favoring the introduction of extensions through adequate advertising constitutes an efficient way of protecting brand image.

Smith et al (2004) investigate the complementarities between two dominant elements of the business marketing communications mix personal selling and trade shows from an integrated marketing communications (IMC) perspective. Through a field study with a group of industrial distributors, they demonstrate that follow-up sales. Efforts generate higher sales productivity when customers have already been exposed to the firm’s product at a trade show. Overall profits are shown to be greater when the trade show is used in conjunction with optimal levels of sales effort. The study also suggests that return-on sales figures are higher among show attendees than non-attendees and that the trade show generates positive effects on customer purchase intentions. These results provide much- needed accountability for trade show expenditures and also highlight the valuable leverage they offer towards improving selling efficiency.

2.3.1. Advertising

 

 

 

According to Ogini(2006) advertising is defined

as

any paid

from of non-

personal communication of organization, product, idea

or

services by

an identified

sponsored. The paid aspect of the definition means that the space or time for an advertising message must be bought or paid for except PSA (public service announcement whose advertising time or space is donated by the media. The non personal means of advertising which involves mass media e.g. T.V, radio, magazine and newspapers that passes information to a large number of persons at the sametimes. Due to advertising many forms and usages, it is difficult to make generation. Nevertheless , it has the following qualities or uniqueness.

i. Public presentation: its public nature legitimizes the product or services and gives a standardized offer.

ii. Pervasiveness: permits repetition a message or information many a time. Advertising allows buyers to receive and compare the messages of various competitors. For instance, large advertising conveys positive information about the seller’s size, power and success.

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iii.Amplified expressiveness: advertising provides opportunities for dramatizing the company and its products through the artful use of print, sound and colour.

iv.Impersonality: it is a monologue in front of, not a dialogue with the audience, hence the audience may feel obligated to pay attention or respond to it but it thus build up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.

2.3.2. Personal Selling

Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buying process. A face- to-face communication between seller and prospective or potential buyers so as to inform build up buyer preference, persuade to purchase the company’s product or services. William et al (2000).However, it is the final element of an organizations promotional mix. Personal selling has two distinctive qualitative:

Personal confrontation: personal selling involves an immediate and precise feedback due to interactive relationship between the seller and customer (Rention) if the feedback is unfavorable, the sales person can modify the massage accordingly.

Cultivation: personal selling result to a customer’s relationship as well as a deep personal selling makes the buyer or customer feel or seller’s talk.

2.3.3. Direct Marketing.

This is communicating with large number of prospective customers at the same time. Direct marketing involves a variety of activities which includes database management, direct selling, tele-marketing, direct response as through direct mail, the internet, website, various broadcast and print media. Malhothra et al (2000). It is intended,by them without the use of any intermediary. Unlike the other forms of commun ication, it usually requires an immediate response which means that its effectiveness can be accessed quantitatively. Direct marketing is defined as “the distribution of products, information and promotional benefits to target consumers through interactive

communication in a

way that allows response to be measured. Direct marketing plays a

big role

in the

integrated marketing

communication programme of consumer-

product companies and business-to-business

marketers. And it has four distinctive

marketers

 

 

 

i. Non-public: the message can be prepared to appeal to the addressed individual.

20

 

ii. Up-to-date: a massage can be prepared very quickly, building one-to-one customers

.

Relationships-reutilized

 

iii. Interactive: the massage can be change depending on the person’s response

2.3.4. Public Relations.

Publicity according to scothogini (2006) means an unpaid form of communicating ideas, products, and services,(Publicity is free) like advert, it is no personal communication to a mass audience but it is not directly paid for by the company. The information publicized is carried out through the use of newspapers, press conference, articles, films and editor who determine the nature of the massage. The information passed could be negative or positive since it is not under the control of the organization. An advantage of publicity is that it is highly credible or credibility. The stories and features are more authentic and credible to reader than advert. Another advantage is its low cost. Since the company does not pay for its except the information is favorable and the company now decide to develop it by appointing a public relation officers which may incur some cast.

2.3.5. Sales Promotion.

According to scothogini (2006) sales promotion could be defined as various marketing activities that add extra value, incentive to the sales force, distributors or the ultimate consumer. Thus sales promotion spark immediate interest stimulates purchase by final consumers on product and services in the channel. There two major categories or sales promotion, namely;

i.Consumer – Oriented.

ii.Trade – Oriented

The importance of a marketing strategy is that it helps a company create, communicate and deliver value to target consumers, using the tools of promotion, product, price and distribution. The importance of a promotional strategy is that it enables marketers to determine the most effective communication vehicles, which may include advertising, sales promotion, personal selling and public relations.

Kotler (1998) defines sales promotion as: “Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short-term designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade.”Roger has given a more simplistic definition i.e. “sales promotions are short-term incentives to encourage

21

purchase or sales of a product or service.” Hence, any forms of incentives (price cut or value added nature) offered for short period either to trade or consumers are considered as sales promotion activities.

2.3.6. Event and Experience.

Event and experience is being viewed as an increasingly important element in the promotion of a company’s product, service, or cause (Taranto, 1998; Shiu, 1995). The definition of event marketing is: “Event marketing is an attempt to co-ordinate the communication around a created or sponsored event. In event marketing the event is an activity that gathers the target group in time and space; a meeting in which an experience is created and a message communicated”. (Freely translated by the authors from Behrer & Larsson, 1998, p 18) No other marketing discipline is expanding as heavily as event marketing today.

2.4. Empirical Evidence for Study

2.4.1. Brand Equity

“In general sense, brand equity is defined as the added value a brand gives a product. This added value can be viewed and analyzed from the perspective of either the consumer or the firm” (Swait & Erdem, 1998)

Over the past few years, brand equity is observed to have gained popularity and thus to have received significant attention in marketing research (Leuthesser, 1988). Some researchers have identified brands as central to company’s ability to earn profit and as firm’s most valuable assets (Erdem, 1998). It is also proved that high brand equity help company attract new customers, establish superior position and retain high customer loyalty (Lee, 2011)

The brand equity creates value for both the customer and the firm.

1. Providing Value to the Customer

Brand-equity assets generally add or subtract value for customers. They can help them interpret, process, and store huge quantities of information about products and brands. They also can affect customers' confidence in the purchase decision (due to either past use experience or familiarity with the brand and its characteristics). Potentially more important is the fact that both perceived quality and brand associations can enhance

22

customers' satisfaction with the use experience. Knowing that a piece of jewelry came from Tiffany can affect the experience of wearing it. The user can actually feel different.

2. Providing Value to the Firm

As part of its role in adding value for the customer, brand equity has the potential to add value for the firm by generating marginal cash flow in at least half a dozen ways.

The concept of brand equity is summarized. The five categories of assets that brand equity are shown as being the basis of brand equity.

First, it can enhance programs to attract new customers or recapture old ones. A promotion, for example, which provides an incentive to try a new flavor or new use, will be more effective if the brand is familiar, and if there is no need to combat a consumer skeptical of brand quality.

Second, the last four brand equity dimensions can enhance brand loyalty. The perceived quality, the associations, and the well-known name can provide reasons to buy and can affect use satisfaction. Even when they are not pivotal to brand choice, they can reassure, reducing the incentive to try others. Enhanced brand loyalty is especially important in buying time to respond when competitors innovate and obtain product advantages. Note that brand loyalty is both one of the dimensions of brand equity and is affected by brand equity. The potential influence on loyalty from the other dimensions is significant enough that it is explicitly listed as one of the ways that brand equity provides value to the firm.

