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saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti biznes-inJineringis fakulteti samarTalmcodneobis specialoba

saseminaro naSromi

 

transnacionaluri kompaniebis

statusi kavkasiaSi

doqtoranti: daviT tabataZe

mecnier-xelmZRvaneli, profesori: zviad gabisonia

Tbilisi

2012 weli

S i n a a r s i

Sesavali _gv_ 2---6

 

I. transnacionaluri kompaniebis statusi kavkasiaSi _gv_ 6----

10

II. transnacionaluri kompaniebi saqarTveloSi _gv_ 10------

35

III. amierkavkasiis satransporto derefani da transnacionaluri

kompaniebi _gv_ 35-------

57

IV. transnacionaluri kompaniebis saqmianoba azerbaijanSi _gv_ 58--

-----------62

daskvna _gv_ 63____66

gamoyenebuli literatura _gv_ 67----69

Sesavali

transnacionalizacia warmoadgens Tanamedrove msoflio ekonomikis ganmsazRvrel faqtors. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiTY igi warmogvidgeba kapital

1

gadinebis SesaZleblobiT da aucileblobiT im qveynebidan, sadac igi Warbadaa warmodgenili, im qveynebSi - sadac misi deficitia, magram samagierod, Warbobs wiaRiseuli resursebi, samuSao Zala da iafi Sroma. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, transnacionalizacias mivyavarT msoflio kvlavwarmoebiT procesebis racionalizaciasa da sxvadasxva qveynebSi ekonomikuri pirobebis gaTanabrebasTan.

transnacionalizacia warmogvidgeba or an ramdenime qveyanas Soris kapitalis moZraobiT, amosavali wertili ki - investiciebia.

Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso korporaciebis did umetesobas gaaCnia transerovnuli korporaciis forma.

"tnk aris msoflio politikis axali gamowveva, romelic aqtiurad monawileobs yvela globalur procesSi, romelic msoflioSi xdeba.

ganviTarebul qveynebSi transnacionaluri kompaniebi farTod monawileoben politikaSi, ekonomikaSi, safinanso-sainvesticio, sainformacio, samecniero-teqnikur, samxedro, teqnologiur da ekologiur sferoebSi." 1

ssr kavSiris daSlam dasabami misca mokavSire respublikebis sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvlas. aseve arsebiTad Seicvala msoflios geopolitikuri ruqa. am cvlilebebis fonze mkveTrad gaZlierda winaaRmdegoba msxvil saxelmwifoebs Soris da es yvelaze mkafiod samxreT kavkasiaSi gamoikveTa. kavkasiis regioni saerTaSoriso eqspertTaTvis mudmivi dakvirvebis sferoa, romelTaTvisac sainteresoa sainvesticio klimati, investiciebis dinamika da mimarTulebani amierkavkasiis regionSi. wamyvani saerTaSoriso organizaciebi ( msf, mb, ergb, ggvsk ) dakvirvebis Sedegebs aramarto akvirdebian, aramed aqveyneben kidec miRebul Sedegebs, rac investorTaTvis mniSvnelovani informaciis miwodebas gulisxmobs da saboloo jamSi ki sainformacio bankis Seqmnas isaxavs miznad.

globalur ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovan warmmarTvel faqtors pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi warmoadgenen.

"pirdapir ucxour investiciebs mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia nacionaluri ekonomikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi, gansakuTrebiT gardamavali ekonomikis qveynebisaTvis. investiciebi, romlebic Sida danazogis deficitis kompesirebas axdens,

Tavis mxriv ganapirobebs axali warmoebis Seqmnas, an arsebuli infrastruqturis

1. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri gaerTianebebi - msoflio politikis axali gamowveva - 2011w. Tb. gv.11

2

Zirfesvian restruqturizacias da gafarToebas. mTlianobaSi ki xels Seuwyobs qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebas." 2

postsabWoTa qveynebis diferenciacia xdeba pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis daxasiaTebisas amierkavkasiis regionSi Semaval qveyanaTaTvis energoresursebis sakuTari potencialis, (zog SemTxvevaSi- azerbaijanis) eqsportiT, da pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi ZiriTadad mimarTulia saTbob-energetikuli kompleqsisadmi. sxva SemTxvevaSi, iq, sadac qveynebi ar flobdnen did energoresursebs (saqarTvelo, somxeTi), aqtualurad atarebdnen sabazro reformebs.

mecnieri ir. manveliZe amierkavkasiis qveynebis daxasiaTebisas, udarebs ra igi am regionis qveynebs sxva postsabWoTa qveynebs, (ruseTi, TurqmeneTi, yazaxeTi, yirgizeTi, moldova, ukraina da tajikeTi, belorusia, uzbekeTi), aRniSnavs, rom am ukanasknel qveynebSi sadac arasakmarisad nela viTardeboda sabazro reformebi, iq, ucxouri investiciebic mkveTrad SezRuduli iyo.

ganviTarebul qveynebSi pui-s zrdam mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula transnacionaluri kompaniebis mier iafi resursebis axali wyaroebis mosazidad. ganviTarebad qveynebSi gamovlinda Semdeg Tavisebureba: SedarebiT ganviTarebul qveynebSi, sadac SedarebiT maRalia saSualo-suladobrivi Semosavlebi, agreTve im qveynebSi, sadac SedarebiT maRalia ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi, ucxouri kerZo investiciebis (pirdapiri da portfeluri investiciebi, sabanko kreditebi) wili ramdenjerme aRemateba saxelmwifo investiciebis wils, xolo im qveynebSi, sadac SedarebiT dabalia ekonomikuri ganviTarebis done da saSualo-suladobrivi Semosavlebi, agreTve im qveynebSi, sadac SedarebiT dabalia ekonomikuri zrdis tempebi, kerZo ucxouri investiciebisa da ucxouri saxelmwifo investiciebis wili daaxloebiT Tanabaria.

amierkavkasiis regioni xasiaTdeba im TaviseburebiT, rom aq kapitalis bazari praqtikulad ar arsebobs. amiT aris ganpirobebuli is garemoebac rom aq portfeluri ucxouri investiciebi bevrad mcirea, maSin roca pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis nakadi da moculoba sakmaod farTo da mniSvnelovania.

aRsaniSnavia swored is garemoeba, rom kavkasiis regionSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis roli metad mniSvnelovanTan erTad bevrad maRalia, vidre sxva qveynebSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom, am regionSi xorcieldeba mniSvnelovani transnacionaluri iseTi proeqtebi, rogoricaa: baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis mSeneblobia rasac Sedegad azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos farglebSi mniSvnelovani

2. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.131

3

pui-is Semodineba mohyva. swored azerbaijanis lideroba bolo 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi pui-is TvalsazrisiT transnacionaluri proeqtebis damsaxurebaa. aseTive mniSvnelobisaa "nabukos" transnacionaluri proeqtic.

amierkavkasiis regionSi pui-s Taviseburebebi axasiaTebs. Tu SevadarebT regionis SemadgenlobaSi Semaval qveynebSi transnacionalur kompaniaTa saqmianobas, calsaxad gamoikveTeba rigi Taviseburebebi. kerZod, "azerbaijanSi transnacionaluri kompaniebis saqmianoba da Sesabamisad pui-s dabandeba navTobisa da mis Tanmxleb seqtorze modis, maSin rodesac somxeTsa da saqarTveloSi igi bevrad diversificirebulia. am qveynebSi - saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi pui SeiZleba or nawilad daiyos - pirveli maTgani moicavs saxelmwifos mier sawarmoebis privatizaciis process, xolo meores mxriv pui nawildeba iseT dargebze, rogoricaa kvebis mrewveloba, telekomunikaciebi, eleqtroenergiis seqtori. gansakuTrebiT pirdapirma ucxourma investiciebma Tavisi sityva Tqva sabanko seqtorSi, mSeneblobasa da turizmSi.

xazgasasmelia is faqtoric, rom transnacionalur kompaniaTa monawileoba somxeTsa da saqarTveloSi bevrad SezRuduli iyo, vidre azerbaijanSi. 3

amierkavkasiis regionisaTvis metad mniSvnelovania investiciebis mozidva. regions gaaCnia Tavisi geopolitikuri datvirTvis garda, dasavleT evropuli saxelmwifoebisTvis energo momaragebisa da satranzito funqciac. amitomacaa rom amierkavkasiaSi moqmedi transnacionaluri kompaniebi gansakuTrebuli TaviseburebebiT xasiaTdebian.

saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebuli ekonomikuri reformebi prioritetad ucxouri investiciebis mozidva-Semodinebas miiCnevdnen damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdgom. aseve 2004 wels saqarTveloSi dawyebulma privatizaciis procesma xeli Seuwyo rogorc kerZo seqtoris zrdas, aseve ucxouri investiciebis mozidvasac.

saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebiT noyieri niadagia investiciebis iseT dargebSi dasabandeblad, rogoricaa: navTobis mrewveloba (gadamuSaveba), Savi da feradi metalurgia, manqanaTmSeneblobis calkeuli dargebi, samToqimiuri mrewveloba, mtknari da mineraluri wylebis Camosxma, samSeneblo da mosapirkeTebeli masalebi, mecitruseoba, mexileoba, Tambaqos warmoeba, mevenaxeoba da a.S.

swrafi tempiT izrdeba saqarTveloSi momsaxureobis seqtori, rac turizmis ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba. ucxouri investiciebis mozidva saqarTveloSi ekonomikuri

3. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv. 137

4

reformebis umniSvnelovanes problemad rCeba, romelzedac damokidebulia saqarTvelos gawevrianeba globalur ekonomikaSi, rac esoden problematuria dRes saqarTvelosTvis.

" globalur ekonomikaSi saqarTvelos integrirebis zrdis mniSvnelovani faqtori unda iyos ara marto sagareo vaWrobis brunvis zrda, aramed msoflios udidesi korporaciebis saqarTveloTi daintereseba da maT mier investirebis ganxorcieleba." 4

I transnacionaluri kompaniebis statusi kavkasiaSi

saqarTvelos bazriT msoflios cnobili kompaniebis daintereseba sul ufro izrdeba. saqarTveloSi warmodgenili tnk-is maTi filialebisa da Svilobili kompaniebis Sesaxeb sruli informacia ar arsebobs.

qarTul bazarze 2004w. daimkvidra adgili saerTaSoriso kompaniebma. maTgan aRsaniSnavia didi britaneTis kompaniebi, romlebmac SeiZines manganumis sabadoebi da rusTavis metalurgiuli kombinati, inglisuri kompania, romelic "qarTuli foladis" 100%-s flobs da mflobelia qarTuli kompania enerjy industry complex-isa. saqarTvelos bazarze moRvaweobdnen Cexuri kompaniebic - energo pro, romelic flobs qarTul sadistribucio kompaniasa da 6 hidroeleqtro sadgurs da a.S.

amierkavkasiis qveynebidan azerbaijani industriul-agraruli qveyanaa. mopovebiTi industria azerbaijanSi moicavs navTobgadamamuSavebel, qimiur, manqanaTmSenebel, samTomompovebel mrewvelobas da ferad metalurgias. soflis meurneobaSi ki ZiriTadad daspecializirebulia mevenaxeobis, mebaReobis, mexileobis, meTambaqoebis dargebiT.

azerbaijani mdidaria sasargeblo wiaRiseuliT da rogorc azerbaijanSi, aseve kaspiis regionSi tnk-is mozidva ganpirobebulia navTobis arsebobiT. igive iTqmis bunebriv gazzec. am resursebis mopovebiT azerbaijani regionSi politikuradac dominirebs. mas didi geopolitikuri mniSvnelobac aqvs dasavleT evropuli qveynebisa da ruseTisaTvis.

4. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.180

5

kvleviTi saagentos "the economist intelligece unit" -is monacamebiT azerbaijani regionSi isev lideri qveynis funqcias SeinarCunebs pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mozidvis kuTxiT. 5 "es ki ufro dakavSirebuli iqneba axali sainvesticio proeqtebis, maT Soris transnacionaluris ganxorcielebasTan, ZiriTadad navTobis seqtorSi." 6

azerbaijanSi ganxorcielebuli pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mniSvnelovani wili navTobis seqtorze modis - 3350,8 mln. aSS. dolari. azerbaijanSi registrirebul kompaniaTa naxevarze meti ucxouria.

UNCTAD-is 2005 wlis yovelwliuri msoflio sainvesticio angariSze dayrdnobiT, azerbaijanSi moqmedebda ucxouri tnk-is 30 ganyofileba. 7

azerbaijanis navTobis seqtorSi moRvaweobdnen iseTi transnacionaluri da maTi Svilobili kompaniebi, rogorebicaa BP (saerTaSoriso), navTobisa da gazis -

KBR INTERNACIONAL AZERBAIJAN, CHEVRON TEXACO ( didi britaneTi) da sxva.

navTobis industriis gaZliereba azerbaijanSi tnk-is moRvaweobas ukavSirdeba.

azerbaijanSi saqmianoben aseve sxvadasxva profilis tnk-bi energetikaSi, turistul sferoSi, mrewvelobis saZiebo dargebSi - (gazi), satransporto kompaniebi, farmacevtuli korporaciebi da a.S.

axali ekonomikuri modelis Semadgeneli nawilia maRalteqnologiuri navTobis industriis Seqmna swored tnk-is monawileobiT.

rac Seexeba somxeTs, ucxouri investiciebis mimarT maT aqvT "Ria karis" politika, rac mimarTulia somxeTis msoflio ekonomikaSi integraciisken.

qveyanaSi gamoyenebulia liberaluri principebi sainvesticio sferoSi, TviT investiciebi regulirdeba sakanonmdeblo baziT, romelic mimzidvelia da stabilurobas emsaxureba. somxeTSi ucxoeli da adgilobrivi investorebisaTvis, Tanabari ekonomikuri pirobebia. investiciebis mosazidad erovnul reJimze ufro xelsayreli pirobebia Seqmnili.

5. world investment prospects to 2011. london, new york, the program on international investment. p.159

6. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.180

7. woeld investment report. transnational corporations and the internationalization of the unitid nations, new york, p.265

6

kavkasiis qveynebs Soris somxeTi teritoriisa da mosaxleobis simciriT gamoirCeva. miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, didia somxeTis bazriT daintereseba, gansakuTrebiT ucxouri kompaniebis mxridan. somxeTis sainvesticio garemo Tavisufalia, xelisufleba yvelaze naklebad ereva ekonomikaSi. 2009 wlis dasawyisisaTvis somxeTSi ucxouri kapitalis monawileobiT registrirebuli sawarmoebis ricxvi 4034-s Seadgenda, 2011 wlis bolosaTvis ki - 6798-s. 8

ucxouri kompaniebi ZiriTadad Semdeg sferoebSi saqmianoben: mSenebloba, energetika, samTo da qimiuri mrewveloba, soflis meurneobis produqtebi, Tambaqos warmoeba, mineraluri wylebis warmoeba, vaWroba, saiuveliro warmoeba, sayofacxovrebo teqnika, turizmis sfero misi momsaxureobis calkeuli mxareebiT, momsaxurebis sfero dasvenebis da garTobis centrebi, saswavlo centrebi, sareklamo saqmianoba.

somxeTSi 90-ian wlebSi bevri ucxouri kompania mxolod eqsport-importiT saqmianobda, magram privatizaciis procesma qveyanaSi, saSualeba misca bevr ucxour kompanias gaefarToebinaT adgilobrivi warmoeba maT mier ganxorcielebuli investiciebis mixedviT.

somxeTSi saqmianobdnen ucxoeTis iseTi wamyvani kompaniebi, rogoricaa:

NETSYS JV - amerikuli kompania - internet momsaxurebis provaideruli tnk, jermiuk - belgiuri mineraluri wylebis kompania, itar - italiuri teqstilmwarmoebeli kompania, procredit bank - germanuli sabanko momsaxurebis kompania, avangard motors- franguli avtomanqanebisa da servisuli momsaxurebis kompania da a.S. 9

UMCTAD-is bolo wlebis angariSis mixedviT, somxeTSi moRvaweobs ucxouri tnk-is 717 ganyofileba. 10

somxeTSi rusul investiciebs garkveuli adgili ukavia qveynis ekonomikaSi. gansakuTrebiT iseT dargebSi, rogoricaa: feradi metalurgia, energetika, sakonditro warmoeba, qimiuri mrewveloba. rusuli transnacionaluri kompaniebis wili somxur ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovania, rac ruseTze damokidebuls xdis qveyanas. aRsaniSnavia iseTi rusuli msxvili kompaniebi somxeTSi, rogoricaa: "gazpromi", "inter rao iesi", "rosenergoatomi".

