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2013

Contribution of Sindh

in Freedom

Movement of India

This is the translation from the Hndi Book by Prem Tanwani “Swatantra Sangram Aur Sindh Ka Yogdan”

Transleted by: Deepak Ramchandani

CONTRIBUTION OF SINDH

IN

MOVEMENT OF INDEPENDENCE

OF

INDIA

Author

Prem Motiram Tanwani

B-28, Galaxy Residence , amlidih , Raipur (Chattisgadh ) Mobile-9301179876

Transleted By:

Deepak Ramchandani

S.D.B.90, Adipur-Kachchh, Pin-370205

M-9426321521, 02836-262275

2

From My Pen:

I started reading history at the age of 45 years; most of the books I read were issued from N.R.Malkani library at Adipur.

One day I got a book by Prem Motiram Tanwani “Swatantra Sangram Aur Sindh Ka Yogdan”

I read this and shared my views with my wife that this book is worth translating into English, so that our generation which does not read Hindi could read the translated version. My family lives in Adipur and I am posted at Gandhinagar in Water Supply Board as Executive Engineer (Civil), I also shared the same with my colleagues and also narrated some important chapter of Parcho Vidhyarthi. But the question was of availability of time.

On 17th May 2013 I encountered with an accident and was injured on head, skull and teeth, I proceeded on medical leave, this had given me opportunity of passing time during rest period.

I spoke to the author Mr. Prem Tanwani on his mobile phone and got his permission and blessing.

I am neither scholar of Hindi nor English as being technocrat there is less use of English in our Job, so the translation is in simple language.

I can only translate facts, but translating feeling of the author is not possible, hence there are certain restrictions which may be regretted.

Also errors and omissions may please be regretted.

I also thank my Wife and Children for cooperating in my work.

Deepak Ramchandani

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Alexander was defeated in Sindh:

All the books of history are influenced by British, in which they always termed the attacking forces on nation as powerful. Alexander is termed as the conqueror of the world. He defeated Porus in India. He started from Iran and on the way towards Afghanistan he conquered almost small and big kingdoms. King Porus of the kingdom near Jhelum River in Punjab gave the tough fight to Alexander. Due to which he did not dare to attack on Magadha which was the powerful kingdom with large army. Alexander was opposed in Afghanistan and there was instability there so he wanted to return to Greece through route of Sindh. At that time Sindh was ruled by Sambas whose ancestors were Shri Krishna and Jhambwanti; this was the time of 324 BC when Alexander attacked Sindh.

As per the book written by H. T. Lembark “ Sindh before Muslim conquest” When Alexander started attack on Sindh with slogan “ Al illahi “, at the first instant Sindh soldiers was shocked and ran back , their King also ran back. There after they gathered courage and planned to attack back. At that time Brahmins were the dominating, intelligent and respectable personality in Sindh, they motivated the public to take revenge and attack, they also motivated King Sambas that to attack and bear his responsibility of protection of nation. At that time Sindh was extended up to Western Punjab and Multan. The attack on Alexander was severe by Sindh and this was the worst period of Alexander in his life.

In another book written by Plutarch” In one village of Multan, there was a camp of soldier which were termed as "mal pahalwan" ( mal is the art of fighting by body builder youths of this skill are known as Mall Pahalwan). These soldiers were famous in the nation. Reaching at this place Alexander had put himself in danger. Some these soldiers attacked Alexander and his arms were injured. One arrow penetrated his protection jacket into his chest. The attack was so deadly that he could not stand and rested on his knees. One soldier ran towards sword but was intervened by Macedonian soldier, otherwise it was the last day of Alexander. There was also

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rumor of Alexander’s death during this event, but he was taken by a Macedonian soldiers in safe place where he was treated.

After Alexander became healthy, he displayed his cruelty by killing hundreds of unarmed Brahmins, as due to Brahmins king Sambas and his soldiers gather courage to attack Alexander. When Alexander returned back out of 40000 soldiers only 15000 soldiers could return alive, remaining died during war.

As per the biography of Alexander written by Robin Len Paul, “ Majority of the soldiers of Alexander who returned back were of opinion that they had faced maximum difficult in Sindh area during attack on the Asia.”

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Alexander waterloo in Sindh

EVEN MORE than the Vedas and the Epics, Sindh figures very prominently in, of all places, the annals of Sikander that is Alexander.