Third, brand equity will usually allow higher margins by permitting both premium pricing and reduced reliance upon promotions. In many contexts the elements of brand equity serve to support premium pricing. Further, a brand with a disadvantage in brand equity will have to invest more in promotional activity, sometimes just to maintain its position in the distribution channel.

Fourth, brand equity can provide a platform for growth via brand extensions.

Fifth, brand equity can provide leverage in the distribution channel. Like customers, the trade has less uncertainty dealing with a proven brand name that has already achieved recognition and associations. A strong brand will have an edge in gaining both shelf facings and cooperation in implementing marketing programs.

23

Finally, brand-equity assets provide a competitive advantage that often presents a real barrier to competitors. An association e.g., Tide is the detergent for tough family laundry jobs may preempt an attribute that is important for a given segment. For example, another brand would find it difficult to compete with Tide for the "tough cleaning job" segment. A strong perceived quality position, such as that of Acura, is a competitive advantage not easily overcome convincing customers that another brand has achieved quality superior to the Acura (even if true) will be hard. Achieving parity in name awareness can be extremely expensive for a brand with an awareness liability.

2.4.2. Promotional Mix

The ’promotional mix’ is a term used to describe the set of tools that a business can use to communicate effectively the benefits of its products or services to its customers. A review of the literature reveals the dimensions of promotional mix which are the independent variables in the present study: advertising, personal selling, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing and event and experience. Brand equity is normally used by most organizations as a measure of how strong the brand is. Brand equity has been considered in many contexts past research has identified these as the most important factors related to Promotional mix. Each factor is discussed in turn below.

2.4.2.1. Advertising

Advertising is a 'paid for' communication. It is used to develop attitudes, create awareness, and transmit information in order to gain a response from the target market. There are many advertising 'media' such as newspapers (local, national, free, trade), magazines and journals, television (local, national, terrestrial, satellite) cinema, outdoor advertising (such as posters, bus sides).

2.4.2.2. Personal Selling

Personal Selling is an effective way to manage personal customer relationships (Gupta 1988). The sales person acts on behalf of the organization. Promotional strategies may also call for the use of personal selling and public relations, which further expand marketers' communication opportunities. For products that are technologically complex, difficult to use, expensive and/or require demonstration, one-on-one persuasion by skilled salespeople may be more effective than any other technique.

24

2.4.2.3. Sales Promotion

Sales promotions are marketing events and tools designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchases for a limited period of time (Kotler, 1988). Much research on consumer responses to sales promotion examines immediate effects on consumer. Purchases (Gupta, 1988; Inman et al., 1990; Nijs et al.,2001).

Sales promotions have become a vital tool for marketers and its importance has been increasing significantly over the years. In India, sales promotions expenditure by various marketing companies is estimated to be Rs 5,000 crores and the emphasis on sales promotion activities by the Indian industry has increased by 500 to 600 percent during the last 3 to 5 years (Economic Times, June 15, 2003). In the year 2001, there were as many as 2,050 promotional schemes in the Rs 80,000 core FMCG Industry (Dang et. al, 2005)

2.4.2.4. Public Relations (PR)

Public Relations are defined as 'the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and its publics' (Institute of Public Relations). In situations where the firm wants to influence its shareholders, employees, vendors and the broader community, public relations devices like press releases and media events can help get attention and build excitement.

2.4.2.5. Direct Marketing

Direct marketing is very highly focused upon targeting consumers based upon a database. As all marketing, the potential consumer is 'defined' based upon a series of attributes and similarities.

2.4.2.6. Event and experience

In the US for example, the growth of event marketing is three times as fast as of advertising. It is also growing in Sweden at a very high rate. Event Marketing agencies are established all the time and a business organisation for event marketing has been started. Event Marketing is marketing through events, where marketing is seen as central and the event is considered the actual marketing tool. Event marketing is focusing on a target group and involves high contact intensity. It turns a message into an event that can be experienced by the audience. Several senses are engaged, which increases the chances to remember the experience and thereby also the message. By using event marketing the media clutter can be penetrated, and through the meeting a relationship can be established between the product or brand and its target group. Hence, the return of event marketing is the personal meeting. During an event

25

the company has exclusive access to the customer for at least a few hours, with the media clutter eliminated. (Beertema, 1999) Event marketing can be used in business to business as well as in consumer marketing

2.5. Research Gap

Research gap mainly include the difference between objectives of the study and literature of the study related to the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity: with special reference to the herbal cosmetics industry in Sri Lanka.

It is very rare to find previous studies on this research problem. There are many emotional behavior studies, which was conducted by several experts. However, it is very hard to find a comprehensive market survey, which has come out with sophisticated findings, on this research problem. This research study will fill a huge gap.

The main research objective will be to find out to what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics industry in Sri Lanka will be influenced on brand equity. It is very important to keep in mind that there are some limitations here, which make barriers to achieve the expected results of the study. There are some limitations when it comes to the real scenario. Here, the sample size is 150. There are financial barriers and time barriers to spread the investigation to a huge sample size. There are government and emotional rules and regulations to be followed in collecting the data. This study heavily relies on the feedback given by the respondents. It is very hard to obtain 100% accurate information from the respondents. And lee availability of the secondary information is a big issue. Time factor is also a highly considerable factor.

An attempt to define the relationship between customers and brands produced the term (Sheffield 2004) ``brand equity'' in the marketing literature. The concept of brand equity has been debated both in the accounting and marketing literatures, and has highlighted the importance of having a long-term focus within brand management. Although there have been significant moves by companies to be strategic in the way that brands are managed, a lack of common terminology and philosophy within and between disciplines persists and may hinder communication.

26

2.6. Chapter Summery

In chapter explained theories, concepts and models which were relevant to brand equity and explain brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and other brand assets. Then chapter explained promotional strategies to relevant models and concepts. Finally researcher identified research gap.

27

Chapter Three - Conceptualization & Operationalization

3.1 Introduction

This chapter will contain the indicators of considering concept, operationalization of considering concept, conceptual framework and definition of those variables.

Further, this chapter will help to identify the independent and the dependent variables and the relationship between variables. At the same time, it facilitates to identify how those variables have impact to the brand equity in the herbal cosmetics industry.

3.2 Conceptual Framework

Figure 3.2.1: Conceptual Framework

Advertising

Sales Promotions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand Equity

Public relations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal selling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct marketing

Event and experience

Source: Researcher compiled

28

3.3 Defining Variables

3.3.1. Brand Equity

Brand equity has been defined in a variety of ways, depending on the particular purpose. Be-cause the goal of this article is to facilitate the development of more effective marketing strategies and tactics, the focus is on brand effects on the individual consumer. The advantage of conceptualizing brand equity from this perspective is that it enables man-agers to consider specifically how their marketing program improves the value of their brands. Though the eventual goal of any marketing program is to increase sales, it is first necessary to establish knowledge structures for the brand so that consumers respond favorably to marketing activity for the brand. The preceding section provides a detailed framework of brand knowledge. In this section, that framework is used to consider in more detail how knowledge affects consumer response to the marketing of a brand by defining based brand equity and examining how it is built, measured, and managed.