8. http://www.an.stat.am/ru/

9. http://www.ada.am/htm/toreigh-investors

10. http://www.ada.am/html/

7

somxeTSi dReisaTvis 2000-ze meti rusuli msxvili kompania saqmianobs. rac Seexeba ucxour kompaniebs, somxeTSi maTi ricxvi 38 msxvili ucxouri kompaniiT aris warmodgenili. 11

"msoflios wamyvani tnk-is filialebisa da warmomadgenlobebis saqmianoba, aseve maT mier ganxorcielebuli pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi kavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis dadebiTi tendenciis matarebelia. 12

gavecaniT ra kavkasiis regionSi tnk-is Taviseburebebs, SegviZlia davaskvnaT Semdegi:

regionis ekonomikuri mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, romelsac safuZvlad udevs geopolitikuri prioritetic, regions sWirdeba kargad SemuSavebuli sainvesticio politika, romelic uzrunvelyofs ucxouri investiciebis mozidvasTan erTad, investorebisaTvis investgaremos mimzidvelobis SenarCunebas. saWiroa gaTvaliswinebuli iqnas " ekonomikis dargTa prioritetuli ganviTarebis mimarTulebebi da yvela dargisaTvis xelSewyoba, aseve mniSvnelovani faqtoria samive qveynebis sainvesticio interesebis Tanxvedra prioritetul sferoebSi." 13

IItransnacionaluri kompaniebi saqarTveloSi.

XXsaukunis dasasruls msoflio ekonomikis globalizaciis procesma ganviTarebis axal safexurs miaRwia. erovnuli ekonomikis winsvla, msoflio ekonomikasTan integrirebis gareSe, SeuZlebeli gaxda. xangrZlivi periodis manZilze miaCndaT, rom saxelmwifoebs sxva qveynebTan mxolod minimaluri ekonomikuri kontaqtebis damyarebiT, SeeZloT uzrunveleyoT sakuTari mosaxleobisaTvis normaluri cxovrebis done. qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri urTierTobebi farTod ganviTarda. sul ufro masobrivi xasiaTi miiRo ekonomikurma integraciam. qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri kavSiris daCqarebuli tempebiT ganviTarebis erT-erTi mamoZravebeli faqtori gaxda saxelmwifoTa teqnologiuri ganviTarebis amocanebis gadawyvetis aucilebloba, romelic unda ganxorcielebuliyo erTiani ZalisxmeviT. dasavleTis maRalganviTarebul qveynebsac ki Tavis droze am aspeqtSi sxva gamosavali ar gaaCndaT.

11. http://www.investmentmap.org/invmap/competitor

12. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.108

13. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.109

8

imis gamo, rom qveynebi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis sxvadasxva stadiaze imyofebian, maT ar SeuZliaT da arc unda ganaxorcielon Tanabarzomierad Ria karis politika. amasTan ar SeiZleba globalizaciis procesisagan izolireba. aucilebelia, TandaTanobiT, etapobrivad warimarTos aRniSnul procesSi erovnuli ekonomikis CarTva. miT umetess Tanamedrove msoflios gaaCnia globalizaciaze gadasvlis umniSvnelovanesi teqnologiuri arsenali. globalizaciis kanonzomierebidan gamomdinare, ramdenime faqtoria, romelic ubiZgebs erovnul ekonomikis CarTvas globalizaciis procesSi. esenia: saqonlisa da momsaxurebebis moZraoba qveynebsa da ekonomikis seqtorebs Soris, adamianebis gadaadgileba qveynebs Soris, romelic gamowveulia ekonomikuri funqcionirebis saWiroebidan gamomdinare, inteleqtualuri produqciisa da ideebis moZraoba kvleviT da saswavlo centrebs Soris.

qveynebs Soris ekonomikuri urTierTobani mravalferovania. sagareo finansur integraciaSi erT-erTi mTavari da wamyvani sfero vaWrobaa.

"ekonomikuri ganviTarebis istoriam Semogvinaxa imis mravali magaliTi, rom postkomunisturi qveynebi cdilobdnen importis samamulo produqciiT Secvlis politika gaetarebinaT, magram Sedegebi arasasurveli aRmoCnda. am marcxs Tavisi mizezebic gaaCnda. aRniSnul qveynebSi warmoebuli produqti konkurencias ver uwevda dasavleTis maRalganviTarebul qveynebis produqcias, da meorec, neli tempiT mimdinareobda ZiriTadi kapitalis ganaxleba, rac konkurentunariani produqciis warmoebis saSualebas ar iZleva, mesame - postkomunistur qveynebTan saerTaSoriso vaWroba moiTxovs nedleuls, gansakuTrebiT samTomadno mrewvelobis produqcias, meoTxec - aRniSnuli, postsabWoTa qveynebis umetesoba ZiriTadad awarmoebs soflis meurneobis produqcias, romlis bazari msoflioSi gajerebulia. 14

ekonomikis globalizacia obieqturma garemoebebma ganapiroba.

imisaTvis rom ekonomikis globalizaciisagan miviRoT maRali efeqtianoba, aucilebelia daculi iyos saerTaSoriso qcevebis-samarTlis gansazRvruli normebi, miRweuli unda iqnes ukanono vaWrobis aRmofxvra da mfarveloba faruli kavSirebis meSveobiT, aRmosafxvrelia yvela formis korufcia.

ekonomikis globalizaciam da internacionalizaciam msoflio mosaxleobas mniSvnelovani warmateba moutana, romelTaganac aRsaniSnavia - qveynis ekonomikuri zrda, maRali mwarmoebloba da mowinave teqnologiebis danergva. zemo aRniSnuli procesebi yvela qveynisaTvis sargeblobis momtania, ra Tqma unda

14. ek. meyanwiSvili - globalizacia da postkomunisturi qveynebis ganviTarebis problemebi - saerTaSoriso samecniero praqtikis konferenciis masalebis krebuli, Tb. 2010w. # 1-2

9

met-naklebad. imis mixedviT, Tu rogori efeqtianobiT gamoiyeneben isini globalizaciisa da ekonomikis internacionalizaciis SesaZleblobebs.

ganviTarebis uTanabroba ki gamowveulia postsabWoTa qveynebis aradamakmayofilebeli monawileobiT saerTaSoriso ekonomikur kavSirebSi, rasac Tavisi obieqturi da subieqturi mizezebi gaaCnia. sustia, an saerTod ar arsebobs globalizaciisaTvis saWiro institutebi, ekonomika daxurulia da arsebobs proteqcionizmi. aRniSnuli problemis gadasaWrelad mniSvnelovan faqtors warmoadgens investiciebis mozidva da efeqtiani gamoyeneba.

pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi da maTi mozidva pirdapir proporciul kavSirSia msxvil korporaciul gaerTianebebTan da maT saqmianobasTan.

samwuxarod, postsabWoTa qveynebis msgavsad, saqarTveloSi privatizaciam da daregulirebam xeli ver Seuwyo efeqtiani konkurentuli bazrebis formirebas, mis nacvlad saqarTveloSi Seiqmna msxvili, kerZo monopoliebi, romlebic akontroleben calkeul dargebs da sferoebs, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mniSvnelovan nawils. maT xelSia moqceuli umsxvilesi bankebi, romlebic dasaqmebulni arian specoperaciebSi da faqtobrivad ar asruleben komerciuli bankebis ekonomikuri dakreditebis ZiriTad funqciebs. faqtobrivad ganviTarebadi qveynebi msoflios sasaqonlo bazarze monawileoben samTamadno da gadamamuSavebeli mrewvelobis produqciiT. es ki mowmobs imas, rom postsabWoTa qveynebis ekonomikaSi bevri ram aris Sesacvleli. upirates amosaval wertilad aRniSnul viTarebaSi miiCnevian transnacionaluri kompaniebi, romelTa mniSvneloba saerTaSoriso doneze dRiTi-dRe matulobs.

globalur ekonomikaSi saqarTvelos integrirebis zrdis mniSvnelovani faqtori unda iyos ara marto sagareo vaWrobis brunvis zrda, aramed msoflios udidesi korporaciebis saqarTveloTi daintereseba da maT mier investiciebis ganxorcieleba.

miuxedavaT imisa, rom saqarTvelos bazriT msoflioSi cnobili kompaniebis daintereseba sul ufro izrdeba, srulyofili monacemebi saqarTveloSi warmodgenili tnk- is filialebisa da Svilobili kompaniebis Sesaxeb ar arsebobs.

” UNCTAD -is 2005 wlis monacemebiT saqarTveloSi moqmedebda ucxouri tnk-is 190 ganyofileba. saqarTvelos statistikis departamentis 2009 wlis

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monacemebiT saqarTveloSi 500-ze meti ucxouri firma, kompania Tu warmomadgenloba funqcionirebda." 15

saqarTvelos teritoriaze uamravi ucxouri transnacionaluri korporacia operirebs. ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, qveynis teritoriaze moqmedi ucxouri kompaniebi (tnk) TavianTi ekonomikuri simZlavriT bevrad aRemateba saqarTvelos mSp-is, samrewvelo warmoebisa da sagareo vaWrobis moculobis maCveneblebs, XXI saukunis dasawyis periodisaTvis.

yvelaze mZlavri tnk-bi saqmianobas axorcieleben saTbob-energetikul kompleqsSi ( "british petroleum" , "exxon mobil" , "gazpromi", "lukoili" da a.S.) marto baqo-sufsis navTobsadenis mSeneblobaSi monawileobda 12 umsxvilesi tnk, maT Soris didi britaneTis "british petroleum" , "exxon" , "amoko", "lukoili" da sxva. maTi roli da mniSvneloba saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi erTob didia.

saqarTvelos eleqtroenergiis da gazis bazari Tavis saqmianobaSi eyrdnoba saqarTvelos kanons "eleqtroenergiisa da bunebrivi gazis Sesaxeb".

saqarTvelos eleqtroenergiis bazari sakmaod rTuli sistemaa, romelSic TavianTi saqmianobis gansaxorcieleblad gaerTianebulia rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve kerZo kompaniebi. maTi didi nawili ki hidroeleqtro sadgurebia, aseve Tbogeneraciis obieqtebi. saqarTvelos gaaCnia urTierTdamakavSirebeli xazebi rogorc moZme kavkasiis qveynebTan - (somxeTi, azerbaijani), aseve ruseTTan, rac SesaZleblobas qmnis el.energiis rogorc importis, aseve eqsportisaTvisac.

saqarTveloSi 3 sadistribucio kompaniaa: "energo-pro saqarTvelo", "Telasi" da "kaxeTis sadistribucio kompania", maT gankargulebaSia ramodenime mcire sadistribucio kompania. am ukanasknelTa movaleobas ki Seadgens el.energiis ganawileba da momxmareblisTvis miwodeba.

el.energiis licenzia ki 2 kompanias gaaCnia : saqarTvelos saxelmwifo eleqtro sistemas da "saqresenergos".

ukanasknel periodSi saqarTveloSi swrafad viTardeba gazis bazari, iqmneba axali satranzito / saimporto marSrutebi da bazarze gamodian axali momwodeblebi. saqarTvelo iZens energoresursebis satranzito qveynis funqcias da axorcielebs regionaluri integraciis politikas. saqarTvelo aqtiur monawileobas Rebulobs baqo- Tbilisi-erzrumis saeqsporto gazsadenis ganviTarebaSi, romelic 2006 wlidan

15. world investment report. transnational corporations and the extractive industries and development, united nations.

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funqcionirebs. aRniSnuli ki kaspiis zRvis energoresursebis saerTaSoriso bazarze eqsportirebas uwyobs xels. mimdinareobs saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis damakavSirebeli gazsadenis rekonstruqcia, romelic 2009 w. daiwyo.

dReisaTvis saqarTveloSi bunebrivi airis importireba xdeba ruseTidan da azerbaijanidan.

ruseTidan momwodebelia "gazprom"-i, azerbaijanidan navTobis 2 saxelmwifo kompania "socar" da samxreT kavkasiis gazsadenebis konsorciumis komerciuli operatori kompania "statoil"-i.

saqarTveloSi moqmedebs 4 msxvili gazgamanawilebeli iseTi kompaniebi, rogoricaa: "yaztransgazi", "itera", "enerji investi", saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energetikuli kompania - "GIEC" , 2 uSualo momxmarebeli - ("gardabnis Tboeleqtrosadguri" da "mtkvari energetika". ramdenime mcire gamanawilebeli kompania da daaxloebiT 30 avtomobilebis kompresirebuli gaziT gasamarTi sadguri.

saqarTvelos navTobisa da gazis korporacias 2007 wels kontraqti hqonda gaformebuli ucxoel mimwodeblebTan. rusuli energokompaniebidan saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT yuradRebas iqcevs "gazprom"-isa da korporacia "itera"-s mWidro TanamSromloba. "itera" "gazprom"-is, TurqmeneTis mTavrobis mier dainiSna Turqmenuli bunebrivi gazis ZiriTad operatorad ukrainaSi, somxeTsa da saqarTveloSi.

"gazis mimwodeblad "itera" saqarTveloSi 1995 wlidan gamoCnda. 1998 wels ki man pirvelad scada adgilobriv energokompaniaze kontrolis daweseba, rodesac "saqgazs" "itera"-s Svilobili, yofili s/s "intergazi" sainvesticio konkursis gziT unda SeeZina "Tbilgazis" aqciaTa paketis 76%, Tumca nakisri valdebulebebis Seusruleblobis gamo saxelmwifo qonebis marTvis saministros mier Catarebuli konkursis Sedegebi gauqmda"16

s/s intergazis damfuZnebeli iyo Sps "interpaki", romelic warmoadgens ofSorul "channel international ltd"-is mier dafuZnebul kompanias. TviT "channel" -is damfuZnebelia aseve oSforul zonaSi registrirebuli kompania

"alsotransinternational ltd" mis ukan ki dgas jgufi "itera", romelic saqarTveloSi ruseTis geopolitikuri interesebis gamomxatvelia, "gazprom"-ma moaxdina "faruli privatizirebis" gziT aqtivebis "itera"-ze gadacema da miRebuli

16. g. Turqia - transnacionaluri kompaniebis gv.64

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Semosavlebis nawilis saqarTvelos gazgamanawilebel qselSi "gaTeTreba" - saaqcio sazogadoebebis "rusTavgazis", "bolnisgazis", "quTaisgazis", "gorgazis", "kaspigazis", "TeTriwyaros gazis" dayadaReba da privatizireba sasamarTlo auqcionebis gziT." 17 iseTi rusuli energo giganti, rogoric "gazprom"-ia dsT-s sivrceSi gazis gamanawilebeli kompaniebis gakontroleba avalia.

saqarTveloSi gazs ramdenime gare momwodeblisgan saqarTvelos navTobisa da gazis korporacia yidulobs. gazis transportirebas ki axorcielebs saq.navTobisa da gazis korporaciis mier dafuZnebuli gazis transportirebis kompania.

saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovani ucxouri investiciebi ganxorcielda momsaxurebis sferoSi. saqarTveloSi Semovidnen iseTi saerTaSoriso kompaniebi, rogoricaa: "redisony", "mariott", "sheraton", silk poud group" gaixsna safirmo maRaziebi "mcdonalds" da tnk-ebis momsaxurebis centrebi:

"sony", "nokia", "hiundai", "toyota", "nissan" da a.S.

saqarTveloSi dafuZndnen germaniis, TurqeTis, didi britaneTis, safrangeTis, israelis safinanso - sabanko organizaciebi.

saqarTvelos telekomunikaciis provaiderma "kavkasus onlainma" da aSS tnk "tyco telecommunications"-ma xeli moaweres kontraqti zRvis fskerze 1100km-iani optikur-boWkovani sistemis mSeneblobaze, romelmac saqarTveloSi Savi zRvis, kerZod foTis navsadguri bulgareTis q. varnasTan daakavSira. es sistema xelsayrelia, rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve dasavleT evropisaTvis, zRvisqveSa optikur- boWkovani kabeli orive mxares akavSirebs ukve mimdinare wlidan. am magistralis eqspluataciaSi Sesvlam mTel kavkasiis regionSi saqarTvelos statusi gazarda, rogorc evropisa da kaspiis regionis makavSirebelma.

tnk "willbrook management international"-i udgas saTaveSi axal proeqts saqarTveloSi, romlis saerTo Rirebuleba 100 mln dolaria da arqiteqturisa da mSeneblobis menejmentSi msoflio wamyvani kompania "bovis lend lease" erToblivad aSeneben TbilisSi, Tavisuflebis moedanze komerciul, gasarTob da saqmian centrs "willbrook platinum tbilisi plaza", romlis saerTo farTobi 85 000 kvadratuli metria.

ama wlis aprilSi saqarTvelos stumrobda amerikeli miliarderi donald trampi. misi mizani iyo qveyanaSi mniSvnelovani proeqtebis ganxorcieleba trampis

17. g. Turqia - gv.66

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organizaciisa da mis partniori "silqroud jgufis" mier Tanamedrove trump tower-is baTumSi mSeneblobis prezentaciis gaxsna da monawileobis miReba proeqtSi, romelic 47 sarTulian SenobaSi 80-dan 700 kvad.metris farTobis binebi ganTavsdeba Savi zRvis sanapiroze xedebiT baTumSi asaSeneblad dagegmil sastumroSi, xolo TbilisSi saqanelas quCaze, sacxovrebeli kompleqsi mTeli infrastruqturiT - komerciuli farTebiTa da samorineebiT.

pirvel etapze mSeneblobaSi 250 milioni amerikuli dolari Caido da organizaciis xelmZRvaneloba investiciis sakmaod gazrdas gegmavs samomavlod18

"luk oil" da "rompetroli" saqarTveloSi.