British historians used to talk of Alexander as ``the world conqueror'' who ``came and saw and conquered'' every land he had visited. He is still advertised in Indian text-books as the victor in his war with India's Porus (Puru). However, the facts as recorded by Alexander's own Greek historians tell a very different tale. And Marshal Zhukov, the famous Russian commander in World War II, said at the Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun, a few years back, that India had defeated Alexander.

Alexander fared badly enough with Porus in the Punjab. Indeed, Porus put him on the spot when he told him: ``To what purpose should we make war upon one another. if the design of your coming to these parts be not to rob us of our water or our necessary food, which are the only things that wise men are indispensably obliged to fight for? As for other riches and possessions, as they are accounted in the eyes of the world, if I am better provided of them

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than you, I am ready to let you share with me; but if fortune has been more liberal to you than to me, I have no objection to be obliged to you.''

Alexander had no reply to the questions posed by Porus. Instead, with the obstinacy of a bully, he said: ``I shall contend and do battle with you so far that, howsoever obliging you are, you shall not have the better of me.'' But Porus did have the better of Alexander. In the fighting that ensued, the Greeks were so terrified of Indian prowess that they refused to proceed farther, in spite of Alexander's angry urgings and piteous lamentations. Writes Plutarch, the great Greek historian: ``This last combat with Porus took off the edge of the Macedonians' courage and stayed their further progress in India.... Alexander not only offered Porus to govern his own kingdom as satrap under himself but gave him also the additional territory of various independent tribes whom he had subdued.'' Porus emerged from his war with Alexander with his territory doubled and his gold stock augmented. So much for Alexander's ``victory'' over Porus. However, what was to befall him in Sindh, was even worse.

In his wars in Iran. Afghanistan, and north-west India,. Alexander had made so many enemies that he did not dare return home by the same route he had come. He had, therefore, decided to travel via Sindh. But in Multan the Mallas gave him hell.

When Alexander's hordes invaded Sindh with the novel war-cry ``Alalalalalai! `` the Sindhis were obviously scared. The rulers of Musicanus, Sindemana, and Patala --- identified by Dr. H.T Sorely I.C.S. author of The Gazeteer of Sind (1968), as Alor, Sehwan, and Hyderabad, respectively- fled. (``Patala'' is believed to be a Greek corruption of ``Patan'' which means river bank or sea shore). But before long they collected their wits and gave Alexander a very bad time. Notes H.T. Lambrick, a former commissioner of Sindh, and author of the Sindh before Muslim Conquest: ``There was a subtle power in Sindh which created the will to resist the foreigner, the influence of the Brahmins.'' Dushhala's settling of 30,000 Brahmins in Sindh had not gone in vain!

Alexander confessed to his friends back home: ``They(Sindhis) attacked me everywhere. They wounded my shoulder, they hit my leg, they shot an arrow in my chest, and they struck me on my neck with a loud thud.'' At one stage word had spread in the Greek camp that Alexander was dead --- and he had to be propped up and exhibited as alive!

Alexander never excused the Brahmins for persuading the Sindhi king Sabbas to stand up and fight. To the horror of the local people, he had a whole lot of them slaughtered. However, he

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was so impressed with the quality and spirit of the Brahmins that he captured and kept with him ten of them. Plutarch's account of Alexander's questions and their replies makes interesting reading.

``The first brahmin being asked whether he thought the most numerous the dead or the living, answered, `the living, because those who are dead, are not at all'. Of the second he desired to know whether the earth or the sea produced the largest beasts, who told him. `The earth, for the sea is but part of it . His question to the third was, `which is the cunningest of animals?' `That,' said he, 'which men have not yet found out.' He bade the fourth to tell him what argument he used with Sabbas to persuade him to revolt 'No other,' he said, `than that he should either live nobly or die nobly.' Of the fifth he asked, what was the oldest, night or day. The philosopher replied, `Day was oldest, by one day at least'. And perceiving Alexander not well satisfied with that account, he added that he ought not to wonder if he got strange answers for his strange questions. Then he went on and inquired of the next, what a man should do to be exceedingly beloved. `He must be very powerful, without making himself too much feared.' The answer of the seventh to his question, how a man might become 8 god, was, `By doing, that which was impossible for man to do.' The eighth told him, `Life is stronger than death because it supports so many miseries.' And the last philosopher, asked how long he thought it decent for a man to live, said `till death appeared more desirable than life'.