The broader concept of brand equity is well established in the marketing literature (Chernatony & McDonald, 1998; Keller, 2008; Riezebos, 2003), and is generally defined as the incremental value added to a product or product portfolio that is attributable to a brand name, brand logo or other branding devices (Aaker, 1991; Farquhar, 1989; Keller, 1993). The issue of brand equity has emerged as one of the most crucial topics for marketing management in the 1990s (Leuthesser, 1988; Keller, 1993; Walgren et al 1995; Lassar et al 1995; Aaker, 1996; Dyson et al 1996).

3.3.2. Advertising

Advertising is presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Examples: Print ads, radio, television, billboard, direct mail, brochures and catalogs, signs, in-store displays, posters, motion pictures, Web pages, banner ads, and emails. (Always in Paid Form non personal) For many firms, advertising is the most effective type of non personal promotion. Advertising is a paid, non personal sales communication usually directed at a large number of potential buyers.

According to Ogini

(2006) advertising is defined as any paid

from of non-

personal communication of organization, product, idea or services by

an identified

sponsored Firms in the

United States account for about half of worldwide advertising

29

expenditures. U.S. marketers spend more than $100 billion each year. Advertising expenditures can vary considerably from industry to industry and company to company. In the nonresidential general building contracting industry, for instance, advertising spending amounts to only two-tenths of 1 percent of sales. At the other extreme is the retail mail-order house industry, which spends 14 percent of sales on advertising.

3.3.3. Sales Promotion

Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples: Coupons, sweepstakes, contests, product samples, rebates, tie-ins, self-liquidating premiums, trade shows, trade-ins, and exhibitions.

Sales promotion consists of the forms of promotion other than advertising, personal selling, and public relations that increase sales through one-time selling efforts. Sales promotion was traditionally viewed as a supplement to a firm's sales or advertising efforts, but now it has become an integral part of the promotional mix.

3.3.4. Public relations

Public relation is paid intimate stimulation of supply for a product, service, or business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the media. Examples: Newspaper and magazine articles/reports, TVs and radio presentations, charitable contributions, speeches, issue advertising, and seminars Public relation is an organization's communications with its various publics, such as customers, vendors, news media, employees, stockholders, government, and the general public. Many of these communication efforts have a marketing purpose. Johnson & Johnson Health Care Company launched a five-year public relations campaign to educate the public on reducing childhood injuries. The Safe Kids program includes a free safety kit for children that contains Band-Aids and other J&J products. The firm hopes the goodwill generated by the program will not only enhance its image as a caring and concerned company but also translate into more sales. "Building our image builds our business," said a J&J executive.

30

3.3.5. Personal selling

Personal selling a process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation. Examples: Sales presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing. Can be face-to-face or via telephone. Personal selling is the most effective tool at the later stages of the buying process. A form of person to person, face to face communication between seeker and positional buyers so as to inform build up buyer preference, awareness, loyalty and perception so on Stewart (2000).

3.3.6. Direct Marketing

Direct Marketing is a channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits to communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques such as mobile messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. This is communicating with large number perspective customer at the same time.

3.3.7. Event and experience

The event and experience is often used to promote goods or services to resellers in the distribution channel. Retailers and wholesalers attend trade conventions and shows where manufacturers exhibit their lines. Such shows are very important in the cosmetics, furniture, and fashion industries. They have also been used to promote the products of one nation to buyers from another.

31

3.4 Hypothesis.

According to this research the researcher hopes to build up and prove following relationship between brand equity as dependent variable and advertising, sales promotions, personal selling, public relations, direct marketing and event and experience as independent variable with using hypothesis testing. Below relationships are will hope to prove in hypothesis testing.

H1-There is a positive relationship between advertising and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

H2-There is a positive relationship between sales promotions and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

H3-There is a positive relationship between public relations and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

H4-There is a positive relationship between personal selling and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

H5-There is a positive relationship between direct marketing and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

H6-There is a positive relationship between event and experience and brand equity of herbal cosmetics

3.5 Operationalization of the considering concept.

The whole research is based on the above conceptual frame work. The research questionnaire has been designed by addressing the all the element shown in the conceptual framework. Through the questionnaire researcher is going to measure each above factor. Conceptual frame work is basically consisted with two main variables namely dependent and the independent variable. All these variables have been operationalizes using the questionnaire. Research is consisted with 31 questions.

In measuring the promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity, the influence of the promotional strategies directly can’t be measured since the intangible. The researcher can operationalize the concept of “the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity; with special reference to the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka” by measuring the advertising, sales promotions, public relations, personal selling,

32

direct marketing and event and experience how to impact on brand equity. How brand equity has been changed can be measured by using some indicators.

Table: 3.5.1, Operationalization

Concept

 

Variable

 

Indicators

Measure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The

impact

of

Advertizing

 

∑

Awareness

Likart Scale

promotional

 

 

 

∑

Interest

 

strategies on

brand

 

 

∑

Desire

 

equity

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sales Promotions

 

∑

Awareness

Likart Scale

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Public relations

 

∑

Awareness

Likart Scale

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Personal Selling

 

∑

Awareness

Likart Scale

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct Marketing

 

 

Awareness

Likart Scale

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Event

&

∑

Awareness

Likart Scale

 

 

 

Experiences

 

∑

Interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

∑

Action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

33

Chapter Four - Methodology

4.1Introduction

Research methodology explains how this study was carried out systematically. The researcher adopted a descriptive method of the study. Data were collected for the purpose analyzing, testing hypotheses and answering the research questions. The data were obtained from primary and secondary sources. This chapter includes formulation of hypothesis; sources of data collection, questionnaire used in the research, pilot, sampling plan and data processing analytical tools are discussed in detail. Finally the methods were able to evaluate the impact of promotional strategies on brand equity.

4.2 Methodological Choice

This is a conclusive research in nature. Under conclusive research there are two methods called Descriptive and Causal research. In this research researcher identifies it as a descriptive research. The reason for selecting this design is to study, conduct and take a superior conclusion of a specific problem which is highly affected on a particular party. Researcher wants to identify the impact on promotional strategies on brand equity in herbal cosmetics industry in Sri Lanka. Here, researcher develops hypotheses and examines the independent and dependent variables based on selected large representative samples. Also, this research process is structured and formal.

Under the Descriptive research there are two ways of study. There are Longitudinal and cross sectional analysis. This study is not going to be done continuously and only one pointing time is used. So, the method used here is Correlation analysis. As it is using only single sample to collect data, this is used the correlation analysis method.

34

4.3 Method of data collection

Data Collection

Primary Data Collection

Secondary Data Collection

 

 

Magazines & Books

Questionnaire Method

Web Sites

News Paper Articles

Company internal data

Source: Researcher compiled

4.3.1 Primary Data

Since the research need the data from all type of social sector of the country I selected different districts of the country that represent a wide range of social diversity. The moderator and the interviewees were selected carefully and selected to collect data. They were given English questionnaire with all necessary guidelines. I collected university administrative person’s data by myself. The respondents were interviewed through direct face to face interaction. The respondent will provide with a questionnaire other material needed to fill it while the interviewer help them in clarifying things when ever needed at the process of completing the questionnaire.