1991 wlis bolos min.sabWom miiRo gadawyvetileba kompania "lukoilis" Seqmnis Sesaxeb. kompania male ruseTis federaciis sakuTreba gaxda, 1993 w. ki misi saaqcio sazogadoebad gardaqmnis gadawyvetileba miiRes.

dReisTvis "lukoili" erT-erTi yvelaze msxvili rusul-amerikuli navTobisa da gazis tnk-aa, romelic kerZo kompaniebs Soris msoflioSi meore adgilzea. navTobproduqtebis warmoebis mixedviT ki meeqvse adgils ikavebs, kompaniis istoriaSi mniSvnelovani movlena iyo kompania konoko filipsTan partniorobis dawyeba. aRniSnulma ki xeli Seuwyo lukoilis saerTaSoriso saqmianobis gafarToebas. dRes lukoili msoflios 30-ze met qveyanaSia warmodgenili. maT Soris 2200 avtogasamarTi sadguri aSS-ia ganlagebuli, 30 qveyanaSi 10 000-ze meti avtogasamarTi sadguriT aris warmodgenili. kompaniis savaWro brunva 2007w. 46 590 mln aSS dolars Seadgenda, mogeba ki 6 382 mln aSS dolars.

daarsebidan kompania mudmivad izrdeba da Zlierdeba. amaSi kompanias xels uwyobs navTobisa mopoveba da axali sabadoebis moZieba, iqmneba axali avtogasamarTi sadgurebis qseli, mwyobrSi dgeba gadamamuSavebeli qarxnebi da iqmneba maTi axali qseli, romelic moicavs rogorc ruseTis teritorias, aseve aR.evropas, amerikis, aziis da das.evropis qveynebs.

saqarTveloSi lukoili ukve 10 welze metia saqmianobs. kompania adgilobriv bazarze umaRlesi xarisxis sawvavs konkurentunarian fasad sTavazobs da Zalisxmevas ar iSurebs imisTvis, momxmarebelTa moTxovnebi maqsimalurad daakmayofilos. jer kidev 2002 wels lukoili - saqarTveloSi 5 avtogasamarT sadguriT iyo warmodgenili da navTobproduqtebis realizacia ZiriTadad sabiTumo bazarze xdeboda. swored momxmareblisaTvis meti komfortis Seqmnis mizniT "lukoil georgias" avtogasamarTi

18. www.forbes.com

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sadgurebis qseli mudmivad farTovdeba da dReisTvis yvelaze didia saqarTveloSi, avtogasamarTi sadgurebis didi nawili qarTuli kompaniebis sakuTrebaSia, romlebic "lukoilis" savaWro niSniT Sesabamisi xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli standartebiTa da pirobebis dacviT moqmedeben.

saqarTveloSi igi navTobis importiorTa Soris avtogasamarTi sadgurebis yvelaze farTo qselia, kerZod ki 58 avtogasamarTi sadguris mflobelia. misma pirdapirma investiciebma saqarTveloSi daaxloebiT 15 mln aSS dolari Seadgina 2002- 2005 wlebSi.

kompaniis saqmianobis specifika aseve gulisxmobs sakuTari WaburRilebidan miRebuli navTobis sakuTar navTobgadamamuSavebel qarxanaSi gadamuSavebas da missave qselSi realizacias. evropaSi arsebuli "lukoilis" qarxnebi, romlebidanac saqarTvelos "lukoilis" sawvavi miewodeba, evrogaerTianebaSia Sesuli, rac TavisTavad niSnavs, rom isini evropul standartebs Seesabamebian.

garda imisa, rom "lukoils" aqvs yvelaze farTo qseli, sawvavi ki xelmisawvdomi saqarTvelos mosaxleobisaTvis, saqmianobis ZiriTadi mizania maRalxarisxiani produqciis miwodeba momxmareblebisaTvis. arsebobs samuSao jgufebi, romlebic axorcieleben xarisxisa da momsaxurebebis sistematur monitorings da kontrols. "lukoils" maRalxarisxiani sawvavis mimwodeblis da saimedo biznes partnioris imiji aqvs.

2006-2007 ww. "lukoi georgias" qseli 1000-ze meti adamiania dasaqmebuli. aq igulisxmeba, rogorc kompaniis uSualo daqvemdebarebaSi myofi personali, ise "lukoilis" savaWro niSniT moqmedi kompaniis TanamSromlebi. msoflioSi ki misi ricxvi daaxloebiT 130 000 adamians moicavs. es weli aseve gamoirCeva grZelvadiani proeqtebis dagegmva-ganxorcielebiT. amave wels (2006w) daiwyo "tb" bankTan erTad erToblivi proeqtis ganxorcieleba da TanamSromlobis farglebSi moxda agreTve erToblivi viza-plastikuri baraTebis gamoSveba.

"lukoilis" Rirebulebebi qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis kargad aris cnobili. kompania dRes Tanamedrove teqnologiebisadmi swrafviT, xarisxis mudmivi gaumjobesebiT, garemos dacvisa da socialuri saqvelmoqmedo proeqtebis ganxorcielebiT gamoirCeva. "lukoili" axorcielebs ucxour da socialur investiciebs, riTac xels uwyobs qveynis ganviTarebas da winsvlas.

"rompetroli" transnacionaluri navTob kompaniaa, misi mTavari ofisi amsterdamSi mdebareobs da amJamad 13 qveyanaSi aqvs warmomadgenloba.

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ZiriTadad warmodgenilia safrangeTSi, rumineTSi, espaneTSi da samxreT- aRmosavleT evropaSi. igi samxreT-aRmosavleT evropasa da Savi zRvis regionSi erT- erT mniSvnelovan organizaciad iqca. igi iswrafvis evropis umsxviles navtobkompaniebis aTeulSi Sesvlas, 2007w. "rompetrol jgufis" aqciebis 75% kompania "yazunaigazma" SeiZina.

"rompetrol jgufis" wevria "rompetrol saqarTvelo" , romelic 2005 w. dafuZnda da amJamad misi 95% "rompetrol jgufs" ekuTvnis, xolo 5%-s adgilobrivi damfuZneblebi floben.

"rompetrol saqarTvelos" mizania qarTuli bazars stabilurad miawodos evropuli standartebis maRali xarisxis sawvavi. kompaniis mTavari mizania momxmareblis loialurobisa da kmayofilebis zrdaze zrunvaa.

"rompetrol saqarTvelo" qarTul bazarze evropuli standartebis sawvavis erT- erTi mTavari mimwodebelia, rogorc sabiTumo, aseve sacalo gayidvebis qselis meSveobiT. yvela produqti rumineTSi, Savi zRvis sanapiroze mdebare "rompetrolis" navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnidan, "petromedidan" Semodis, qarxnis teqnologiur ganaxlebaSi Cadebuli msxvili investiciebis Sedegad, igi uaxlesi evropuli standartebis Sesabamisad aris aRWurvili, rogorc xarisxis, aseve garemos dacvis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad, kompania konkurentul fasad sTavazobs momxmarebels sawvavs, romelic pasuxobs, rogorc xarisxis, aseve garemos dacvis TvalsazrisiT arsebul moTxovnebs.

"rompetrol saqarTvelo" qveyanaSi 34 avtogasamarT sadgurisgan Semdgar, sididiT me-3 qsels flobs, amaTgan 12 avtogasamarTi sadguri TbilisSia ganlagebuli, xolo danarCeni 22 ki regionebSi, dasaqmebulia daaxloebiT 1000-mde adamiani.

"rompetrol saqarTvelo" evro regularis (ron92) xarisxis benzinis umsxvilesi importioria saqarTveloSi. sabiTumo gayidvebi Tbilissa da baTumSi xorcieldeba ori navTobbazis meSveobiT. maT strategiuli mdebareobis gamo, SesaZlebelia geografiulad mTeli qveynis dafarva. xsenebuli navTobbazebidan xdeba sawvavis miwodeba regionalur doneze, rogorc "rompetrol saqarTvelos" sacalo qselis, aseve kompaniis sabiTumo momxmareblisTvis.

"rompetrol saqarTvelos" strategiuli mizani qarTul bazarze poziciis ganmtkicebaa. daarsebidan 2 wlis Semdeg 2007w. tnk bazris wilis 12%-s flobda, 2009w. ki 20%-is mflobeli gaxda. 2009w. kompaniam miaRwia qselis gafarToebas 45

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avtogasamarTi sadguriT. aseve mas gaaCnia momxmareblis interesebze gaTvlili gansxvavebuli programebis SemuSaveba.

2009 wels korporaciam "fill&go" biznes konferencia danerga. igi mdgomareobs SemdegSi - igi aris avtoparkis marTvis umsxvilesi sistema, romeliv avtoparkis mmarTvelobis yvela problemis mogvarebis saSualebas iZleva. "fill&go" gvTavazobs umaRlesi xarisxis sawvavs "rompetrolisgan", biznes kredits da srul kontrols avtoparkis mier sawvavis moxmarebaze.

"rompetrol saqarTvelo" korporatiul klientebs sTavazobs agreTve "fill&go"-s Sida bazas, rac gulisxmobs sawvavis mowodebis efeqtur da mosaxerxebel sistemas, romelic ganTavsebulia pirdapir klientis teritoriaze, am produqtiT sargebloba mosaxerxebelia samSeneblo moednebze an sxva rTulad misadgom adgilebSi, sadac mZime teqnikas uwevs muSaoba.

kompania "rompetrol saqarTvelos" rogorc "rompetrol jgufis" nebismieri sxva wevris saqmianoba emyareba produqciis xarisxis garantias, gamarTul distribucias, efeqtur momsaxureobasa da profesionalTa jgufs.

2004 wlidan saqarTveloSi funqcionirebs araerTi saerTaSoriso kompania. didi britaneTis kompaniebma SeiZines sabadoebi da rusTavis metalurgiuli kombinati. "qarTuli foladis" 100%-is mflobelia inglisuri kompania "thems steel"-i, romelic aseve flobs kompania "enerjy industry complex"-is 99%-s.

Cexurma kompaniebma, kerZod "energo pro"-m investiciebis ganxorcielebis Sedegad SeiZina saqarTvelos ori sadistribucio energokompania da 6 hidroeleqtro sadguri 132 aSS mln dolarad. kompania qveynis eleqtro bazris 62,5%-s akontrolebs.

"energo pro" Sesyidvis Semdeg akontrolebs gaerTianebuli sadistribucio kompaniasa da aWaris sadistribucio energokompaniebs, 6 iseT hesTan erTad, rogoricaa: gumaThesi, Saorhesi, rionhesi, awhesi, Zevrulhesi, lajanurhesi. Cexuri kompania moizidavs aseul milionobiT investiciebs energokompaniebisa da maTi qselebis modernizaciisaTvis. 19

2008 wlis dasawyisidan daniuri "grinouq grupi" da misi partniorebi "baTumis navTobis terminalisa" da baTumis "sazRvao navsadguris" miyidviT yazaxeTis saxelmwifo kompania "yazmunaigazi"-sTvis miyidviT daafiqsires mesakuTre.

19. http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php? id=14736

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"yazmunaigazi" 100%-iT saxelmwifo sakuTrebaa da misi Svilobili kompania "yaztransoili" "yaztransgazis" Tbilisis gazgamanawilebeli kompaniis mflobelia. 20

yazaxuri investiciebi ganxorcielda satelekomunikacio proeqtebSi. gaerTianebuli telekomi yazaxeTis umsxvilesma bankma "turanalemma" SeiZina. telekomis mflobelia qarTul-yazaxuri konsorciumi "black sea telecom holdings bv". mogvianebiT aqciaTa 40,65% holdingur "central asia logistrics bv"-m SeiZina. "turanalemma" aseve SeiZina navTobsatransporto da navTobsavaWro kompania "silk rode group"-is aqciaTa 49%.

arabuli investiciebi warmatebiT ganxorcielda uZravi qonebis msxvil proeqtebSi. uZravi qonebis developeruli kompania "rakeeis" Svilobili kompania "rak georgia holdongi" 2006 wlidan figurirebs qarTul bazarze. mTawmindis parki 49 wliani ijariT Tbilisis meriis mier arabebs gadaecaT. isini floben aseve sastumro "Seraton metexi palasis" (amerikuli "Seratonis" mmarTvelobiT). arabebma SeiZines aseve teleradiokompania "imedis" 90%.21

qarTul bazarze induri investiciebi warmatebiT xorcieldeba energetikis, cementis da kirqvis mopovebiT mrewvelobaSi. indouri kompaniebi "ensea rch

petroleum ltd" da "sspl oil natural gas ltd" moqmedeben da saqmianoben energetikis sferoSi. rac Seexeba indur kompanias "pioneer cement industries", man marneulis raionSi SeiZina babakiaris cementis kirqvis sabados licenzia 3,3 mln dolarad, xolo marneulis cementis sawarmo aaSena. "pioneer cement industries", sakontrolo paketis mflobelia arabuli "rak inveestmenti", 49%-s ki induri "pena cement indastri" flobs.

qveyanaSi xorcieldeba warmatebiT britanuli da Sveicaruli proeqtebi. amis magaliTia kompania "city capital management llc", romlis moqmedebis ariali centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis qveynebi, aseve rigi dsT-s qveynebia.

germanulma kompaniam "eidelbergcementma" SeiZina "qarTuli cementisa" da "saqcementis" sakontrolo paketebi. oqros mompovebeli kompania "kvarcits" flobs avstriuli kompania "bolnisi mining operations"-i.

20. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.156

21. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.157

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saqarTveloSi oficialuri warmomadgenlobebi aqvT tnk-s, rogoricaa "microsoft"-i da franguli kompania "alcatel microsoft"-i. saqarTveloSi warmomadgenloba aqvs kompania "sumsung"-s.

telesakomunikacio lideri holdinguri transnacionaluri kompania "vtel holdingis ltd"-s Svilobili kompania "vtel georgia"-a.

saqarTveloSi fexi moikida msoflios sastumroebis umsxvilesma transnacionalurma kompaniebma: "redisson", "kempindki", "four

season", "internacional", "agora", "hyatt".

rac Seexeba sabanko seqtors, saqarTveloSi sazRvargareTis umsxvilesi sabanko kompaniebma moikides fexi. 2007 wlisaTvis 18 komerciuli bankidan ucxouri kapitali warmodgenili iyo 12 bankSi. 22 2011 wlisTvis ki 30 komerciuli bankidan 27 bankSi. 23

saqarTvelos komerciuli bankebis sawesdebo kapitalSi investiciebi da sakredito xazebi gansxvavebuli aqvT evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banks, saerTaSoriso safinanso korporacias, germaniis investirebisa da ganviTarebis kompanias, Savi zRvis vaWrobisa da ganviTarebis banks, ss "prokredit holdings", avstriul banks "avstria kredit anStals", britanul "london internacional bank"-s , frangul "sosiete general"-s bank respublikas aqciaTa 60%-is mesakuTres.

azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso bankma Svilobili banki " azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso banki - saqarTvelo" daafuZna, ukrainulma "privat bankma" - 2, "taobankis" aqciebis 75% SeiZina, xolo 25% Sceicariuli firma "2urifin ag"-s ekuTvnis. "bta silk roud" bankSi investiciebi ganaxorciela yazaxurma "turanalemma".

saqarTveloSi 2008 wels Semovida msoflios erT-erTi udidesi sabanko- safinanso organizacia, "Hsbc", romlis saTao ofisi imyofeba londonSi. "Hsbc"-is saerTaSoriso qseli Sedgeba 9,600 ofisisagan masoflios 86 qveyanaSi evropis, aziis, amerikis da afrikis kontinentebze. am holdingis aqciebi registrirebulia hong-kongis, niu-orkis, parizisa da bermudis safinanso birJebze. daaxloebiT 300 000 aqcioneri gadanawilebulia msoflios 200 qveyanaSi. "Hsbc" banki saqarTveloSi warmoadgens SC jgufis (70%) da sxva ucxouri kapitaliT (30%) Seqmnil, saqarTveloSi licenzirebul saaqcio sazogadoebas.

22. www.newgeorgia.ge/economy/20070703/4200897.html

23. www.newgeorgia.ge/economy/201190905/35003527.html

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ss "xalik banki saqarTvelo" warmoadgens ss "xalik bankis" Svilobil banks, romelic aris yazaxeTis safinanso bazris erT-erT lideri. mis mier dafuZnebulia mravali Svilobili kompania, romelTa Sorisac arian Svilobili bankebi ruseTSi, yirgizeTSi, saqarTveloSi, sadazRvevo da salizingo kompaniebi yazaxeTSi. 2006w. bankis aqciebi warmatebulad ganTavsda londonis safondo birJaze.

bazis banki iyo pirveli partniori banki specialuri programis "georgian financial system framework" (gfsf) farglebSi, romelic evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis bankma saqarTvelos finansuri seqtorisTvis SeimuSava. 2008w. gaformebuli xelSekrulebiT ki evropis rekonstruqciis da ganviTarebis banki bazisbankis aqcioneri gaxda.

ss "saxalxo banki"-s mflobeli gaxda "liberTi kapitali".