The researcher personally visited the individuals and provided them with the questionnaires (Prepared in English). The researcher conducted the research in a very friendly manner. First the researcher has to get the willingness of the respondent to be participated in to the research. The researcher has two options in getting response. Either the researcher can give the questionnaire to the respondents or they can interview and get the answers by themselves. As far as the convenient is concern the best option were to interview the respondents.

4.3.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data is obtained through various study materials written as text books, articles, journals on relate to this study. In addition to that online publications such as previous

35

research articles in internet were also referred. And also Literature review of the study represents the secondary data of the study.

4.4 The sampling plan

Sampling is one of the most important subjects in marketing research. In practical situation, population will be too large to carry out a complete survey and only a sample will be examined. There are large numbers of people are familiar with herbal cosmetics are in Sri Lanka. This is too large. And also, it is very difficult to analyze the results of this much of a large population.

4.4.1 The Sample

The sample includes respondents selected from the target Sample unit- focus group person how familiar to herbal cosmetics products.

Sample size –the sample size is 150 persons

4.5 Data Processing and Scaling

The presentation and analysis is the significant part of the research and data processing is the most important part of this study because by processing the data accurately researcher can get the real output of the study. For this study researcher using Likert scale method for most of question and the use of this scale as follows.

Strongly

Disagree

Neither Agree or

Agree

Strongly

disagree

 

 

Disagree

 

agree

Then the researcher scale those findings by using five criteria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strongly

Disagree

 

Neither Agree or

 

 

Strongly

disagree

 

 

Disagree

 

Agree

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

4.6 Data presentation and Analysis

Basic objectives of the data analysis are getting a feel for the data, tasting the reliability, validity of the data and testing the hypotheses developed for the research. The mean, the range, the standard deviation and the variance in the data will give the researcher a good idea of how the respondents have reacted to the items in the questionnaire and how good the items are measured. The mean, maximum and minimum and frequency tables and correlations analyzed by the researcher for the recommendations. Hypotheses were tested already developed for the research using the collected data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS software package.

4.7 Chapter Summary

In this chapter explained how this study was carried out systematically. This chapter includes methods of data collection, the sampling planning, data processing and scaling, data presentation and analysis methodology.

37

Chapter Five- Data Presentation and Analysis

5.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with the presentation of data based on personal variables and the independent variables of the research model and statistical analysis. Statistical tools such as mean, median, mode, frequencies and correlation are used to test the hypotheses and objectives taken in the study. In addition, the relative importance of the independent variables was present in this chapter based on the responses given through the questionnaire of the research. Additionally, the conclusion is also provided in relation to the objective of the study. The chapter begins with a summary of the key findings of this study, followed by critique of the research and ends with the future research direction.

5.2 Data Presentation

5.2.1 The familiarity of herbal cosmetic products.

Table 5.1, Statistics-the familiarity of herbal cosmetic

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

1.80

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.695

Variance

 

.483

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.2, The familiarity of herbal cosmetic

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Strongly agree

54

36.0

36.0

36.0

 

agree

72

48.0

48.0

84.0

 

neutral

24

16.0

16.0

100.0

 

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Researcher compiled

38

Figure 5.1, The familiarity of Herbal cosmetic

Source: Researcher compiled

In this first question, researcher needs to know about the familiar with herbal cosmetic product of the respondents. Most of the respondents were having good impression regarding herbal cosmetic products. According to the statistic most of the respondents were selected the answer two: it means most of respondents agreed familiarity with herbal cosmetics products. The mean value of statistics table is getting 1.8 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. According to the frequency table and chart 48% respondent were selected agree and 36% were selected strongly agree. That means around 84% respondents are familiar herbal cosmetic.

5.2.2 How did you come to know about herbal cosmetic products?

Table 5.3, Statistics-how did you know about

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

3.15

Median

 

3.00

Mode

 

1

Std. Deviation

 

1.926

Variance

 

3.710

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

39

Table 5.4,How did you come to know about herbal cosmetic products

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

through

advertising

48

 

32.0

 

32.0

 

32.0

 

 

 

campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

through sales promotions

 

 

21

 

 

14.0

 

 

14.0

 

 

46.0

 

 

 

through public relations

 

 

 

17

 

 

11.3

 

 

11.3

 

 

57.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

through personal selling

 

 

 

16

 

 

10.7

 

 

10.7

 

 

68.0

 

 

 

through direct marketing

 

 

21

 

 

14.0

 

 

14.0

 

 

82.0

 

 

 

through

event

and

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

 

 

18.0

 

 

18.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

experience

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.2, How did you know about

Source: Researcher compiled

In the second question researcher needed to know the each respondent how did you come to know about herbal cosmetic products? Here researcher needs to measure what promotional tool in the highly influence consumer awareness.

According to the frequency table and chart 32% respondent were selected through advertising and 18% were selected through event and experience. Through direct marketing and sales promotion were selected same values of respondents (14%). Therefore 11.33% respondents were selected through public relations and 10.67% were selected through direct marketing.

40

5.2.3 The importance of promotional strategies for become brand equity

Table 5.5, Statistics-importance of promotional strategies

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

1.71

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.628

Variance

 

.394

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.6, Importance of promotional strategies for become brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

57

 

38.0

 

38.0

 

38.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

79

 

 

52.7

 

 

52.7

 

 

90.7

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

14

 

 

9.3

 

 

9.3

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher complied

Figure 5.3, Importance of promotional strategies for brand equity

Source: Researcher compiled

In the next question researcher needed to know the each respondent how to evaluate the importance of promotional strategies for become brand equity of herbal cosmetic

41

industry? Here researcher needs to measure the importance of promotional strategies for brand equity.

According to the frequency table and chart 38% respondent were selected strongly agree and 52.67% were selected agree. Therefore 9.33% selected neutral answer. That mean around 90.67% accept this statement. If verifies from the mean value of 1.71 which is more close to point 2 and represent agree. Furthermore it illustrate the 0.628 dispersion of value with 0.394 variance.

Analysis of Variables

This study assume: “Strongly Agree = 1”, “Agree = 2”, “Moderate = 3”, “Disagree = 4”, “Strongly Disagree=5”. SPSS package used to calculate the index of mean, median, mode std. deviation, range, minimum, maximum and correlation of the given research data.

5.2.4. Advertising

5.2.4.1. The Advertising influenced on Awareness

Table 5.7, Statistics- advertising to awareness

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

1.76

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.711

Variance

 

.506

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.8, Advertising influence awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

strongly agree

60

40.0

40.0

40.0

 

agree

66

44.0

44.0

84.0

 

neutral

24

16.0

16.0

100.0

 

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Researcher compiled

42

Figure 5.4, Advertising influence awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the advertising will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According In percentage wise, it is noted that the most of respondents agree (44%) and while 40% of respondents strongly agree and 16% were neutral. If varies from the mean value of 1.76 which is more close to point 2 and it represent agree. Furthermore it illustrate the 0.711 dispersion of value with 0.506 variance. Its means advertising is tool, influenced on customer awareness in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.4.2. The Advertising influenced on Interest

Table 5.9, Statistics-advertising to interest

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

1.92

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.690

Variance

 

.477

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

43

Table 5.10, Advertising influence interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

42

 

28.0

 

28.0

 

28.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

78

 

 

52.0

 

 

52.0

 

 

80.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

30

 

 

20.0

 

 

20.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.5, Advertising influence interest

Source: Researcher complied

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the advertising will be influenced on interest with herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. According to the research here most of respondents 52% says agree. There 26% respondents says strongly agree. There were 20% respondents says neutral answers. The mean value of statistics table is getting 1.92 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. The most of the respondents were selected the answer two: it means most of them were agreed this statement.

44

5.2.4.3. The Advertising influenced on Desire

Table 5.11, Statistics-advertising to desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.04

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

.664

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.441

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.12, Advertising influence desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

24

 

 

 

16.0

 

 

16.0

 

16.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

102

 

 

 

 

68.0

 

 

 

68.0

 

 

84.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

18

 

 

 

 

12.0

 

 

 

12.0

 

 

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Research data.

Figure 5.6, Advertising influence desire

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the advertising will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 16% respondents says strongly agree and 68% says agree. There were 12% respondents says neutral. There were 4% respondents say disagree. Therefore majority

45

respondents agree with this statement advertising influenced on customer desire in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.4.4. The Advertising influenced on Action

Table 5.13, Statistics-advertising to action

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

2.08

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.747

Variance

 

.557

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.14, Advertising influence action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

30

 

20.0

 

20.0

 

20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

84

 

 

56.0

 

 

56.0

 

 

76.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

30

 

 

20.0

 

 

20.0

 

 

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

6

 

 

4.0

 

 

4.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.7, Advertising influence action

Source: Researcher compiled

46

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the advertising will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 20% respondents says strongly agree and 56% says agree. There were 20% respondents say neither agree or disagree. As well as 4% of respondents disagree with this and it was very small figure compare to other figures. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.08 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree.

H1-There is a positive relationship between advertising and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.15,Correlations-advertising and brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

advertising

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.742(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

advertising

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.742(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

Using the Pearson Correlation analysis researcher has analyzed the relationship of each variance in order to test the Hypothesis.

Above tables show the relationship between advertising and brand equity. According to the above correlation analysis it is noted that positive value shows and it says that there is a positive relationship on advertising and the Correlation core efficient 0.742. That means there is a strong positive relationship. Considering these all factors researcher can reject the null hypothesis.

47

5.2.5. Sales promotions

5.2.5.1. Sales promotion influenced on Awareness

Table 5.16, Statistics-S.P to awareness

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.88

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

.768

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.590

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.17, Sales promotion influence awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

54

 

 

 

36.0

 

 

36.0

 

36.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

60

 

 

 

 

40.0

 

 

 

40.0

 

 

76.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

36

 

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.8, Sales promotion influence awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

48

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the sales promotions will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 36% respondents says strongly agree and 40% says agree. There were 24% respondent says neither agree or disagree. Finally majority respondents are accept that variable, If varies from the mean value of 1.88 which is more close to point 2 and it represent agree. Furthermore it illustrate the 0.768 dispersion of value with 0.590 variance. its means sales promotions is good promotional tool, influenced on customer awareness in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.5.2. Sales promotion influenced on Interest

Table 5.18, Statistics-S.P to interest

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

2.12

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.768

Variance

 

.590

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.19, Sales promotion influence interest

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

strongly agree

36

24.0

24.0

24.0

 

agree

60

40.0

40.0

64.0

 

neutral

54

36.0

36.0

100.0

 

Total

150

100.0

100.0

 

Source: Researcher compiled

49

Figure 5.9, Sales promotion influence interest

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the sales promotions will be affected on interest with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 24% respondents says strongly and 40% says important. There were 36% respondents say neither agree or disagree. If varies from the mean value of 2.12 which is more close to point 2 and it represent agree. Furthermore it illustrate the 0.768 dispersion of value with 0.590 variance. Its mean majority respondent says sales promotions are tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.5.3. Sales promotion influenced on Desire

Table 5.20, Statistics- S.P to desire

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

2.04

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.722

Variance

 

.522

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

50

Table 5.21, Sales promotion influence desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

30

 

20.0

 

20.0

 

20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

90

 

 

60.0

 

 

60.0

 

 

80.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

24

 

 

16.0

 

 

16.0

 

 

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

6

 

 

4.0

 

 

4.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.10, Sales promotion influence desire

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the sales promotions will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 20% respondents says strongly agree and 60% says agree. There were 16% respondents says neutral. There were 4% respondent says disagree. As well as 4% of respondents disagree with this and it was very small figure compare to other figures Its mean sales promotion is tool, influenced on customer desire in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

51

5.2.5.4. Sales promotion influenced on Action

Table 5.22, Statistics-S.P to action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

.848

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.718

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.23, Sales promotion influence action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

48

 

 

 

32.0

 

 

32.0

 

32.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

78

 

 

 

 

52.0

 

 

 

52.0

 

 

84.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

12

 

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

92.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

12

 

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

 

8.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure5.11, Sales promotion influence action

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the sales promotions will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 32% respondents says strongly agree and 52% says agree. There were 8% respondents say neutral. There were 8% respondents say disagree. Therefore majority of

52

the respondents are agreed this statement. Its mean sales promotion is tool, influenced on customer action in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

H2-There is a positive relationship between sales promotions and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.24, Correlations-Sales promotion and Brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

salesprom

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

otion

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.222(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

salespromotion

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.222(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.006

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

Above tables shows the relationship between sales promotion and brand equity. According to the above correlation analysis it is noted that there is positive value shown and it says that there is a positive relationship in between sales promotions and the correlation core efficient 0.222. That means there is a low positive relationship. Considering these all factors researcher can reject the null hypothesis

5.2.6. Public Relations

5.2.6.1. Public Relation influenced on Awareness

Table 5.25, Statistics- P.R to awareness

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

Missing

0

 

 

 

Mean

 

1.80

Median

 

2.00

Mode

 

2

Std. Deviation

 

.695

Variance

 

.483

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

53

Table 5.26, Public relations influence awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

54

 

36.0

 

36.0

 

36.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

72

 

 

48.0

 

 

48.0

 

 

84.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

24

 

 

16.0

 

 

16.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.12, Public relations influence awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the public relations will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 36% respondents say strongly agree and 48% says agree. There were 16% respondents says neutral. However no any respondents have selected disagrees or strongly disagrees. Their mean public relations are tool, influenced on customer awareness in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

54

5.2.6.2. Public Relation influenced on Interest

Table 5.27, Statistics- P.R to interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.08

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

.799

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.638

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.28, Public relations influence interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

 

Valid Percent

 

Percent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Valid

strongly agree

36

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

24.0

 

24.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

72

 

 

 

 

48.0

 

 

 

48.0

 

 

72.0

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

36

 

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

 

24.0

 

 

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

 

4.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

Total

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

100.0

 

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.13, Public relations influence interest

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the public relations will be influenced on interest with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the

55

research here 24% respondents say strongly agree and 48% says agree. There were 24% respondents says neutral. There were 4% respondents say disagree. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.08 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Its mean public relation is tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.6.3. Public Relation influenced on Desire

Table 5.29, Statistics-P.R to desire

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.24

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.817

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.667

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.30, Public relations influence desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

24

16.0

16.0

16.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78

52.0

52.0

68.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

24.0

24.0

92.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

8.0

8.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.14, Public relations influence desire

Source: Researcher compiled

56

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the public

relation will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. However, when considering about the percentages 52% respondents were selected agree factor, 24% were neutral about the public relation influenced on desire and 16% were selected strongly agree and only 8% disagree with this factor. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.24 which is very

closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree.