2008 wlis 26 ivniss ganxorcielda "standart bankisa" da "korbankis" Serwyma, bankma Seicvala saxeli da daerqva "kor standart banki". 2008w. "standart bankis" aqciebi SeiZina "kor bankma", romlis damfuZnebelia arabuli sainvesticio kompania "dabi jgufi".

1996w dafuZnda ss komerciuli banki "rosiiski krediti-qarTu", 1997w. ss kb "rosiiski krediti - qarTu"-m sabanko licenzia miiRo.

1991w. daarsda banki "respublika", romelic korporaciuli, sacalo da sxva safinanso momsaxurebebis mxriv mzardi da wamyvani bankia. igi Tavis klientebs 50 filialis da serviscentris meSveobiT emsaxureba. aqtivebis moculobiT banki "respublika" saqarTvelos sabanko sistemaSi rigiT me-5 umsxviles bankad moiazreba. banki amJamad akontrolebs sakredito baraTebis bazris 30%-s.

evro zonis erT-erTi umsxvilesi jgufia safinanso momsaxurebebis mxriv "sosiete Jenerali". igi Sedis socialur pasuxismgeblobaze orientirebuli biznes kompaniebis pirvel xuTeulSi.

ss"investbanki"-s damfuZneblebis "seton enterpraises ltd" (inglisi)

-25%, "comet investments llc" (aSS)-25%, "calban sart" (Sveicaria)-

25%, Sps "pragmatika" (saqarTvelo)-25% meSveobiT Seiqmna. 2005 wlidan misi umsxvilesi aqcioneri gaxada britanuli banki "london international bank"ltd,

romelmac Seisyida "pragmatika"-s kuTvnili aqciebi da ganaxorciela damatebiTi

20

Senatani sawesdebo kapitalSi. 2006w. ki bankis aqcioneri gaxda "allied partners

investments limited. 24

ss "prokredit banki" saqarTveloSi funqcionirebs 1999 wlidan em-bi-ji-s saxeliT. misi funqciaa finansuri momsaxureba gauwios mikro da mcire sawarmoebs. aqcionerebis gadawyvetilebiT sabanko jgufSi gaerTianda aRmosavleT evropis 10 sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mdebare bankebi.

1994w. 3 saxelmwifo komerciuli bankis Serwymis Sedegad Seiqmna ss "viTibi bank jorjia". igi 2005 wlidan gvevlineba saerTaSoriso finansuri jgufis "viTibis" wevrad. ss "viTibi bank jorjias" umsxvilesi aqcionerebia: viTibi jgufi da evropis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis banki.

viTibi jgufi rusuli warmoSobis saerTaSoriso finansuri jgufia, romelic 3 kontinentze (evropa, azia, afrika), da 18 qveyanaSi operirebs.

saqarTveloSi saqmianoben navTobis seqtorSi dakavebuli iseTi ucxouri kompaniebi, rogoricaa: "kanargo enerji korporeiSeni"- navTobisa da gazis mompovebeli amerikuli kompania, romelic daregistrirebulia niu-orkSi, saqarTvelosa da yazaxeTSi. kanargo jorjia saqarTveloSi 1996 wlidan moRvaweobs.

3 biznes segmentiT moiazreba "britiS petroliumi" Tavisi saqmianobiT 200-ze met qveyanaSi. misi saqmianobis sferoebia: saZiebo da mopovebiTi saqmianoba, gadamuSaveba da realizacia, energia da energiis ganaxlebadi wyaroebi da gazi.

saqarTveloSi "bp" axorcielebs sam did proeqts navTobisa da gzis sferoSi. esenia: dasavleTis marSrutis saeqsporto milsadenis (wrep), Tbilisi-baqo-jeihanis milsadeni (btc) da samxreT kavkasiuri milsadeni (scp). dasavleTis marSrutiT

(wrep), meSveobiT xorcieldeba kaspiis zRvis teritoriaze mdebare Ciragis sabadodan mopovebuli navTobis dasavleT saqarTveloSi (azerbaikanSi mdebare sangaCalis terminalis gavliT), sufsis terminalamde transportireba. baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis milsadenis (btc) mSenebloba 2005w. dasrulda. igi msoflioSi erT-erTi yvelaze grZeli milsadenia, romlis mSeneblobis mTlianma xarjma 4 mlrd. aSS dolars miaRwia. aRniSnuli marSruti ufro momgebiania da arsebul infrastruqturasa da aRWurvilobasTan SedarebiT navTobis did manZilze ufro usafrTxo transportirebis saSualebas iZleva. misi meSveobiT xorcieldeba yoveldRiurad 1 mln-mde bareli navTobis gadaqaCva. samxreT kavkasiuri milsadeni (scp), baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis

24. www.investbank.ge/default.aspx

21

milsadenis (btc) paralelurad gadis. misi saSualebiT kaspiis zRvaSi mdebare Sah- denizis sabadoze mopovebuli bunebrivi gazi saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis da TurqeTis momxmarebels miewodeba.

navTobis da gzis Zebna-Zieba, mopoveba da eqsplatacia Seadgens kompania "fronteras" saqmianobas, romlis saTao ofisi aSS-Si mdebareobs. saqarTveloSi igi 1997 wlidan saqmianobs (dedofliswyaro). mas dReisTvis mopovebuli aqvs 42 aTasi tona navTobi. kompania "fronteras" eqskluziuri ufleba aqvs moiZios da moipovos navTobis nedleuli aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi - 5,500 kv.m. farTobze. mas saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebuli aqvs 74 mln aSS dolaris investicia.

saqarTveloSi saqmianobs bavSvTa kvebis produqtebis mwarmoebeli germanuli kompania "hipis" Svilobili kompania "hipi jorjia". igi amierkavkasiis maStabiT xilis gadamamuSavebeli qarxnis mepatronea gorSi.

ucxouri kompania "kapital limitedi" ramdenime qarTuli kompaniis damfuZnebelTa siaSi figurirebs. mag: "kapital vostok limitedi", samSeneblo kompania "evordis" damfuZnebeli, xolo "monte kristo kapital limitedi", bank "TeTris" aqcioneria.

"andarko" msoflioSi erT-erTi umsxvilesi navTobisa da gazis kompaniaa, igi 1959w. daarsda "anadarko basin"-Si bunebrivi gazis didi maragis aRmoCenis Semdeg. mas Tavisi warmomadgenlebi hyavs msoflios ramdenime qveyanaSi, romelTagan yvelaze mniSvnelovania aSS-s, kanadisa da alJiris warmomadgenloba.

kompania "anadarko jorjiam" saxelmwifosTan produqciis nawilobriv ganawilebaze xelSekruleba 2000 wlis ivnisSi gaaforma da Savi zRvis qarTuli teritoriuli wylebis sam Selfur blokSi (II-a, II-b, da III) navTobisa da gazis operaciebis warmoebis ufleba miiRo. xelSekrulebis gaformebis Semdeg, kompania seismologiuri kvlevebiTaa dakavebuli.

ucxour kompaniaTagan aRniSvnis Rirsia "kapital limitedi", romelmac saqarTveloSi ramdenime qarTuli kompania daafuZna: 1. "evordi" - damfuZnebeli "kapital vostok limitedi", 2. banki "TeTri" - damfuZnebeli "monte kristo kapital limitedi".

egvipturi kompania "fresh elektric company" axorcielebs investiciebs saqarTveloSi. igi figurirebs sayofacxovrebo eleqtronikis sferoSi. misi investicia saqarTveloSi 1 mlrd 200 mln aSS dolars Seadgens. quTaisSi kompania

22

"freSis" mier Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis statusiT 12 axali qarxana amoqmedda, maT Sorisaa ramdenime mravalprofiliani qarxana, romelic sayofacxovrebo nivTebs, avejs, teqnikas, keramikul nawarms da sxva saxis produqcias awarmoebs.

Sps "evrazia holdingi" figurirebs ss "WiaTurmanganumis" da ss "varcixehesis kaskadia" aqtivebis mesakuTred. Seiqmna axali kompania "newco", romlis damfuZneblebi arian "evrazia holdingi" da zestafonis feroSenadnobTa qarxanis aqcionerebi: aRniSnuli kompania feros aqciebis 70,8%-is da aqtivebis mflobelia.

amerikuli kompania "ei-i-es korporaciam" 1998 wels "Tbilisis eleqtrogamanawilebeli qselis - Telasis" aqciaTa 75% - 25 mln aSS dolarad SeiZina25

"ei-i-esma" damatebiT 200 mln aSS dolaris investicia moaxdina, xolo mogvianebiT "Tbilsresis" rigi el.blokebi (9,10) SeiZina. "ei-i-ess" 25 wliani marTvis uflebiT gadacemuli hqonda "xramhesi-1", "xramhesi-2"-is sadgurebi, romlebic mihyida rusul saxelmwifo gigantur korporacias "rao-eess".

skandidaviur "teliasoneram" jeoselis damatebiTi aqciebisa da aqtivebis Sesyidvis Semdeg paketis 97%-iani mesakuTre gaxda. Svilobili kompaniebis meSveobiT igi aqtiurad moRvaweobs aRmosavleTisa da dsT-s qveynebis zonebSi. man sakmaod didi bazari daipyro "finturis" meSveobiT, romelic "finturTan" erTad akontrolebs "Turqsels", es ukanaskneli ki rogorc dsT-Si, aseve amierkavkasiaSi, erT- erT warmatebul mobilur operatorad iTvleba. TviT "teliasonera" 2000w. Camoyalibda SvedeTisa da fineTis mowinave fiWuri kavSiris operatorebis gaerTianebis Semdeg. mas gaaCnia aqtivebi TurqeTSi, tajikeTSi, yazaxeTsa da azerbaijanSi, aseve moldovaSi.

calke aRniSvnis Rirsia saqarTveloSi moRvawe rusuli kompaniebi. "erT-erTi rusuli internet wyaros cnobiT, am qveynis investiciebma saqarTveloSi 800 mln aSS dolars gadaaWarba didi xania da mxolod saqarTveloSi 450 kompania funqcionirebs rusuli kapitalis monawileobiT." 26

aRniSnul kompaniaTa saqmianobis sfero mravalfunqviuria: energetika, mompovebeli mrewveloba, mSenebloba, vaWroba, mosaxureobis sfero, uZravi qoneba da a.S.

warmatebiT moRvaweobs saqarTveloSi "lukoilis" Svilobili kompania Sps "lukoil jorjia" 2002 wlidan.

25. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.160

26. www.vg.ru/2012/02/27/investici.html

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rusuli "inter rao" flobs da akontrolebs ramdenime qarTul komunalur sawarmos, maT Soris qveynis yvelaze did eleqtroprovaiders Telass, romelic Tbiliss emsaxureba. kompania saqarTvelos energetikuli bazris daaxloebiT 38%-s akontrolebs.

27

rusuli kompania "promiSlenni investoris" Svilobilma kompaniam "jeo pro miningma" SeiZina "madneuli", luxumis dariSxanis sabado raWaSi, Tbilisis saiuveliro qarxana .

rusuli ivnesticiiT kompania "vinokonma" varkeTilis Rvinis qarxana SeiZina da ganaxorciela masSi 370 000 aSS dolaris investicia. 28

saqarTveloSi rZis produqtebis warmoebiT me-3 kompania "qarTuli produqtebis" aqciebis sruli paketi Seisyida rusulma kompaniam "vim-vil-don produqti pitania"-m.

2007 wlidan funqcionirebs saqarTveloSi umsxvilesi rusuli kompania "vimbelkomi".

rusuli kompania "raoesi" flobs saqarTveloSi engurhess, Jinvalhess, xram-1-s, xram-2-s, xram-3-s, xram-4-is aSenebis nebarTvac "raoess" evaleba xelSekrulebiT. mis mflobelobaSia "xram-5".

rusuli kompania "enerji investi" aris rionhesis mflobeli. rusuli kompania "energo pro" ki flobs - lajanurhess, Saorhess, gumbaT-1-s, gumbaT-2-s, aWaris wyals, rusuli kompania "inter raos" ekuTvnis - "varcixe-1,-2,-3,-4"- energo erTeulebi. rusul kompania "gazpromia" aseve yaztransgazis mflobeli. "gazpromis" Svilobili kompaniaa gazgamanawilebeli kompania "itera", aseve rusuli kompania "gazpromis" Svilobili kompaniaa Sav-zRvaSi navTobisa da gazis mompovebeli firma "aleqsi". rusul kompania "interraos" ekuTvnis gardabnis me-9 da me-10 energo blokebi, maRali Zabvis gadamcemi 500 km. xazebi, "promiSel-investis" sakuTrebaSia bolnisis "madneuli", "kvarciti", rusTavis qarxana "azoti", zestafonis "fero", Tbilisis wyali - rusuli kompania "jorjian voTer pauers", saborne gadazidvebi foTidan da baTumidan "ruseTis rkinigzis" mflobelobaSia, qarTul bazarze warmatebiT moRvaweobs rusuli kompania "bilaini". gaerTianebuli qarTuli banki - rusul kompania "viTibis" mflobelobaSia. samedicino sferoSi Tbilisis #1 (aramiancis) saavadmyofo rusuli

27. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv.166

28. www.gogs.ge/index.php

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kompania "batusi"-is mflobelobaSia, Tbilisis elmavalTmSenebeli qarxana - ekuTvnis rusul kompania "dema kompiuters".

saqarTveloSi moqmedi "bleq si telekomi", romelic ukabelo interneti qsels agebs rusuli kompania "centr invest kapital partners" ekuTvnis.

kompania "schico international kg" qmnis da mTel msoflioSi popularobiT sargeblobs aluminis, metalo-plastmasis, foladis kompleqsur sistemebs, agreTve mzis batareebs, zamTris baRis sistemebs da sxva. 29

metad farTo da mniSvnelovania tnk-is saqmianoba saqarTveloSi. ekonomikuri aRmavloba, rac pirdapir kavSirSia tnk-is saqmianobasTan da romelic safuZvlad udevs pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi, dRiTidRe izrdeba, rac iwvevs ekonomikur aRmavlobis zrdasTan erTad tnk-is saqmianobis daxvewas da maTTan erovnuli ekonomikis Sesabamisobas.

saqarTveloSi globalizaciis gzaze pirvel nabijad mecnieri l. jamagiZes miaCnia: "saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saSinao bazris gaxsna, ucxouri kapitalis SemosvlisaTvis xelsayreli pirobebis Seqmna, sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebSi, integraciul gaerTianebebSi gawevrianeba da saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi monawileoba." 30

wlevandeli monacemebiT saqarTvelo daaxloebiT 110 saerTaSoriso organizaciis wevria. maT mier gaweuli rogorc finansuri, aseve teqnikuri daxmarebebi gadamwyvet rols asruleben socialur problemebis mogvarebidan moyolebuli, miznobrivi programiT dasrulebuli. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia iseTi didi moculobiT finansuri mxardaWeris ganxorcieleba, rasac msoflio banki axorcielebs saqarTvelos mimarT. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis wili dReisaTvis mSp-Si 9%-s aRwevs - 2008w.igi Seadgenda 6%-s.

saqarTveloSi investorebisaTvis ZiriTadi dabrkolebas Sida ekonomikuri garemo warmoadgens. Tavisuflebis dabali maCvenebeli aqvs qveynas sakuTrebis uflebis da korufciis donis mxriv, romliTac mniSvnelovnad CamorCeba saSualo msoflio maCveneblebs.

saqarTvelo aris vmo-s wevri 2007 wlidan, rac xels uwyobs mis aqtiur monawileobas vaWrobis da ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi.

saqarTveloSi sakmaod mniSvnelovani investiciebi ganxorcielda satransporto infrastruqturis ganviTarebisaTvis. aRniSnuli cvlilebebi Seexo transportis

29. www.schueco.com/web/ge/home/international/branches/europe

30. l. jamagiZe- transnacionaluri kompaniebis arsi da mniSvneloba globalur ekonomikaSi 2010w. gv. 35

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infrastruqturasTan dakavSirebul yvela sferos: saavtomobilo, sarkinigzo, sazRvao, sahaero da milsadenis transports.

dRes saqarTvelos rkinigza kaspiuri navTobis msoflio bazarze gadazidvas axorcielebs. is mniSvnelobani arteriaa, romelic centralur azias evropasTan alternatiuli gziT akavSirebs. ZiriTadi tvirTbrunva modis tranzitze, rac mas gare faqtorebze mniSvnelovnad damokidebuls xdis. amasTan, sarkinigzo mimosvlis ZiriTad nawils navTobproduqtebi Seadgens, rac "trasekas" kavkasiuri monakveTis specifikurobas ganapirobebs.

saqarTvelos navsadgurebi dReisaTvis aRWurvilia yovelgvari Tanamedrove teqnikiT da Seesabameba evropis standartebs. aq funqcionirebs Ria da daxuruli sasawyobo meurneobebi, saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo mimosvlis gzebi, gamanawilebeli qvesadguri da sxva infrastruqturuli nagebobebi. isini gamoirCevian TavianTi geostrategiuli da bunebrivi upiratesobiT. saqarTvelos navsadgurebi warmoadgenen SemaerTebel satransporto xazs, romelic evropas aziasTan da piriqiT aerTebs. navsadgurebi ukavSirdeba kavkasiis, aziis, ruseTis da TurqeTis qveynebs saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo gzebiT.

dReisaTvis saqarTveloze gadis 3 saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis milsadeni, romelTa meSveobiTac nedli navTobi da bunebrivi airi Sua aziidan evropisaken gadaadgildeba. amas garda, saqarTveloze gamavali e.w. CrdiloeT-samxreTis gazis magistraluri milsadenis meSveobiT bunebrivi airi ruseTis federaciidan saqarTvelos da somxeTs miewodeba.

qveynis ekonomikis funqcionireba mkveTrad ganisazRvreba saavtomobilo gzebiT, maTi xarisxis da gamtarianunarianobis koeficientebiT. saavtomobilo transportis prioriteti udavoa. saqarTveloSi transportis dargis xuTive mimarTuleba (sagzao, sarkinigzo, milsadeni, sahaero da sazRvao) sakmaod ganviTarebulia. adgilmdebareobidan gamomdinare saqarTvelo asrulebs satransporto qveynis funqcias.

saqarTvelos aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis damakavSirebeli energetikuli derefnis geostrategiuli mdebareoba dasavleTisaTvis cnobilia. amitomac, es ukanaskneli xSirad saxeldeba farTomaStabiani finansuri investiciebis, teqnologiuri da ekonomikuri daxmarebis da qveynis xelisuflebis politikuri mxardaWeris mTavar mizezebad. saqarTvelos sruli SesaZlebloba aqvs gaxdes dasavleTis da aRmosavleTis damakavSirebeli centraluri subieqti da Tavis wvlili Seitanos evropis energo usafrTxoebis ganmtkicebaSi. es funqcia saqarTvelos moutans damatebiTi

26

Semosavlebis garda usafrTxoebis met garantiebs. amisaTvis ki aucilebelia qveynis geostrategiuli mdebareoba maqsimalurad sargeblianad iqnes gamoyenebuli saqarTvelos energetikuli tranzitis derefnis statusidan igi SesaZloa qveynis ganviTarebis mTavar xerxemladac iqces. 31

III satransporto derefani da transnacionaluri kompaniebi.

mas Semdeg, rac damoukidebloba gamoacxades amierkavkasiis yofilma respublikebma, kavkasiisTvis ibrZvian dasavleT evropis saxelmwifoebi, aSS da TurqeTi, erTi mxriv, da ruseTi - meore mxriv.

safinanso da navTobis konsorciumebi, msxvili kompaniebi cdiloben am regionis yvela qveyanaSi moipovon gavlena - azerbaijanSi, TurqmeneTSi, aseve iransa da ruseTis samxreT respublikebSi - daRestansa da yazaxeTSi. navTobisa da gazis yvelaze mdidari sabadoebia im SelfSi, romelic mdebareobs azerbaijansa da yazaxeTis napirebTan da aseve dasavleT yazaxeTis stepebSi. gazis yvelaze didi maragi ki TurqmeneTSia.

specialistebisaTvis, dReisTvis naTelia, rom kaspiis zRvis auzis navTobis maragebi XXI saukunis yvelaze didi da mniSvnelovania, ara marto regionisaTvis, aramed navTobsadenis mniSvnelobisaTvis. adre kaspiis zRvis SedarebiT advilad dasamuSavebeli sabadoebidan, ZiriTadad baqos raionSi, ruseTi ezideboda navTobs, romlis prioritetic dReisaTvis sakmaod ignorirebulia rigi politikur-ekonomikuri faqtorTa gamo.

ssrk-is daSlis Semdeg ucxoelma investorebma uxvad daabandes saxsrebi axlad warmoqmnil saxelmwifoebSi. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani gaxda qiSpi saxelmwifoebs Soris amierkavkasiaze gavlenis mopovebis gamo, romelic erTgvar WiSkars warmoadgens ara mxolod kaspiis zRvis regionisken, aramed ufro Sors mdebare postsabWour Sua aziis saxelmwifoebisken. amierkavkasaze kontroli SesaZlebels gaxdis gaiWras derefani ruseTsa da irans Soris, aRniSnulis miRwevis

31. “boris giTolendia - saqarTvelos satransporto derefnis ganviTarebis ekonomikuri

problemebi da maTi gadaWris mimarTulebeli - 2011w. Tb. teqnikuri universiteti. (avtoreferati)”

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SemTxvevaSi ki am derefnis gavliT mraval bazrebze gavidoda kaspiis zRvaSi mopovebuli navTobi.

saqarTvelo da azerbaijani dasavleTis finansuri mxardaWeriT aSeneben satransporto derefans kaspiis zRvaze, navTobsadens, saavtomobilo gzebs da Tanamedrove rkinigzas - baqodan saqarTveloSi Savi zRvis port-foTamde da axlad aSenebul navTobterminal - sufsamde, am navTobis TurqeTSi Semdgomi gagzavnis mizniT. regionSi xorcieldeba da rekonstruirebulia jer kidev ssr kavSiris dros arsebuli navTobsadeni baqodan baTumamde. regionSi xorcieldeba aseve evrokavSiris proeqtic - trasekas saxelwodebiT. am proeqtis mizania amierkavkasiaSi da Sua aziaSi arsebuli sarkinigzo da saavtomobilo gzebis rekonstruqcia da urTierT dakavSireba evropasa da azias Soris partniorobis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis.

ruseTis dakarguli gavlena amierkavkasiaze jer kidev 1997w. naTlad gamoCnda, rodesac saqarTvelom, ukrainam, azerbaijanma da moldovam ramdenime satransporto SeTanxmeba gaaformes. ruseTs jer kidev didi potenciali aqvs amierkkavkasiaSi samxedro bazebis da erTguli mokavSire somxeTis saxiT. 70 wlis manZilze metropoli yvelafers akeTebda imisaTvis, rom Tavisi samxreT koloniebi CamoeSorebina tradiciul aziur da axloaRmosavleTeli partniorebisaTvis. man daasamara cnobili abreSumis gza, romelic evropas CineTTan aerTebda da miaRwia imas, rom samxreTiT mdebare ss respublikebs mxolod moskovTan hqondaT kavSiri.

zbignev bJezinski, romelmac Crdilo da samxreT kavkasiasa da Sua azias "evroaziuli balkaneTi" uwoda, Tavis wignSi "udidesi sawadrako dafa" azerbaijanis Sesaxeb werss, rom: "igi Tavisi mdebareobis gamo geopolitikur RerZs warmoadgens. azerbaijani SeiZleba SevadaroT boTlis sacobs, romelic kaspiis zRvisa da Sua aziis udides bunebriv resursebs Seicavs."

jer kidev 1989 wels, anu ssrk-is daSlamde Seecada Sotlandiuri navTobis firmis "ramkos" Sefi amerikeli stepan rempi, romelic jer kidev komunistur baqoSi cdilobda Seeswavla iq kapitalis dabandebis SesaZleblobebi. male mas erT-erTi azerbaijanuli kompania avalebs gamounaxos kompanioni iqauri navTobis sabadoebis eqsplataciisaTvis. es im periods daemTxva, rodesac msoflioSi navTobze moTxovnilebebi izrdeboda, miwodeba ki klebulobda erayis navTobze sanqciebis dawesebis gamo da irans Sewyvetili hqonda saerTaSoriso bazrebze navTobis gatana.

britaneTis da

amerikis udidesma koncernebma

"bp"-ma

da "amoco"-m

uprecendento

brZola wamoiwyes "saukeTeso kontraqtisaTvis"

(ra saxelwodebac

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Semdgom SeiZina am kontraqtma). rempma azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso kompaniis

(aloc) aqciebis 2% moipova, rac mas yovelwliurad 10 mln aSS dolari moutana. miuxedavad imisa, rom "bp"-s britaneTis mTavroba da Tavad margaret tetCeri proteqtorobdnen, kontraqti mainc amerikulma kompania "amoco"-m miiRo da igi Caudga swored saTaveSi "aloc"-s (Tumca arc "bp" darCenila wilis gareSe). 1994 w. seqtemberSi dasavleTis koncernebTan xeli moewera 8 mlrd dolaris Rirebulebis kontraqts.

am periodisaTvis azerbaijanis teritoriaze, rusebis msxvili kompania "lukoili"- c moqmedebda, romelic Selfis eqplataciis mizniT Seqmnili kompaniis aqciebis 10%-s flobda. garkveuli periodi ruseTma SeZlo kidec kontrolis daweseba azerbaijanze.

ssrk-is daSlis Semdeg, dasavleTma yofili sabWoTa respublikebi ruseTis gavlenis sferod gamoacxada. amoqmedebulma saxelmwifo diplomatiam jer ruseTs wauyena ultimatumi - an Seewyvita CeCneTSi avantiura, an daeTmo navTobkoncernebi, riTac igi iZulebuli gaxda CeCneTSi samarcxvino kapitulacia moexdina. male aSS-s interesi navTobsadenis transportirebis sakiTxSi ruseTis gverdis avliTa da saqarTveloze gavliT Semoifargla. am dros britaneTis koncern "bp"-s pozicia ruseTis milsadenis rekonstruqciisken ixreboda, magram "aloc"-is warmomadgenloba mxars uWerda saqarTvelos pozicias da paralelur reJimSi azerbaijanTan awarmoebda molaparakebebs proeqtis perspeqtiulobaze saqarTvelos interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

saqarTvelo Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobiT warmoadgens bunebriv satransporto derefans aziisa da evropis qveynebs Soris, es upiratesoba gamoiyeneba uZvelesi droidan.

jer kidev Cv.w. IV s-Si aristotele gansakuTrebulad aRniSnavda geografiuli determinizmis (upiratesobis) mniSvnelovan rols qveynebis ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi. geopolitika dafuZnebulia Tezisze - "geografiuli reliefi, rogorc bediswera". geopolitika mecnierebaa, romelic Seiswavlis geografiuli faqtoris rols saxelmwifo politikaSi da mis zemoqmedebas qveynebis nacionaluri interesebis formirebaze.

saqarTvelos teritoria arc ise didia (69,7 aTasi kv.km.), magram igi Tavisi geopolitikuri mdebareobiT, reliefiT da bunebrivi resursebis mravalferovnebiT msoflios unikaluri regionia. mas gaaCnia upiratesoba - mag. klimati. xalxebis xasiaTi upirvelesad damokidebulia klimatze. aseve klimatia ganmsazRvreli florisa da faunis mravalferovnebisa da maTi ganviTarebisas. iseve rogorc adamianis cxovrebis wess

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gansazRvravs klimati da misi Taviseburebani saerTod, mTel msoflioSi mxolod qveynebis umniSvnelo raodenobas aqvs imdenad mniSvnelovani klimatur-bunebrivi pirobebi, rogoric aqvs saqarTvelos. saqarTvelos 26 aTasi mdinarisa da 800-mde tbis arseboba, TiTqmis 2 milionamde tyis farTobi saSualebas aZlevs maqsimalurad datvirTos hidroenergetikuli resursebi da ekonomikuri potencialis sruli realizacia moaxdinos. hidroresursebis Teoriuli potenciali aRemateba 100 mlrd kvt.saaaTs, xolo ZiriTd moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebisaTvis saWiroa mxolod 25-30 mlrd kvt.saaTi. praqtikulad gamoiyeneba resursebis mxolod 6-7%. es garemoeba did perspeqtivas saxavs ucxouri kapitalis dabandebisaTvis.

Tu Cven gaviTvaliswinebT im faqts, rom umetesoba maRalganviTarebuli qveynebisa arian sazRvao saxelmwifoebi, TvalsaCinoa, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania qveynis geografiuli mdebareoba. Savi zRvis siaxlove saSualebas iZleva ganviTardes sagareo vaWroba da sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobani. rac ufro meti sazRvari aqvs saxelmwifos xmeleTze, miT ufro Znelia misi sazRvrebis kontroli, rac did xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli. bunebrivi resursebis iafi importi zRvis meSveobiT zrdis ekonomikur mogebas.

ukanasknel periodSi kavkasiuri faqtori sagrZnoblad gaZlierda da kavkasia udidesi saxelmwifoebis, saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa da umsxvilesi kompaniebis aqtiuri yuradRebis centrSi moeqca. es regioni warmoadgens ukiduresad mniSvnelovan strategiul kvanZs, radgan masze dasaxlebuli xalxi flobs udides socialur dinamikas, uZveles geopolitikur tradiciebs. rogorc cnobilia, geopolitikis mizania saxelmwifos geografiuli mdebareobis gaumjobeseba, eqspansiis ganviTareba da geostrategiis SemuSaveba. es regioni ki aris ruseTis geopolitikuri sivrcis erT-erTi susti adgili. swored es teritoriebi iyo ruseTis gafarToebuli samxedro moqmedebebis tradiciuli arena sazRvao zonis qveynebis, TurqeTisa da iranis winaaRmdeg, kavkasiaze kontroli xsnis "Tavisi zRvebisken" gasasvlels da sazRvris yoveli gadanacvleba samxreTisaken (an CrdiloeTisaken) warmoadgens mniSvnelovan faqtors kontinenturi ZalisaTvis. amitom ar aris sakvirveli rom ruseTi cdilobs ipovos gza Tbili zRvebisken.

ruseTis agresiulobis mizezebs da Sedegebs agvistos omTan dakavSirebiT, erT-erTi eqsperti saerTaSoriso sakiTxebSi devid kemeroni aRniSnavda: "konfliqtis Semdeg ruseTma nawilobriv mainc miaRwia sasurvel mizans, igi ocnebobda afxazeTis sanapiroze gasasvlelad, raTa gamoiyenos igi sakuTari flotis bazisaTvis da gazardos misi kontrolis areali am regionSi. Raribi da dausaxlebeli oseTi, sadac arc

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sanapiroa da arc sxva bunebrivi resursebi, magram misi okupaciiT ruseTma miiRo saSualeba gaxsnas samxedro baza im gazsadenTan, romliTac navTobi kaspiis auzidan dasavleTisken miemarTeba".

saqarTvelos geopolitikuri mdgomareobis mniSvneloba gaizarda ssk-is daSlis da damoukideblobis miRebis Semdeg, Tavisi teritoriebis meSveobiT igi moxvda bevri ganviTarebuli qveynis interesis sferoSi, rogorc satransporto derefani.. amis magaliTia "energetikuli derefani", "trasekis proeqti". am ukanasknelis Tanaxmad, "derefani" erTmaneTs daakavSirebs evropis, kavkasiis da aziis qveynebs. praqtikulad saubaria istoriuli "abreSumis gzis" saqarTveloSi ganStoebis modernizirebul variantze. am magistraliT moxdeba iseTi strategiuli mniSvnelobis tvirTebis gadazidva, rogoricaa: navTobi, bamba, mineraluri nedleuli da a.S. "orive derefani" "is gzaa", romelic ormxrivi moZraobis wesebis Sesabamisad, SesaZleblobas aZlevs saqarTvelos ekonomikas msoflio intergraciul sivrceSi procesSenakadis saxiT Sevides. es gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelobis strategiuli resursia. am SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelo zogadsakacobrio saganZurSi Seitans imas, rac mas saamisod gaaCnia, xolo misgan miiRebs imas , rac erovnuli potencialis gaZliereba-ganmtkicebisTvis aris aucilebeli.

aseve erT-erTi mniSvnelovani proeqtia "baqo-Tbilisi-jeihani". es aris pirveli navTobsadeni gaeros qveynebSi, romelic ruseTis SemovliT aSenda, aSS-s da didi britaneTis monawileobiT. amerikelebi faqtibrivad iReben sparseTis yuris alternatiul navTobis wyaros, amasTan afarToeben Tavis zegavlenas am regionSi. am proeqtis meSveobiT saqarTvelo miiRebs "abreSumis gzis" droidan arnaxul geopolitikur mniSvnelobas, moizidavs dasavleTis investorebs da SesZlebs Tavisi mTavari sagareo politikuri miznis realizebas, politikurad da ekonomikurad miuaxlovdes dasavleTs. saqarTvelo Tavisi geografiuli mdebareobiT TamaSobs stabilizaciis rols dasavleTis da ruseTis urTierTobebs Soris. es milsadeni politikuri da ekonomikuri stabilizaciis garantia, anu igi TamaSobs qveynis Tavdacvis faqtoris rols. niSandoblivia iseTi proeqti, rogoricaa "nabuko". "nabukos" proeqtis ideis Casaxva, ruseTsa da evropas Soris arsebulma konfliqturma situaciam gamoiwvia. ruseTi evropis winaaRmdeg iyenebs yvelaze Zlier iaraRs - energoresursebs vinaidan evropis gazmomaragebas mTlianad rusuli energokompania "gazpromi" uzrunvelyofs. igi ruseTis energo bazarze mniSvnelovnadaa damkvidrebuli, ruseTi ki am faqtors evropaze zegavlenis moxdenis politikur instrumentad iyenebs. magaliTad 2006 w. ukrainis gazis krizisi, ramac evropul bazarze gazis miwodebis Sewyveta gamoiwvia da TiTqmis mTeli evropa gazis gareSe darCa. am movlenam gamomafxizlebeli roli iTamaSa evropisaTvis. man

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erTiani energetikuli usafrTxoebis politikis Camoyalibeba gadawyvita. ris Sedegadac avtomaturad gaCnda kiTxvebi axali energowyaroebisa da momaragebis gzebis Sesaxeb, rac uzrunvelyofda evropisaTvis damatebiT wyaroebs. am droidan mieqca yuradReba kaspiis zRvis resursebsa da savaraudo satranzito gzebis Ziebas. amis Sedegad saqarTvelo rogorc satranzito potencialis mqone qveyana moeqca gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis qveS.

konfliqtur situaciidan saukeTeso gamosavlad "nabukos" proeqti iqna miCneuli, romlis Seqmna 2006w. ivnisis bolos gadawyda venaSi, sadac avstriis, TurqeTis, rumineTis, bulgareTisa da ungreTis energetikis ministrebma da evrokavSiris energo komisarma xeli moaweres gazsaden "nabukos" mxardamWer xelSekrulebas. masSi aRiniSna, rom gazsadeniT gaTvaliswinebulia kaspiisa da iranis gazis miwodeba evropuli bazris divesifikaciis mizniT. gazsadenma unda daakavSiros transkavkasiuri gazsadeni (tccp) erzumTan, irani-TurqeTis (Tavriz-erzumis) da "samxreT kavkasiuri" (bte) gazsadenebis gadakveTis punqti avstriul qalaq baum- gartenan-der-maSalTan.