5.2.6.4. Public Relation influenced on Action

Table 5.31, Statistics-P.R to action

 

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

.797

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

.635

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Table 5.32, Public relations influence action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

strongly agree

18

12.0

12.0

12.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

48.0

48.0

60.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

48

32.0

32.0

92.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

8.0

8.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.15, Public relations influence action

Source: Researcher compiled

57

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the public relation will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 12% respondents says strongly agree and 48% says agreed this statement. There were 32% respondents says neutral answer. There were 8% respondents says less important. Therefore majority respondents are agreed this statement. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.36 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Its mean public relation is tool, influenced on customer action in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

H3-There is a positive relationship between public relations and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.33, Correlations- Public relation and Brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

publicrelati

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

ons

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.582(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

publicrelations

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.582(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

Above tables shows the relationship between public relations and brand equity. According to the above correlation analysis it is noted that there is positive value shown and it says that there is a positive relationship in between personal selling and the correlation core efficient 0.582. That means there is a moderate positive relationship. Considering these all factors researcher can reject the null hypothesis

58

5.2.7. Personal Selling

5.2.7.1. Personal Selling influenced on Awareness

Table 5.34, Statistics- P.S to awareness

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.84

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.733

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.538

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.35, Personal selling influence awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

54

 

36.0

36.0

36.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

66

 

44.0

44.0

80.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

20.0

20.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

 

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.16, Personal selling influence awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the personal selling will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. However, when considering about the percentages 44% respondents were selected agree factor, 20% were neutral about the statement and 36% were selected strongly agree with this factor. The

59

mean value of statistics table is getting 1.84 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree.

5.2.7.2. Personal Selling influenced on Interest

Table 5.36, Statistics- P.S to interest

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.733

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.538

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.37, Personal selling influence interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

 

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

24

16.0

 

16.0

16.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84

56.0

 

56.0

72.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

24.0

 

24.0

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

4.0

 

4.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.17, personal selling influence interest

Source: Researcher compiled

60

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the personal selling will be influenced on interest with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 16% respondents says strongly agree and 56% says agree. There were 24% respondents gave neutral answers. There were 4% respondent says disagree. Therefore majority respondents are agreed this statement. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.16 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Its mean personal selling is tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.7.3. Personal Selling influenced on Desire

Table 5.38, Statistics- P.S to desire

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.828

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.686

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.39, Personal selling influence desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

 

 

strongly agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

16.0

16.0

16.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

48.0

48.0

64.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

28.0

28.0

92.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

8.0

8.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

61

Figure 5.18, Personal selling influence desire

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the personal selling will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 16% respondents says strongly agree and 48% says agree. There were 26% respondents says average important. There were 8% respondents say disagree this statement. But majority respondents are agreed this statement. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.28 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Its mean personal selling is tool, influenced on customer desire in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.7.4. Personal Selling influenced on Action

Table 5.40, Statistics-P.S to action

 

N

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

.828

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

.686

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

62

Table 5.41, Personal selling influence action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

strongly agree

24

16.0

16.0

16.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

72

48.0

48.0

64.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

42

28.0

28.0

92.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

8.0

8.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.19, Personal selling influence action

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the personal selling will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 16% respondents says strongly agree and 48% says agree this statement. There were 28% respondents says neutral. There were 8% respondents say disagree with this statement. But majority respondents agree with this statement. Its mean personal selling is tool, influenced on customer action in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

63

H4-There is a positive relationship between personal selling and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.42, Correlations- Personal selling and Brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

personalse

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

lling

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.433(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

personalselling

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.433(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

Above tables shows the relationship between personal selling and brand equity. According to the above correlation analysis it is noted that there is positive value shown and it says that there is a positive relationship in between personal selling and the correlation core efficient 0.433. That means there is a moderate positive relationship. Considering these all factors researcher can reject the null hypothesis

5.2.8. Direct Marketing

5.2.8.1. Direct Marketing influenced on Awareness

Table 5.43, Statistics-D.M to awareness

 

 

Valid

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

1.73

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

.684

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

.468

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

64

Table 5.44, Direct marketing influence awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

strongly agree

61

40.7

40.7

40.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

69

46.0

46.0

86.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

13.3

13.3

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher complied

Figure 5.20, Direct marketing influence awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the direct marketing will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 40.67% respondents say strongly agree and 46% says agree. There were 13.33% respondents say neutral answers. The mean value of statistics table is getting 1.73 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Majority respondents are agree this statement. Its mean direct marketing is tool, influenced on customer awareness in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

65

5.2.8.2. Direct Marketing influenced on Interest

Table 5.45, Statistics- D.M to interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.95

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.712

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.507

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.46, Direct marketing influence interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

 

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

42

28.0

 

28.0

28.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74

49.3

 

49.3

77.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

22.7

 

22.7

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.21, Direct marketing influence interest

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the direct marketing will be influenced on interest with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 28% respondents say strongly agree and 49.33% says agree this statement. There were 22.67% respondents say neutral answers. There were no respondents in disagree or strongly disagree with this statement. The mean value of statistics table is getting 1.95 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we

66

consider this as agree. Its mean direct marketing is tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.8.3. Direct Marketing influenced on Desire

Table 5.47, Statistics- D.M to desire

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.665

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.442

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.48, Direct marketing influence desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

25

16.7

16.7

16.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

82

54.7

54.7

71.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

28.7

28.7

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.22,Direct marketing influence desire

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the direct marketing will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 16.67% respondents say strongly agree and majority are (48%) says agree.

67

There were 28.67% respondents say neither agree or disagree. There were no respondents say disagree and strongly disagree. Its mean direct marketing is tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.8.4. Direct Marketing influenced on Action

Table 5.49, Statistics, D.M to action

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.649

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.422

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

 

Table 5.50, Direct marketing influence action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

 

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

21

14.0

 

14.0

14.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

83

55.3

 

55.3

69.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

46

30.7

 

30.7

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

 

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.23, Direct marketing influence action

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the direct marketing will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the

68

research here 14% respondents say strongly agree with this statement and majority are (46.67%) agree this statement. There were 30.67% respondents are give neutral. There were no respondents says disagree or strongly disagree. The mean value of statistics table is getting 2.17 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2, however if we consider this as agree. Its mean direct marketing is tool, influenced on customer action in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

H5-There is a positive relationship between direct marketing and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.51,Correlations- Direct Marketing and Brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

directmark

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

eting

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.567(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

directmarketing

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.567(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

Above tables shows the relationship between direct marketing and brand equity. According to the above correlation analysis it is noted that there is positive value shown and it says that there is a positive relationship in between direct marketing and the correlation core efficient 0.567. That means there is a moderate positive relationship. Considering these all factors researcher can reject the null hypothesis

69

5.2.9. Event and Experience

5.2.9.1. Event and Experience influenced on Awareness

Table 5.52, Statistics-E&E to awareness

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.89

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.747

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.558

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.53, Event and experience influenced awareness

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

 

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

51

 

34.0

34.0

34.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

65

 

43.3

43.3

77.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

 

22.7

22.7

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

 

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.24, Event and experience influenced awareness

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the event and experience will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 34% respondents says very strongly agree and 43.33% says agree this statement. There were 22.67% respondents say neither agree or disagree. The mean value of statistics table is getting 1.89 which is very closer to the 2 and mode is getting exact 2,