"nabukos" proeqtis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi avstriis qalaqi baunganeteni gaxdeba evropis gazmomaragebis e.w. "habi", anu sabiTumo vaWrobis centri, rac avstrias kolosalur Semosavlebs moutans.

maSin rodesac ruseTi yvelafers akeTebs imisTvis, raTa mTlianad daipyros evropis energetikuli bazari da gaaZlieros am qveynebze rogorc ekonomikuri, aseve politikuri gavlena, "nabukos" gazsadenis proeqti misi miznebis ganxorcielebis xelSemSlel faqtors warmoadgens. aqedan gamomdinare, ruseTi "nabukos" winaaRmdeg aqtiur brZolaSia Cambuli. igi yvela SesaZlo berkets iyenebs, maT Soris politikursac, rogorc "nabukos" proeqtSi gazis mimwodebeli, satranzito, aseve evro- kavSiris calkeuli "sateliti" qveynebis mimarT. aseve "nabukos" daupirispira "samxreT da CrdiloeT nakadis" proeqtebi, romlebic iTvaliswineben evropisaTvis isev da isev rusuli gazis miwodebas.

"nabukos" realizacia damokidebulia mraval faqtorze da Zalian problematuria. es proeqti gamococxlda 2008-09 wlebSi ruseT saqarTvelos omisa da ukrainia-ruseTis gazis krizisis Semdgom. evropa mixvda, rom "nabukos" realizacia Zalzed mniSvnelovania evropuli energousafrTxoebisaTvis. proeqtis ganxorcielebiT TviT evropac da yvela monawile qveyanac did sargebels miiRebs, evropisaTvis es gazsadeni warmoadgens gazis damatebiT wyaros, bunebrivi airis bazris mcire

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komercias da axal tendencias, romelmac unda Seasustos rusuli monopolia evropis bazarze.

aRmosavleT-dasavleTis energetikuli derefnis proeqti, gaxda regionaluri TanamSromlobis piroba saqarTvelos, azerbaijnis da TurqeTs Soris. man aseve moizida investorebi da daarwmuna imaSi, rom mcire qveynebsac SeswevT Zala ganaxorcielon da SeiTvison Tavis teritoriaze Seqmnili grandiozuli infrastruqturebis proeqtebi, romelTa mizania, kaspiis zRvis energoresursebTan dakavSireba da maTi transportireba samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis tranzitiT evropisaken.

saqarTvelo prioritetulma rolma aRmosavleT-dasavleT energo derefanSi da qveynis erovnulma miswrafebam dasavleTTan ekonomikuri da politikuri integraciisaken, ruseTis mxridan gamoiwvia didi agresia, ruseTma gaiazra mniSvneloba strategiul qveynebze saqarTvelos saxiT, gavlenis dakargvis SesaZlebloba. eqspertebis azriT swored es gaxda 2008 w. agvistos omis erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezi.

saqarTvelos deklarirebuli sagareo kursi absolutur winaaRmdegobaSi modioda da modis rusuli geopolitikis koncefciasTan. Sesabamisad saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris urTierTobebis Sinaarsi arc erT parametrSi ar daemTxva erTmaneTs. swored es Sinaarsi iqca omis dawyebis mizezad, romlis safuZve;lia ruseTis imperiuli ganwyoba, erTi mxriv da saqarTvelos Tavisuflebisaken swrafva meore mxriv. dReisaTvis gazsadeni "nabuko" dasavleTisaTvis aris mTavari energetikuli proeqti evraziis regionSi, romlis realizacia mniSvlelovnad Seamcirebs gaeros qveynebis energetikul damokidebulebas ruseTis gazze. am proeqtis arsi mdgomareobs srulyofilad funqcionirebuli gazis infrastruqturis SeqmnaSi, romelic SeZlebda konkurencia gaewia "gazpromis"-saTvis evropis bazarze. amitom gasagebia ruseTis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba am proeqtisadmi. am azrs iziarebs irani, romelic kargavs saSualebas gazis transportirebisa centraluri aziidan. es proeqti iqneba "baqo-Tbilisi- erzerumis" proeqtis pirdapiri gagrZeleba, romelic SeZlebs gaataros 31 mlrd kuburi metri gazi. saqarTvelosaTvis es proeqti mniSvnelovania imiT, rom evropasTan gaaZlierebs Tavis urTierTobas. misi monawileoba am proeqtSi ki mTlianad dafaravs moTxovnilebas am resursze. saqarTvelo miiRebs gazss formuliT "5+5", anu 5% iqneba ufaso da 5% SeRavaTian fasSi.

samwuxarod, saqarTvelo dRemde upiratesad sxva Zlieri saxelmwifoebis geostrategiuli eqspansiis obieqtia. amis naTeli magaliTia axlandeli saqarTvelos sivrcobrivi struqturis SekumSvis tendencia sxva Zlieri imperiebis mier.

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aRsaniSnavia, rom dRevandel Tanamedrove pirobebSi saqarTvelos geostrategiuli da geopolitikuri upiratesobiT Znelia gaxdes geostrategiuli sivrcis lideri.

ama wlis 23 agvistos biSkekSi Sekrebilma yazaxeTis, TurqeTis, yirgizeTis prezidentebma da azerbaijanis premier ministrma miiRes protokoli transportis ministrTa Sexvedris Sesaxeb satransporto qselis warmarTvis Taobaze TurqeTis, saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis, yazaxeTis, yirgizeTisa da CineTis CaTvliT.

2011 wlis 10 noembers saqarTveloSi samxreT kavkasiaSi satransporto infrastruqturis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb konferencia gaimarTa. romelzedac ganxilul iqna 3 qveynis sarkinigzo da saavtomobilo sferoebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebi. 11 noembers xeli moewera komunikes samxreT kavkasiaSi satransporto infrastruqturis ganviTarebis Sesaxeb.

yvelaferi ki daiwyo jer kidev 1993w. briuselSi evrokomisiis mier mowveul konferenciaze miRebul iqna deklaracia, romlis safuZvelze samxreT kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis regionis qveynebisaTvis SemuSavebuli iqna regionuli programa _"traceca"_ da misi miznebad transportis tradiciuli saxeobebis - rkinigzis, saavtomobilo gzebis, sazRvao portebis, terminalebis - mSenebloba, rekonstruqcia da modernizacia, agreTve evropa-kavkasia-aziis satransporto derefnis evropul derefnebTan mierTeba ganisazRvra. "traceca"-s programam male SeiZina dinamizmi da masTan erTad, saerTaSoriso aRiareba. am programas safuZveli Caeyara 1993 w. maisSi q. briuselSi gamarTul konferenciaze, sadac samxreT kavkasiisa da aziis saxelmwifoebis transportisa da vaWrobis ministrebma miiRes Sesabamisi deklaracia. 1996-98 wlebSi programas miuerTdnen ukraina, monRoleTi da moldova, xolo mogvianebiT - bulgareTi, rumineTi da TurqeTi. amJamad ganixileba "traceca"-s programasTan iranis, avRaneTis da pakistanis mierTebis sakiTxi, "traceca"_s programa unikaluria im TvalsazrisiT, rom jer arc erT calke aRebul saerTaSoriso instituts ar daufinansebia transportis ganviTarebisa da vaWrobis xelSemwyobi raime programa, romlic msgavsad "traceca"_s programisa, 13 welze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi erTdroulad amden qveyanaSi xorcieldeba. "traceca"_s programa cnobilia regionSi da igi asocirdeba evrokavSirTan.

saqarTvelosTvis, rogorc damoukidebeli statusis mqone qveynisaTvis, mniSvnelovania msoflio politikur da ekonomikur procesebSi integracia. maT Soris prioritetulia evrointegracia. am procesebSi saqarTvelos satranzito potenciali

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konkurentunarianobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi pirobaa.swored amitomac saqarTvelos transporti warmoadgens qveynis ekonomikuri, strategiuli da geopolitikuri mdebareobis upiratesobis realizaciis umniSvnelovanes safuZvels.

geopolitika, saxelmwifoTa sagareo politikis axleburad gagebuli Teoriisa da praqtikis erTobliobaa. saqarTvelos roli, regionis "karibWe" did mniSvnelobas aniWebs satranzito da energetikuli derefnis funqciis gaZlierebas. igi aqtiurad monawileobs satransporto da sakomunikacio proeqtebSi. am funqciis gaZliereba da realizacia erT-erTi mniSvnelovani pirobaa qveynis ekonomikuri da politikuri stabilurobisaTvis.

gazviadebiT ar vityviT, rom saqarTvelo iyo da aris ZiriTadi satranzito kvanZi mTels kavkasiaSi. amitomac satransporto infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba aucilebeli faqtoria qveynis ekonomikuri da socialuri ganviTarebisaTvis. aRniSnuli ki cnobilia ganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis, romlebic aqtiurad TanamSromloben saqarTvelosTan, misi upiratesi geopolitikuri mdebareobis maqsimaluri realizaciisaTvis.

jer kidev Cvens w.aR.-is dasawyisSi saqarTvelze gadioda savaWro gza, romelic indoeTs xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebTan akavSirebda. istoriulad CvenTvis mniSvnelovani e.w. "abreSumis gza, romelic moixsenieba, rogorc transkontinenturi saqaravno gza, igi CineTs Savi da xmelTaSua zRvebis sanapiroebTan akavSirebda. "abreSumis gzam" xeli Seuwyo aRmosavleT da dasavleT regionebis dasaxlebas, maT Soris ekonomikur, politikur da kulturul urTierTobaTa gamyarebas.

X-XII saukuneebSi, rodesac saqarTveloSi vaWrobisaTvis aqtiuri mxardaWera xdeboda, saqarTvelo gamorCeulad iyo Cabmuli savaWro komerciul urTierTobebSi. es yovelive ki xels uwyobda savaWro urTierTobebis gaRrmavebas sxva qveynebTan. XV-XVI saukuneebSi saqarTvelos mWidro savaWro kavSirebi gaaCnda iranTan, ris saSualebiTac, igi ukavSirdeboda sazRvargareTis qveynebs (indoeTi, CineTi). am periodis saqarTveloSi eqsport-importi politikur-ekonomikur safuZvlebiTa da kavSirebiT viTardeboda. am periodSi gaumjobesebuli situaciiT xasiaTdeboda saqarTvelo-ruseTis kavSir-urTierTobebi vaWrobaSi. aRniSnuls xeli Seuwyo XVIII saukunis 40-ian wlebSi darialis gzis gaxsnam. am ukanaskneliT xdeboda swored evropuli saqonlis Semodineba saqarTveloSi.

XX saukuneSi saqarTvelos geopolitikuri mdebareoba gamoyenebuli iyo, rogorc gansakuTrebuli satranzito savaWro kvanZi, kavkasiis centrSi, damakavSirebeli rgoli evropasa da azias Soris. zemo aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, strategiulad

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mniSvnelovani geografiuli mdebareobis gamo saqarTvelos eZleva Sansi aqtiurad CaerTos msoflio integraciul procesSi. swored satransporto infrastruqturis gaumjobeseba mniSvnelovani pirobaa qveynis ekonomikur-socialuri ganviTarebisaTvis. msoflio globalizaciis, ekonomikuri kargaxsnilobis pirobebSi satranzito potencialis swrafad aTviseba, saqarTvelos moutans umniSvnelovanes politikur-ekonomikur sargebels.

saqarTvelos satransporto potencialis aTviseba, realizacia da Semdgomi ganviTareba 90-ian wlebs ukavSirdeba, raSic gadamwyveti roli saqarTvelos rkinigzas ukavia. saqarTvelos rkinigzas Sav da kaspiis zRvebs Soris mdebare evraziis satransporto arteriis statusi aqvs, romlis xazis saeqspluatacio sigrZe 1575 kilometria. saqarTvelos rkinigza, romelsac TiTqmis 140 wliani istoria aqvs Tavisi ganviTarebuli infrastruqturiT, ganmsazRvreli faqtoria evropa-kavkasia-aziis (traseka) satranzito koridoris warmatebiT funqcionirebis. jer kidev 1993 w. maisSi briuselSi Sedga Sexvedra evrogaerTianebis qveynebis, samxreT kavkasiis, centraluri aziis warmomadgenlebisa, rac gaxda "traseka"-s proeqtis dasawyisi. es programa iTvaliswinebda evropidan aziisken Savi zRvis gavliT, centraluri aziisa da Soreuli aRmosavleTisaken Zlieri satransporto derefnis Seqmnas, romlis dafinansebac Tavis Tavze aiRo evrokavSirma. es aris satransporto derefani, romelic moicavs rkinigzas, saavtomobilo, sahaero, sazRvao gzebs, navsadgurebs, samgzavro da satvirTo terminalebs. "traseka" erTiani evropuli sistemis ganuyofeli nawilia. am proeqtis, xelSekrulebis qveynebi ukve moicaven msoflio sivrcis uzarmazar nawils amerikidan iaponiamde. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTvelos rkinigzis efeqtiani funqcionireba, yovelTvis ufro mniSvnelovani iyo regionuli qveynebis eqsport-importisaTvis, vidre Cveni qveynisTvis.

saqarTvelos rkinigzis yvelaze momgebiani mimarTuleba, es aris satvirTo gadazidvebi, swored es sferoebia upriani ucxouri da adgilobrivi investiciebis misazidad. investiciebis prioritetuloba ki grZel vadian strategiaSi unda iyos ganxiluli konkretuli satranzito derefnis Sesaqmnelad, qveynis saxarbielo geopolitikuri mdebareoba mxolod erT-erTi faqtoria, rac Seexeba tvirTis operatiulad da Seuferxeblad gadaadgilebas, aucilebelia amisaTvis msoflio standartebis Sesabamisi satransporto infrastruqturis Seqmna, moqnili satarifo politika da rac mTavaria mSvidi da politikurad stabiluri garemo.

saqarTvelos winaSe mdgomi problema teritoriuli mTlianobis kuTxiT, ver ukargavs saqarTvelos rkinigzas mis statuss da igi ukavSirdeba da moiazreba

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alternatiul gzad kaspiis da centraluri aziis regionebis evropasTan dasakavSireblad. saqarTvelos strategiuli portebi da terminalebi (baTumSi, foTSi, yulevSi) pirdapir ukavSirdeba azerbaijanis, ukrainis, ruseTis, bulgareTis sarkinigzo xazebs.

baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis sarkinigzo mSeneblobis dawyeba mniSvnelovani gadawyvetileba iyo saqarTvelos satransporto, satranzito koridoris funqciis gaZlierebisaTvis. sarkinigzo magistralis es 105 kilometriani monakveTis mSenebloba, romlis saproeqto Rirebuleba 422 mln aSS dolaria, mniSvnelovania imiTac, rom aqedan 75 km. TurqeTis teritoriaze gaivlis. es satranzito xazi mniSvnelovani faqtori iqneba qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis, gazrdis mis geopolitikur mniSvnelobas, xels Seuwyobs samcxe-javaxeTis ekonomikur aRmavlobasa da winsvlas, evrokavSiris mier dafinansda aseve rkinigzis reabilitaciis proeqti Tbilissa da erevans Soris, rac mniSvnelovania somxeTisaTvisac. "traseka"-s proeqtis farglebSi finansdeba sazRvao proeqti- baTumisa da foTis portebis restruqturizacia da gamtarunarianobis gazrda. gasuli wlis ivnisis monacenebiT Sps "saqarTvelos rkinigzas" weliwadSi saSualod 20 mln. tvirTi gadaaqvs da daaxloebiT 3mln. mgzavri gadahyavs.

kaspiis zRvis regionis qveynebSi (azerbaijani da yazaxeTi), energomatareblebze mzardi moTxovnilebis gamo, rogorc msoflioSi aseve regionSi aRiniSneba nedli navTobis mopovebis mniSvnelovani mateba. Semosavlebis gazrdis mizniT, navTobis mwarmoebeli qveynebi warmoebuli produqciis miwodebiT Tavadve arian dainteresebulni. am mizniT navTobis mompovebeli qveynebi mniSvnelovan investiciebs axorcieleben satransporto infrastruqturebSi, rogorc qveynis SigniT, aseve mis farglebs gareT., rac saqarTvelosTvisac erTob momgebiania.

rom ara saerTaSoriso safinanso-sakredito institutebis mniScnelovani mxardaWera saqarTvelosaTvis, qveynis safinanso-sakredito sostemas da zogadad qveynis ekonomikas mniSvnelovnad gauWirdeboda.

transkaspiuri gazsadenis mniSvneloba, romliTac evrosabWos qveynebi unda momaragdnen bunebrivi gaziT, ukve 13 welia yuradRebis centrSia. es gazsadeni emsaxureba aseve TurqmeneTis mier dasavleTTan kavSiris mniSvnelovnad gaumjobesebas da TanamSromlobas evropis mxridan TurqmeneTisaTvis axal doneze. aseTi politika momgebiania TurqmeneTisaTvis, romelmac jer kidev 2008 wels gadadga nabiji evropisaken saTanamSromlod. evrosabWom aseve gadadga nabiji da

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gamoxata Tavisi keTili neba transkaspiuri energetikuli derefnis mimarT mobilizeba gaekeTebina sakuTari politikisaTvis da aSxabads warudgina momgebiani moTxovnebi. Tumca TirqmeneTis sazRvrebs evrokavSirs acilebs ramdenime qveyana, magram TurqmeneTis "gaxsnilma politikam" saSualeba misca evropas realuri perspeqtivisa, kerZod kavkasiis kaspiis regionTan saTanamSromlod. amis magaliTad ki gamodgeba xarisxobrivad gaumjobesebuli urTierToba azerbaijanTan. poziciebis sxvadasxvaoba aSxabadsa da baqos Soris kaspiis zRvaze Sualeduri xazis sakiTxis gansazRvraSi nacionalur seqtorebs Soris am or qveyanas Soris da kaspiis zRvaze rigi navTobgazis sabadoebis kuTvnilebis Taobaze, razedac mxareebs Soris mniSvnelovani SeuTanxmebloba arsebobda.

2008 wlis martSi mxareebi sadavo sakiTxebze aRweven kompromiss da mTliani maStabiT aRdgenili iqna maT Soris diplomatiuri urTierTobani. aRniSnuls ki Sedegad mohyva TurqmeneTis oficialuri SeerTeba "nabukos" proeqtSi.

aRniSnuli tendenciebidan gamomdinare, Tuki energetikuli tandemi azerbaijani-TurqmeneTi gaZlierdeba erTiani politikis bazaze da evropa gaagrZelebs aqtiur moqmedebebs am mimarTulebiT, 2014 w. warmatebiT damTavrdeba evropis momarageba Turqmenuli gaziT. transkaspiuri energo derefniT arsebiTad Sesustdeba ruseTis pozicia evropis qveynebis gazmomaragebis saqmeSi da Sedegad evropa energo damoukidebeli gaxdeba.

kaspiis wina regioni es aris msoflioSi mesame energoresursebis moculobiT. eqspertTa mtkicebiT marto yara-yumis udabnoSi bunebrivi gazis resursi meryeobs 2 dan 20trilion kubur metramde, rac warmoadgens mniSvnelovan maCvenebels. amitomac evrosabWosTvis kaspiis mimarTuleba alternatiuli energoresursebiT misi uzrunvelyofis Sesaxeb, gansakuTrebiTmniSvnelovania. 2008 w. buqarestis samitze cxadi gaxda, rom ruseTisgan energo damoukidebloba evropisaTvis gavlenas axdens politikur procesebze da iwvevs problemebs aliansis qveynebisaTvis erTiani strategiuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas.

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, evropis qveynebma unda ganaxorcielon erTiani mdgradi politika ruseTis gverdis avliT da awarmoon molaparakebebi uSualod energoresursebis mflobel mxareebTan damoukidebeli energomarSrutebis alternativebis Sesaqmnelad.

"amierkavkasiis regioni dRes ganixileba dasavleTis evropuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis erT-erT mTavar partniorad energo momaragebisa da satranzito mimarTulebiT, romelsac Tanamedrove etapze didi politikuri da ekonomikuri

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mniSvneloba eniWeba ara marto evropis energomomaragebis usafrTxoebis TavalsazrisiT, aramed Tavad amierkavkasiis regionis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofisa da regionSi Semavali qveynebis dasavleTis wamyvan institutebTan integraciis kuTxiT. yvelaferi es ki mniSvnelovania saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis da somxeTis regionalur da msoflio doneze demokratiuli transformaciisaTvis. 32

regionis qveynebis ekonomikur ganviTarebisa da maTi potencialis gazrda- daCqarebisaTvis aucilebelia transnacionaluri kompaniebis saqmianobis masStabebis gaaqtiureba. regionSi saqarTvelo da azerbaijani erT-erTi mTavari RerZia evropis energomatareblebiT momaragebis kuTxiT. TviT amierkavkasiis qveynebs Soris regionaluri saerTaSoriso da ekonomikur urTierTobaTa ganviTareba, maT Soris partnioroba civiluri urTierTobebis safuZvelze, amierkavkasiis usafrTxoebis erT-erTi garantia.a. es ukanaskneli ki gazrdis ucxouri investiciebis mozidvas da ucxouri msxvili kapitaldabandebebiT xels Seuwyobs transnacionalur kompaniaTa mozidvas regionSi.

transnacionalur kompaniaTa roli azerbaijanis, somxeTis da saqarTvelos globalur ekonomikaSi monawileobis gazrdis TvalsazrisiT, uwinaresad ganxilul unda iqnas saerTaSoriso konkurentunarianobis problemis WrilSi.

globalizacia, (romelic gulisxmobs ama Tu im problemis, ama Tu im saqmianobis gadasvlas uSualod, msoflio globalur doneze, romelic garkveuli xarisxiT moicavs msoflios yvela qveyanas), ganuxrelad aris dakavSirebuli internacionalizaciasTan (romelic gulisxmobs erovnuli ekonomikis SigniT mimdinare procesis sazRvargareT, sawyisi CarCodan gasvlas, msoflio ekonomikis da politikis ramdenime subieqtis, moqalaqis gaerTianebas saerTo amocanis, miznebis, saqmianobis saxeebis irgvliv, romelic aucileblobiT ar iwvevs saerTo Tanamegobrobas yvela an TiTqmis yvela wevris monawileobas am procesebSi).

swored internacionalizaciis procesebis regionaluridan uSualod msoflio, globalur doneze gadasvla warmoadgens globalizaciis procesis ganviTarebis safuZvels. saqarTveloSi biznesis ganviTarebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba gaaCnia sazRvargareTis kapitalis mozidvas. qveyanas misi resursebidan da geopolitikuri mdebareobidan gamomdinare, gaaCnia is potenciali, rom gaxdes msxvili sainvesticio proeqtebis realizaciis adgili. am mizniT saqarTveloSi ganxorcielda sainvesticio garemos gajansaReba, gatarda investiciuri reformebi, Seicvala sakanonmdeblo baza,

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ramac moaxdina investiciuri nakadis zrda 2008 wlis agvistomde, rasac xeli SeuSala ruseTis mier saqarTvelos teritoriebis okupaciam. ukve 2009 wlis pirveli naxevridan sainvestivio nakadebi xasiaTdeba zrdis tendenciiT. "Semosuli investiciebis dinamikis da struqturis analizi metyvelebs imaze, rom qveyanas SeuZlia biznesis ganviTarebis am mniSvnelovani zrdis kursis ufro efeqtiani gamoyeneba, xolo am mizniT aucilebelia saxelmwifoebriv doneze sainvesticio nakadis regulireba, ra funqciac unda Seasrulos makordinebelma organom." 33

"regionalizacia da globalizacia mWidrod urTierT dakavSirebuli procesebia. amitom safuZvel moklebuli ar aris, im perspeqtivis Cveneba, romelic gamomdinareobs regionis ama Tu im adgilobrivi kompaniis regionaluri operaciebis maRali maCveneblebidan da SeiZleba Tu ara maTi miCneva globaluri strategiis Semadgenel nawilad." 34

dReisaTvis regionidan, azrbaijanis Sansebi metd didia moxvdes igi globaluri kompaniebis CamonaTvalSi. mxedvelobaSi maqvs azerbaijanis saxelmwifo navTobis kompania "sokari".

azerbaijanis respublikis saxelmwifo kompania "sokari" msoflioSi udidesi "vertikaluri integraciis holdinguri kompaniaa, sruli sawarmoo cikliT."35 misi saqmianoba Semoifargleba navTobis mopovebiT, gadamuSavebiT, geofizikisa da sainJinro-geologiuri, Selfproeqt mSeneblobis, azerbaijanis navTobiT uzrunvelyofis, kaspiis zRvis navTobis flotis sawarmoebs da 4 samecniero kvleviT centrs. "masSi dasaqmebulia 77000 adamiani. "sokaris" warmoebis ganawilebis Sesaxeb ucxouri navTobkompaniebis konsorciumebTan 25 ZiriTadi xelSekruleba aqvs gaformebuli amave dros, igi figurirebs 2 msxvil SeTanxmebaSi - baqo-Tbilis-jeihani da samxreT kavkasiis milsadenebze, ZiriTadi kapitalis Rirebulebaa 5 mlrd. aSS dolari, kapitaldabandebebis saerTo moculoba ki 50 mlrd aSS dolaria." 36

"sokari" awarmoebs navtob mompovebel samuSaoebs miwasa da zRvaze. sul ufro farToveba misi saqmianobis maStabebi. "sokaris" Svilobili kompaniebi ukve mraval qveyanaSi arsebobs, maT Soris saqarTvelo, TurqeTi, avstria, rumineTi,

33. Temur Sengelia - pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis roli qarTuli biznesis ganviTarebaSi - 2010 w. gv.38 34. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 248

35. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. iqve

36. www.socar.ge/page.php?lang=ge www.anar2000narod.ru/gnkar

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yazaxeTi, irani da ukrainaa. transnacionaluri kompania flobs yvela im kriteriums, rac aucilebelia kompaniis globalizaciis xarisxis gansazRvrisaTvis.

2006 w. noembridan "sokarma" gaxsna warmomadgenloba saqarTveloSi da daiwyo Svilobili kompaniebis Seqmna. esenia: "socar energy georgia" ltd da

"kulevi qara dniz terminal" mmc, warmomadgenlobis ZiriTadi mizania daicvas kompaniis interesebi ekonomikur sakiTxebSi, Seqmnas xelsayreli garemo kompaniis proeqtebis ganviTarebis mizniT. kompania aqtiurad TanamSromlobs saxelmwifo organoebTan, molaparakebebs awarmoebs iuridiul pirebTan da dakavebulia sasponsoro da saqvelmoqmedo saqmianobiT saqarTveloSi. 37

"socar energy georgia" ltd saqarTveloSi axorcielebs sawvavi produqtebis sabiTumo da sacalo realizacias, benzinisa da likviduri airis imports, aseve aSenebs sawvavi produqtebisaTvis terminalebs da sawyobebs. misi wili benzinis bazarze 72%-s, xolo dizelis bazarze 61%-s Seadgens. 38 kompaniam ganaxorciela 400 mln aSS dolaris investicia. 2008 wels yulevSi amoqmedebuli navTobterminalis sarezervuaro parkis saerTo moculoba 320 000 kuburi metria.

"sokar enerji jorjiam" daafuZna ramdenime Svilobili sawarmo, romlebic urTierTkavSirSia da erTianobiT xasiaTdebian, miuxedavad imisa, rom sxvadasxva sferoebSi monawileoben TavianTi saqmianobiT. maTgan aRsaniSnavia 2006 wels dafuZnebuli Sps "sokar enerji petroleumi". misi saqonelbrunva TveSi ramdenime aTeul milion dolars Seadgens. kompaniis ZiriTadi amocanaa saqarTvelos bazarze xarisxiani, standartebis Sesabamisi, konkurentunariani produqciis eqsportireba da realizacia.

2008w. ganxorcielebuli sacalo qselis Sedegad, saqarTvelos teritoriaze dRes ukve 33 avtogasamarTi sadguri funqcionirebs.

saqarTvelos bunebrivi gazis (rogorc sabiTumo, aseve sacalo) bazarze dasamkvidreblad, 2007 wels Seiqmna Sps "sokar jorjia gazi", romelic Sps "sokar enerji jorjias" Svilobili kompaniaa. mas dakisrebuli aqvs tenderSi gamarjvebis Sedegad rogorc gazis distribucia (ganawileba), ise gazifikaciis maStabuli programis realizacia 50-mde qalaqsa da raionSi gazgamanawilebeli qselebis mSenebloba, rac 150 000 momxmarebel;s saSualebas miscems CaerTos saerTo qselSi da miiRos bunebrivi gazi.

37. www.representation.ge/page.php?lang=ge=page=00

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2008 wlis maisidan Sps "sokar jorjia gazma" moRvaweoba bunebrivi gazis sabiTumo bazarze daiwyo da misi brunva TveSi daaxloebiT 10 mln. lars aRwevs.

2007w. dafuZnda da funqcionirebs Sps "sokar enerji jorjias" kidev erTi Svilobili kompania Sps "sokar jorjia sequriTi". mis ZiriTad saqmianobas warmoadgens terminalis, benzingasamarTi sadgurebis, kompaniis calkeuli ofisebisa da obieqtebis usafrTxoeba da kontroli, aseve fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebis dacva.

regionis qveynebSi tnk-is Semosvlisa da saqmianobis modeli damokidebulia iseT faqtorebze, rogoricaa: TviT tnk-is ekonomikuri interesebi, ucxouri kapitalis dabandebis sfero da produqciis saxe, pui-s moqisvis strategiuli miznebi.

"sokarma" swored saxelmwifos daxmarebiT SeZlo poziciebis ganmtkiceba Sida da sagareo bazarze da daiwyo transnacionalur kompaniad gardaqmna. azerbaijanis xelisuflebam uari Tqva navTobis seqtoris privatizaciis procesze da xeli Seuwyo adgilobrivi Zlieri sawarmoo gaerTianebis Camoyalibebas. am kuTxiT saqarTvelos marTebs azerbaijanis gamocdilebis gaziareba. 39

2008 wels baTumis navTobterminalis da baTumis portis 100%-iani wilis mflobeli gaxda yazaxeTis respublikis navTobisa da gazis saxelmwifo kompania "kazmunaigazi". amave kompaniam SeiZina ruminuli kompania "rompetrolis: aqciaTa 75%. "rompetrolis" mflobelia azerbaijanis respublikis navTobis saxelmwifo kompania

"socar (state oil company of azerbaijan)" rac niSnavs saqarTvelosTvis energoresursebis wyaroebis diversificirebas, riTac saqarTvelo aRar iqneba damokidebuli erTi romelime energoresursebze (mag. ruseTis).

resursebis diversificirebisken da ruseTze energodamokidebulebis Semcirebisken iswrafvis evrokavSiric, alternatiul wyarod ki evrokavSirs am gzaze samxreT kavkasiis satranzito koridori miaCnia. meores mxriv, energoresursebis mompovebeli qveynebis mier saqarTvelos satranzito infrastruqturaSi investiciebi (baTumis da yulevis terminalebSi) saqarTvelos gavliT, satranzito tvirTebis garantirebuli moculobebs uzrunvelyofs. grZelvadiani perspeqtiva saqarTvelosTvis ase gamoiyureba - Seqmnili politokur-ekonomikuri stabilurobis damatebiTi garantiebi mtkice safuZvels Cauyris da xels Seuwyobs nabukos proeqtis ganxorcielebas,

"jer kidev 1996w. yazaxeTidan daiwyo "Sevronis" navTobis rkinigziT transportireba azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos baTumis portis gavliT evropaSi. es aris periodi, rodesac daiwyo moqmedeba evropa-kavkasia-aziis satransporto derefanma.

39. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 252

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satransporto derefanma ori msxvili regionuli navTobsadenis baqo-Tbilisi- jeihanis da samxreT-kavkasiuri gazsadenis (Sahdenizi) gamo SeiZina gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba. orive obieqti mniSvnelovania ara marto saqarTvelos satransporto potencialis gazrdis mizniT, aramed regionuli integraciis gaumjobesebis mxrivac. energetikuli derefnis ganviTareba es aris saqarTvelo-azerbaijani-TurqeTis grZelvadiani strategiuli TanamSromlobis mTavari amocana.

kaspiispireTisa da centraluri aziis msoflio ekonomikur procesebSi integraciasTan erTad problemas warmoadgenda am regionSi mopovebuli energoresursebis msoflio bazarze garantirebuli da drouli miwodeba, romelSic gadamwyveti roli Seasrula saqarTvelos teirtoriaze gamavalma energoresursebis kavkasiis satransporto koridorma - evraziis derefanma. am proeqtma Tavidanve didi mxardaWera hpova dasavleTis saxelmwifoebisgan da gansakuTrebiT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisagan. am proeqtis ganxorcielebis mizniT jer kidev 1996w. dafuZnda "saqarTvelos navTobis saerTaSoriso korporacia", romlis mTavari amocana iyo kaspiis regionSi mopovebuli navTobis transportireba, masoflios wamyvan navTob kompaniebTan partnioroba da am mizniT finansuri, sadazRvevo da yvela saWiro operaciis ganxorcieleba. dReisaTvis saqarTvelos teritoriaze gadis 3 saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis milsadeni, romlis saSualebiTac navTobproduqtebi Sua aziidan evropas miewodeba. Tumca, amas garda, arsebobs kidev erTi CrdiloeT-samxreTis bunebrivi airis - gazis magistraluri milsadeni, romlis saSualebiTac bunebrivi airi ruseTidan saqarTvelosa da somxeTs miewodeba.

amierkavkasiis qveynebis geopolitikuri mdebareoba da is SesaZleblobebi, romelic maT gaaCniaT satransporto derefni rolis SesrulebaSi sakmao xania saerTaSoriso interesis sagania. grZelvadian periodSi tvirTebis, investiciebis da sainformacio nakadis zrdasTan erTad, satransporto koridoris gafarToebasTan erTad meti ucxouri investicia unda iqnes moziduli. satransporto korodoris SemdgomSi funqcionirebisaTvis aucilebelia iseTi mniSvnelovani dargebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa: telekomunikaciebi, sastumroebi, samrewvelo da sasoflo-sameurneo dargebi, aseve momsaxurebebis sferos Semdgomi srulyofa.