70

however if we consider this as agree. The majority respondents are agree this statement. Its mean event and experience is promotional tool, influenced on customer awareness in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.9.2. Event and Experience influenced on Interest

Table 5.54, Statistics-E&E to interest

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.759

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.576

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.55, Event and experience influenced interest

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

35

23.3

23.3

23.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

62

41.3

41.3

64.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

35.3

35.3

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.25, Event and experience influenced interest

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the event and experience will be influenced on awareness with herbal cosmetics industry. According to

71

the research here 23.33% respondents says very strongly agree and 41.33% says agree this statement. There were 35.33% respondents say neither agree or disagree. The majority respondents are agree this statement. Its mean event and experience is promotional tool, influenced on customer interest in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.9.3. Event and Experience influenced on Desire

Table 5.56, Statistics-E&E to desire

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.05

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.731

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.534

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.57, Event and experience influenced desire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

30

20.0

20.0

20.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

88

58.7

58.7

78.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

17.3

17.3

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

4.0

4.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.26, Event and experience influenced desire

Source: Researcher compiled

72

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the event and experience will be influenced on desire with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 20% respondents says strongly agree and 58.67% says agree. There were 17.33% respondents says neither agree or disagree this statement. There were 4% respondents say disagree. But majority respondents are agree this statement. Its mean event and experience is tool, influenced on customer desire in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

5.2.9.4. Event and Experience influenced on Action

Table 5.58, Statistics-E&E to action

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

Valid

 

 

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Missing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mean

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.94

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Median

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.00

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mode

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Std. Deviation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.829

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.688

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

 

 

 

 

Table 5.59, Event and experience influenced action

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

 

Valid

strongly agree

46

30.7

30.7

30.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

agree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

77

51.3

51.3

82.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17

11.3

11.3

93.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

6.7

6.7

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.27, Event and experience influenced action

Source: Researcher compiled

73

According to above frequency chart and table the researcher could found the event and experience will be influenced on action with herbal cosmetics industry. According to the research here 30.67% respondents say strongly agree this statement and 51.33% says agree. There were 11.33% respondents says neutral and there were 6.67% respondents says disagree. But majority are agree this statement. Its mean event and experience is promotional tool, influenced on customer action in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

H6-There is a positive relationship between event and experience and brand equity of herbal cosmetics.

Table 5.60, Correlations- Event & experience and Brand equity

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

eventandex

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brand equity

perience

 

Brand equity

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

.705(**)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

eventandexperience

 

 

Pearson Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.705(**)

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sig. (2-tailed)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

150

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Researcher compiled

According to the above Correlation analysis data, all the factors that affect on the event and experience show a positive relationship with brand equity. However researcher needs to measure whether there is a relationship between those factors and whether they are positively affect on increasing the brand equity. By showing a positive relationship between the event and experience and brand equity.

The correlation core efficient of the above table is 0.705 and it tells that there is a strong positive relationship among those variables. However, considering above evidences we can reject the null hypothesis.

74

5.2.10 Demographical Factors

5.2.10.1 Age of the Respondent

Table 5.61, Age of the respondent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

15-20 years

18

12.0

12.0

12.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20-25 years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

96

64.0

64.0

76.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25-30 years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

20.0

20.0

96.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30-35 years

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

4.0

4.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.28, Age of the respondent

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency table and chart, majority of the age of respondents are 20-25 years. It was a 64% of total respondents. Second majority of the age of respondents are 25-30 years. It was a 20% of total respondents. 12% of the total respondents are 15-20 years age limit. Other 4% of respondents are 30-35 years.

75

5.2.10.2 Gender

Table 5.62, Gender

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

Male

36

24.0

24.0

24.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

114

76.0

76.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

Figure 5.29, Gender

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency table and chart, 76% represent the female and 24% represent the male.

5.2.10.3 Net Income Level of Month

Table 5.63, Net Income Level of Month

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

10000-19999

 

63

42.0

42.0

42.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20000-29999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

38

25.3

25.3

67.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30000-39999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

20.0

20.0

87.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40000-49999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

6.7

6.7

94.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Above 50000

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

6.0

6.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

76

Figure 5.30, Income

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above chart and figure, majority of the respondents is earned income level is in between Rs.10000/- to Rs.19999/-. It was a 42% of total respondents. Second majority of the respondents are earned income level is in between Rs.20000/- to Rs. 29999/-. It was a 25.33% of total respondents. Between Rs. 30000/- to Rs.39999/- are plotted in a third place income level with 20%. 6.67% of respondents are earned between Rs, 40000/- to 49999/-. Other 6% of respondents are earned above Rs.50000/-.

5.2.10.4 Education Level of Respondent

Table 5.64, Education level of the respondents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cumulative

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Percent

Valid

O/L

12

8.0

8.0

8.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A/L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

67

44.7

44.7

52.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diploma

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

34

22.7

22.7

75.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Degree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29

19.3

19.3

94.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

5.3

5.3

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

150

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher compiled

77

Figure 5.31, Education

Source: Researcher compiled

According to above frequency table and chart, majority of the respondents have A/L qualification. It was 44.67% of total respondents. Second majority of the respondents had diploma. It was a 22.67% of total respondents. 8% of the populations of have O/L qualification. 24.67% of the population had degree and other education qualifications.

5.3. Chapter Summery

In this chapter present the independent variables of the research model and statistic analysis. Statistical tools such as mean, median, mode and frequencies. Analysis method of correlation is used to test the hypothesis.

Table 5.66

Summery

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hypothesis

Variables

Pearson Correlation

Relationship

 

 

 

 

H1

Advertising

0.742

Strong relationship

 

 

 

 

H2

Sales promotions

0.222

Low relationship

 

 

 

 

H3

Public relations

0.582

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H4

Personal selling

0.433

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H5

Direct marketing

0.567

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H6

Event and experience

0.705

Strong relationship

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher Compiled

Research hypothesis are test out according to Pearson correlation to measure the significance of the each independent variables with the dependent variable.

78

Chapter Six- SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

6.1. Introduction

In this chapter, we present our summary findings of the research. Additionally, the conclusion is also provided in relation to the objective of the study. The chapter begins with a summary of the key findings of this study, followed by critique of the research and ends with the future research direction.

6.2 Overall Summery of the Study

Brand equity is defined as ‘‘a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service to a firm and to that firm’s consumers. The ‘promotional mix’ is a term used to describe the set of tools that a business can use to communicate effectively the benefits of its products or services to its customers. The challenge is to select the right mix of promotional activities to suit the particular business at a particular time and to then use it correctly to achieve a result. One of the most important marketing decisions that managers may need to make centers around determining the most effective way to promote their business and products.

This study examines how promotional mix elements i.e. advertising, personal selling, sale promotion, public relations and direct marketing and event and experiences affect brand equity dimensions and brand equity in herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka. The findings suggest that promotional mix have positive impact on brand equity that accompanied the other research results. The managers can utilize the results of this paper for selecting appropriate strategies for creating a high level of brand equity. For instance, extensive investments on advertising, advertising diversity, concentration on sales persons’ training in different fields such as social communications, sell technical knowledge and having informed of products’ attributes, repetitive reward presentation, participating in different social occasions for boosting brand awareness and loyalty and etc. In sum, personal selling, advertising, direct marketing, public relations sales promotions and event and experience should be improved and developed as brand creating factors.