43

IV transnacionaluri kompaniebis saqmianoba azerbaijanSi.

mrewvelobiT da mravaldargovani soflis meurneobiT azerbaijani industriuli agraruli qveyanaa. mompovebel mrewvelobaSi did rols TamaSobs navTobisa da gazis mopoveba, navTobgadamamuSavebeli, qimiuri (sinTetikuri kauCuki, mineraluri sasuqebi, avtomobilis salteebi da a.S.), manqanaTmSenebeli, samTomompovebeli mrewveloba (rkinis da alumitis mopoveba) da feradi metalurgia. kvebis sxvadasxva dargis (sakonservo, Cais, Tambaqos, Rvinis da a.S.) aseve msubuqi (bambis sawmendi, bambis, abreSumis, bewveulis, xaliCis) mrewveloba.

"qveynis saerTo erovnuli produqciis naxevarze meti iqmneba samrewvelo sawarmoebSi, romlis 70% koncentrirebulia afSeronSi da Seadgens navTobisa da navTobgadamamuSavebel mrewvelobas, romelic Tavis mxriv mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli sxva dargebis ganviTarebasTan, kerZod ki, qimiuri, eleqtroteqnikuri, manqanaTmSenebeli da Savi metalurgia.” 40

azerbaijani sxva qveynebs awvdis navTobis da qimiuri mrewvelobis, Savi da feradi metalurgiis, manqanaTmSeneblobis da liTondamamuSavebeli, aseve msubuqi mrewvelobis produqcias. sxva qveynebidan ki Semoaqvs Carxebi mza produqciis saxiT, avtomobilebi, galanterea, sursaTi, soflis meurneobis sxvadasxva manqanebi.

azerbaijansa da mTlianad kaspiis regionSi transnacionaluri kompaniebis daintereseba ganpirorebulia azerbaijanis seqtorSi navTobis arsebobiT. aRniSnuli resursebi qveynis mxolod sargeblianobas ki ara, aramed mis upiratess rols usvavs xazs regionSi. dasavleT evropuli qveynebisa da ruseTisaTvis azerbaijans aqvs didi geopolitikuri mniSvnelobac.

dReisaTvis azerbaijani mzardi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis qveyanaa. igi evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobs da maT Soris partniorobis xelSekruleba jer kidev 1999 wlis 1 ivliss gaformda, riTac ganisazRvra azerbaijanisa da evrokavSirs Soris samoqmedo gegma swored Semdeg sferoebs moicavda: ekonomikurs, socialurs, kulturuls. 41

40. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 185

41. www.ec:europa.eu/environment/enlarg/pdf/enp.action-plan-azerbaijan

44

"aRmosavleTis partniorobis" iniciativis farglebSi ki azerbaijanis da evrokavSiris partnioroba axal fazaSi imyofeba. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom azerbaijanis sagareo vaWrobis 55% modis evrokavSiris qveynebze da moicavs ZiriTadad navTobis da gazis eqsports.

2008 wels azerbaijanis sagareo savaWro brunva dsT-s qveynebTan 2502,4 mln. aSS dolars Seadgenda, eqsporti - 56,8% da Seadgina 2340.4 mln aSS dolari. amave wels misi produqcia yvelaze meti raodenobiT gatanili iqna italiaSi - 19220143.8000 aSS dolari, aSS-Si - 6014258.2000 aSS dolari, israelSi - 3605829.6000 aSS dolari, Semdgom modian safrangeTi, indoeTi da espaneTi.

azerbaijans aseve aqtiuri savaWro urTierTobebi aqvs germaniasTan, avstriasTan, belgiasTan, arabeTis gaerTianebul saemiroebTan, CineTTan, estoneTTan, avRaneTTan, safrangeTTan, indoeTTan, xorvatiasTan, iranTan, israelTan, SveicariasTan da a.S. azerbaijani aseve TanamSromlobs da savaWro kavsiri aqvs saqarTvelosTan, ukrainasa da yazaxeTTan. azerbaijanis savaWro politika fasdeba rogorc stabiluri. qveyanaSi, iseve rogorc adre araerTxel, azerbaijani pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis mizidvis saqmeSi lideri qveynis funqcias inarCunebs regionSi. rac ganpirobebulia misi sainvesticio garenos mimzidvelobiT da kavSirSia axali sainvesticio proeqtebis, maT Soris transnacionaluris ganxorcielebasTan, ZiriTadad navTobis seqtorSi.

"statistikuri monacemebiT azerbaijanSi ganxorcielebuli pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis didi nawili navTobis seqtorze modis.

azerbaijanSi registrirebuli iyo 5673 kompania, romelTa Soris 4132 aris ucxouri da 1541 erToblivi sawarmo.

2011 wlisaTvis registrirebuli kompaniaTa ricxvi 7895-ia, romelTa Soris ucxouri da erToblivi sawarmos ricxvebi ase gamoiyureba - ucxouri - 6540 da erToblivi 2200." 42

yovel wels izrdeba ucxouri kompaniebiT kavkasiis lideri qveynis - azerbaijaniT daintereseba, rac ganisazRvreba qveyanaSi navTobisa da gazis sabadoebis arsebobiT. "1999-2003 wlebSi azerbaijanSi pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis udidesi nawili ukavSirdeboda baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenisa da baqo-Tbilisi- erzrumis gazsadenis mSeneblobas.

42. www.doingbizness.org/azerbaijan/economy

45

azerbaijanSi maRalteqnologiuri navTobis industriis Seqmna msoflios wamyvani tnk-is monawileobiT azerbaijanis axali ekonomikuri modelis mniSvnelovani Semadgeneli nawilia." 43

navTobis seqtoris garda, ucxouri kompaniebi warmodgenilia energetikis, turistul sferoSi, farmacevtul da samxedro mrewvelobaSi, satransporto momsaxurebasa da gadazidvebSi, mompovebel sferoSi (gazis), sahaero gadazidvebsa da mgzavrTa gadayvanis sferoebSi da a.S.

rac Seexeba rusul kompaniebs, azerbaijanSi, gansxvavebiT somxeTsa da saqarTvelosagan, aq maTi ricxvi sakmaod naklebia.

azerbaijanSi moRvawe Turq inverstorTa mier ganxorcielebuli investiciebi 5 mlrd aSS dolars aRwevs. amavdroulad aRsaniSnavia isic, rom "aTeulobiT Turqulma kompaniam Tu firmam, romlebic dakavebulni iyvnen mSeneblobaSi, avejis warmoebaSi, eqsportis da momsaxurebebis sferoebSi, datoves qveyana, romlis mTavar mizezad SesaZlebelia dasaxeldes azerbaijanis ekonomikis monopolisturi struqtura." 44

warmatebiT moRvaweoben iseTi ucxouri kompaniebi, azerbaijanis ekonomikis sxva dargebSic, rogoricaa: "simens jc", "abb international marketing ltd", "masterguard-choride pawer" da a.S. rusuli kompania - "aerofloti", "british airways lufthanza" (germania), "turkish airlines", sainvesticio kompania "mite marubeni itochu tubulars europe pls". auditorul sferoSi - "emste young (cis) ltd". (didi britaneTi),

"pricewaterhouse coopers easteh europe b.v" (holandia). turistul sferoSi - "american express travel services" (aSS), safosto gadazidvebi

"dhl world - wide express american express" (aSS), "ocs (ase)" - iaponia-TurqeTis, satransporto kompaniebi "barwill universal" (norvegia),

"bertling caspian ltd" didi britaneTi (kls) "holding ltd" - didi britaneTi, farmacevtuli korporacia - "pfizer h.cp. corporation" (aSS), telekomunikacia -

43. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 180

44. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 188

46

"avirtel ltd" (aSS), samxedro mrewveloba - "elbit systems" (israeli), gazis

saZiebo samuSaoebi - "gaz de france suez" - (safrangeTi)." 45

dReisaTvis azerbaijanSi moqmedebs 700-ze meti kompania, rac Seexeba wminda rusul kompaniebs, Tu maTi ricxvi 2009 wels 167 iyo46, dReisaTvis maTi ricxvi Semcirda 140-mde.

vaWrobis saerTaSoriso centris monacemebiT ki azerbaijanSi 150-ze meti ucxouri kompaniaa warmodgenili Svilobili kompaniebiT. 47

nacionaluri ekonomikis roli msoflio ekonomikur procesebSi TandaTan klebulobs, mis proporciulad ki izrdeba tnk-is roli da adgili nacionaluri ekonomikuri sistemebisaTvis umTavresia sakuTari adgilis povna da Tavisi rolis dafiqsireba msoflio sistemaSi, raTa srulfasovani elementi gaxdes mTavari sistemis da igrZnos Tavi erTi mTlianis aucilebel nawilad.

d a s k v n a

45. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 185

46. ir. manveliZe - transnacionaluri kompaniebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikasa da politikaSi - 2009w. gv 185

47. www.invetmentmap.org/invmap/competitor

47

msoflio sameurneo sistema, romelic warmogvidgeba, rogorc sawarmoo- savaWro, sakredito-safinanso, samecniero-teqnikuri kavSir-urTierTobebisa da warmoebis faqtorebis saerTaSoriso danawilebis safuZvelze moqmedi erovnuli meurneobebisa da sxva sameurneo subieqtebis (firmebis, bankebis, saxelmwifoTa kavSirebis) erToblioba, efuZneba saerTaSoriso sajaro da kerZo samarTlis normebs, romlebic aregulireben erovnuli saxelmwifoebis, ekonomikuri gaerTianebebis, iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebis ekonomikur urTierTobas.

msoflio sameurneo sistemis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapi arsebiTad gansxvavdeba wina etapebisagan, vinaidan ukanasknel periodSi mniSvnelovnad Seicvala Sromis saerTaSoriso danawilebaSi qveyanaTa da sawarmoTa monawileobis xasiaTi, axali niSan-Tvisebebi SeiZina warmoebisa da kapitalis internacionalizaciam, gaizarda tnk-is saqamianobis maStabebi.

Tanamedrove msoflio sameurneo sistema viTardeba informaciuli teqnologiebis bazaze, romlis safuZvelze yalibdeba globaluri ekonomika. globalur ekonomikaSi qveynebis klasifikacia sxvadasxva niSniT xorcieldeba msoflio bankis klasifikatoriT qveynebi wliuri saladobrivi Semosavlis maCvenebliT 4 jgufadaa dayofili da saqarTvelo da azerbaijani saSualoze dabalSemosavliani qveynebis jgufSi Sedian (sadac mTliani Seda Semosavali 1 sul mosaxleze 936-dan 3705-mde aSS dolars Soris meryeobs). 48

saqarTvelos da azerbaijanis roli da adgili Tanamedrove globalur ekonomikur sistemaSi jer srulad araa gaazrebuli da gaanalizirebuli: "upirvelesad Cndeba kiTxvebi : SesaZlebelia Tu ara am qveynebis suverenuli ganviTareba? ra interesi aqvT msoflios umsxviles saxelmwifoebs samxreT kavkasiis postsabWoTa qveynebisadmi? ra adgili ukavia saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans globalur samyaroSi? SesaZlebelia Tu ara samxreT kavkasiis postsabWoTa qveynebis strategiuli partniroba? da a.S.

ssrk-is daSlis da suverenuli postsabWoTa qveynebis Camoyalibebis Semdeg, msoflio geopolitikuri ruqa arsebiTad Seicvala. am cvlilebebis fonze mkveTrad gaZlierda winaaRmdegoba msoflio saxelmwifoTa Soris da es yvelaze mkafiod samxreT kavkasiaSi gamoikveTa. kavkasiis geopolitikur sivrcis mTavari moTamaSeni arian : aSS, ruseTi, evrokavSiris qveynebi, TurqeTi, irani. yovel maTgans Taviseburad aqvs warmodgenili sakuTari roli kavkasiis regionis stabilurobis uzrunvelyofasa da msoflio TanamegobrobaSi am regionis qveynebis integraciis

48. www.worldbank.org

48

sakiTxebi. amis gamo samxreT kavkasia erT-erTi yvelaze problemuri regionia msoflioSi.

ruseTi kavkasias Tavisi gavlenis sferod miiCnevs da am regionSi misi istoriuli arsebobiT xsnis. am poziciidan gamomdinare, igi cdilobs regionSi Tavisi interesebis SenarCunebas nebismieri xerxiT. ruseTis mezobloba da misi ambicia iyos msoflios lideri saxelmwifo, seriozul safrTxeebs uqmnis saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis suverenul arsebobas.

ruseTis urTierToba samxreT kavkasiis qveynebTan didi sirTuleebiT gamoirCeva. es gasagebicaa, radgan:

1.samxreT kavkasias aqvs regionSi mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri da geostrategiuli mdebareoba. igi mdebareobs mTeli evropis usafrTxoebis sivrcis sazRvarze. samxreT kavkasiis regioni esazRvreba ruseTs, TurqeTsa da iranis islamur respublikas.

2.saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans aqvT centraluri aziis satranzito kvanZis umniSvlelovanesi upiratesoba da es xels uwyobs an uSlis (aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs, dsT-is samxreTsa da indoeTis okeaneebs Soris, komunikaciis ganviTarebas. aq aranakleb mniSvnelovania geopolitikuri tranziti, romelic am qveynebis centraluri rolis gansazRvris mTavari faqtoria momavali evraziis globalur modelebSi.

3.azerbaijani flobs navTobisa da gazis marags, romelis transportirebisaTvis gamoiyeneba saqarTveloze gamavali navTobsadenebi gazsadeni.

4.aSS-s Tavisi interesi aqvs axlo da Sua aRmosavleTSi da cdilobs gavlenis sferos gafarToebas balkaneTidan centralur aziamde TurqeTis, samxreT kavkasiisa da iranis gavliT.

5.iranis islamuri respublikis politikuri reJimi ar Seesabameba aSS-s strategiul miznebs, amitomac aSS iranis winaaRmdeg mimarTavs "izolaciisa da SeCerebis" politikas, rac iranis respublikas uqmnis dabrkolebebs rogorc sagareo, ise ekonomikur urTierTobebSi. amisTvis ki mimarTavs misi mowinaaRmdegeebisaTvis samxedro, politikur, ekonomikuri daxmarebis gawevas da sakuTari SeiaraRebuli Zalebis dislokacias iranis teritoriis maxloblad. amitomac aSS did interess iCens samxreT kavkasiis postsabWoTa qveynebisadmi. Tavis mxriv irani aZlierebs rogorc samxedro ise ekonomikur potencials da am mizniT aaqtiurebs TanamSromlobas ruseTTan, CineTTan, CrdiloeT koreasTan da sxva qveynebTan. irani dainteresebulia axlo da Sua aRmosavleTis, samxreT kavkasiis qveynebTan integraciuli procesebis

49

ganviTarebiT, amitomac mas surs gaxdes ara marto regionis lideri saxelmwifo, aramed unda, rom iyos msoflios uZlieres saxelmwifoTa ricxvSi. dasavleTis qveynebi ruseT-saqarTvelos saomar moqmedebebis dawyebamde frTxilad reagirebdnen ruseTis politikur nabijebze samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis mimarT, magram naTlad gviCvena 2008 w. saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris ganviTarebulma saomarma viTarebebma, rom ruseTi Tavisi miznebisaTvis ukan ar daixevs. dRes samxreT kavkasiaSi mSvidobis da omis sakiTxebis gadaWra aSS-s interesebsa da dsT-Si ruseTis rolzea damokidebuli.

saqarTvelom da azerbaijanma unda izrunon da gamoiyenon kavkasiis mier Tavisi politikuri mniSvnelobis da sagareo ekonomikuri erTierTobebis sazRvrebis gafarToeba, raSic orive qveyanas sakmarisi potenciali (geografiuli mdebareoba, bunebrivi da SromiTi resursebi) gaaCnia msoflio ekonomikisa da politikur sivrceSi Rirseuli adgilis dasamkvidreblad.

50

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