79

6.3. Conclusion For Hypothesis

Research hypothesis are test out according to Pearson correlation to measure the significance of the each independent variables with the dependent variable.

Table 6.1 Summery

Hypothesis

Variables

Pearson Correlation

Relationship

 

 

 

 

H1

Advertising

0.742

Strong relationship

 

 

 

 

H2

Sales promotions

0.222

Low relationship

 

 

 

 

H3

Public relations

0.582

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H4

Personal selling

0.433

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H5

Direct marketing

0.567

Moderate relationship

 

 

 

 

H6

Event and experience

0.705

Strong relationship

 

 

 

 

Source: Researcher Compiled

There were all the independent variables are positively affected to the brand equity. It is able to say that most of the variables directly affected to the brand equity on herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

With reference to the analysis advertising and event & experience have strong positive relationship between brand equity. Therefore public relations, personal selling and direct marketing have moderate positive relationship with brand equity. So, sales promotions and brand equity have low positive relationship.

The objective to understand what extent promotional tools of herbal cosmetics will be influenced on brand equity is reached through the findings this study done by using general information. Recommendations help to organizing successful promotional mix to increase brand equity to the herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka.

Thus researcher selected a conclusive research design can six variables and six hypothesis were examined such as

∑Advertising

∑Sales promotions

∑Public relations

∑Personal selling

80

∑Direct marketing

∑Event and experience

01.The relationship between advertising and brand equity.

In the modern marketing environment brand equity is most important asset in company. Advertising is a tools that a business can use to communicate effectively. The challenge is to select the right advertising method and advertising medium. In the herbal cosmetic industry company can select right advertising method the particular business at a particular time and to then use it correctly to achieve a result. Herbal cosmetic industry organize successful advertisimg campaign company should be improved and developed as brand equity.

02. The relationship between sales promotion and brand equity.

Sales promotion consists of a diverse collection of incentive tools, mostly short-term designed to stimulate quicker and greater purchase of particular products or services by consumers or the trade. In the herbal cosmetics industry brand equity and sales promotion have low positive relationship (0.222). Therefore sales promotion activities will be improve company can get success results.

03. The relationship between public relations and brand equity.

Public relation is no personal communication to a mass audience but it is not directly paid for by the company. The information publicized is carried out through the use of newspapers, press conference, articles, films and editor who determine the nature of the massage. In herbal cosmetic industry in Sri Lanka brand equity and public relation have moderate positive relationship. Company can improve their public relations they can get success result.

04. The relationship between personal selling and brand equity.

Personal selling and brand equity has moderate positive relationship. Sales presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing are effective methods of promoting. In the herbal cosmetic industry personal selling activities will be improve company can get success result.

81

05. The relationship between Direct marketing and brand equity.

Direct marketing is way of communicate straight to the customer, with advertising techniques such as mobile messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution and promotional letters. Direct marketing and brand equity has moderate positive relationship. Direct marketing is not costly promotional method so; herbal cosmetic company can oraganize direct marketing campaign company should be improve and developed of brand equity.

06. The relationship between Event and experience and brand equity.

The event & experience and brand equity has strong positive relationship. In the modern marketing environment event and experience is good promotional tool. Therefore, herbal cosmetic industry organize successful event and experience programs company should be improve and developed as brand equity. E.g.: organize workshops, fashion show.

6.4. Suggestions for Further Researches

Research scope

“The impact on promotional strategies on brand equity” is very broader concept. Therefore, it is difficult to conceptualize. Therefore it should be distinct the scope to some specific areas such as advertising, e-promotions etc. Then it is able launch specific researches for specified areas.

Variable

For this research, only six variables were selected because of convenience of the study. However, it is not enough to this type of research. The researchers should develop more number of variables in order to receive a better understanding. Then it can be made a proper and confidential conclusion than this research

Sample

For this research it was selected a convenient sample method because of convenience of the study. However, it is not logical to that type of research. It should be develop a clustered sampling technique in order to better analysis of the research. For a clustered

82

sample, it is very appropriate the uses of geographical method, demographic method, Respondent’s and it is very logical if researcher is able to collect data from at least 2,000 it is high logical for make an inference.

6.5. Chapter Summery

In this chapter present overall summery of the study. Additionally present the conclusions and recommendations. The ends of the chapter explained suggestion for further researcher.

83

Appendix

The Impact of Promotional Strategies on Brand Equity: with Special Reference to the Herbal Cosmetic Industry in Sri Lanka

Respected madam/sir,

As a part of my research project I would like to gather some information from you which will help me in an in depth study of project. The information provided by you will be kept confidential and will be used for academic purpose only. I would be obliged if you co- operate with me in filling the questionnaire.

1. Are you familiar with herbal cosmetic products?

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. How did you come to know about herbal cosmetic products?

Through advertising campaign

Through sales promotionals

Through public relations

Through personal selling

Through direct marketing

Through event and experience

3. How do you evaluate the importance of promotional strategies for become brand equity of herbal cosmetic Industry.

Very important

Important

Averagely important

Less important

Not at all

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

84

According to your experience, how do you think the importance of following promotional strategies that stimulate your purchasing behavior herbal cosmetic?

85

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree Strongly

Agree

 

 

Disagree

4. Advertising ( TV, Radio,

Magazine, Newspaper, Outdoor etc)

4.1.The advertising of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on awareness.

4.2.The advertising of herbal cosmetic will be affected on interest.

4.3.The advertising of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on desire.

4.4.The advertising of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on action.

5. Sales promotions (Discount,

Competitions, Coupons etc)

5.1.The sales promotions are influenced on awareness herbal cosmetic.

5.2.The sales promotions are affected on interest herbal cosmetic.

5.3.The sales promotions are influenced on desire herbal cosmetic.

5.4.The sales promotions are influenced on action herbal cosmetic.

6. Public Relations ( Press

86

6.1.The Public Relations of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on awareness.

6.2.The Public Relations of herbal cosmetic will be affected on interest.

6.3.The Public Relations of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on desire.

6.4.The Public Relations of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on action.

7. Personal selling (Sales man,

Dealer )

7.1.The Personal selling of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on awareness.

7.2.The Personal selling of herbal cosmetic will be affected on interest.

7.3.The Personal selling of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on desire.

7.4.The Personal selling of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on action.

8. Direct Marketing

8.1.The Direct Marketing of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on awareness.

8.2.The Direct Marketing of herbal

87

cosmetic will be affected on interest.

8.3.The Direct Marketing of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on desire.

8.4.The Direct Marketing of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on action.

9. Event and Experience (Work

shop, Bridal show, Fashion Show)

9.1.Event and Experience of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on awareness.

9.2.Event and Experience of herbal cosmetic will be affected on interest.

9.3.Event and Experience of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on desire.

9.4.Event and Experience of herbal cosmetic will be influenced on action.

Demographical factors

10. Your Age level

15-20

20-25

25-30

35-

35 and above

11. Gender

Male Female

12. Income

88

10000-19999

20000-29999

30000-39999

40000-49999

50000 Above

 

13. Educational level

O/L

A /L

Diploma

Degree

Other (Mention)

 

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Websites

www.wikipedia.com

www.emerarald.com

www.jstor.com

www.enotes.com

www.en.mimi.com

www.learnmarketing.com

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