The philosophers in turn posed him questions of their own. Dandamis (Dandamani?) asked Alexander why he undertook so long a journey to come into those parts. Kalanus (Kalyan) refused to talk to Alexander until the latter stripped himself naked and then heard him with humility and attention. Kalyan then conveyed to Alexander that his roaming far and wide was not good either for him or for his country. Reports Plutarch: ``Kalanus threw a dry Shrivelled hide on the ground and trod upon the edges of it, to show it would not straighten out that way. He then stood on it in the centre, to show how it straightened out immediately.'' The meaning of this similitude was that he ought to reside most in the middle of his empire, and not spend too much time on the borders of it.

However, life in Sindh for Alexander was something more than these encounters with Brahmin philosophers. And the worst was yet to come. When he saw the mighty Indus, he thought he had found the source of the Nile! The presence of crocodiles in the Indus only confirmed him in this belief, since they were also present in the Nile. With much relief and great fanfare, his army sailed down the Indus in hopes of reaching Egypt. But they soon found themselves at sea, literally. Here the monsoon and the tides --- both unknown to his native little land-locked Mediterranean country --- bewildered him to no end. He split his army into two --- one half led

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by Alexander, to go by lower Sindh and coastal Baluchistan to Iran, while the other half, led by Nearchus, to proceed by sea. Soon the two halves lost contact, each thinking the other lost and dead! On the land route, the paucity of water drove many of them mad. As and when they found a pond, they would jump into it and drink and drink and drink until they bloated up dead! Of the 40,000 Greeks who had started out by land from Sindh, only 15,000 reached Iran. Writes Robin Lane Poole, the modern biographer of Alexander: ``All of them agreed that not even the sum total of all the army's sufferings in Asia deserved to be compared with the hardships in Makran. The highest officers were alive --- and so was Alexander --- but they had suffered a disgrace which was agonizingly irreversible. Alexander had known his first defeat''.

Obviously Alexander's Indian trip was about as ``successful'' as Napoleon's invasion of Russia. He, however, consoled himself with the thought that Queen Semiramis of Assyria, who had invaded Sindh, had been able to get back with only 20 men --- and Cyrus of Iran, with only seven.''

However, Alexander's Indian adventure was not entirely unproductive. He had introduced the Indian elephant to the West. He was so much impressed by the broad-bottomed boats carrying grain up and down the Indus, that he had them introduced in Greece. The Greeks now introduced five times more spices in the West. Sissoo (Sheesham) wood of the Punjab was used to build pillars for the Susa Palace in imperial Iran. He would, no doubt, have carried the mango also, but for the fact that its over-eating had given the ``God-king'' no end of loose motions. And so Alexander forbade mango-eating in his camp.

The Greeks had many interesting things to say about Sindh. Admiral Nearchus, who had led the Greek retreat by sea, noted that Sindhis were tall and slim and wore white leather shoes with thick soles, to appear taller. Vanity is neither recent nor imported!

Alexander had himself found Sindhis ``healthy and temperate and partaking of community meals.'' Obviously the Langar did not start with the Sikhs. He had also noted that the Sindhis ``hated war, and loved medicine'', the science of health and long life

There is one thing more the Greeks and the Sindhis have in common --- the Sindhi bhoonda or buja --- the peculiar Sindhi gesture of denunciation with an open, outstretched hand. When the Greek Cypriots wanted the British out of Cyprus, they had burnt the Union Jack with this ``handy'' denunciation. And when at the peak of the Pakistani people's demand for democracy Zia-ul-Haq toured Sindh in September 1983, he was greeted with the same gesture.

According to Prof. Demetrios Loukatos, this gesture has been in use in Greece since ancient times and it had even spread to the Romans and the Balkanians, particularly the Albanians. In

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Greek, it is known as moudja. With `b' often changing into ``m'' in Greek, the moudja comes very close to the Sindhi Buja or bhoonda.

Here is a good theme for a doctoral thesis --- to find out whether it was a gift from Sindh to Alexander or the other way round. Or whether it was carried to Greece by our Panis that is Phoenicians thousands of years before.

Source: http://www.defence.pk/forums/military-history-strategy/43568-alexanders-waterloo- Sindh.html#ixzz2W64whT32

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Maharaja Daharsen :

As per the history Sindh was the gate way of India since 5-6 centuries before Christ. From 4th to 7th century AD, from Rai Rajvansh to Daharsen, for 400 years, Sindh had boldly replied to the attacks of Muslims.

As per the Parsi history book‘ Baladari”: during the period of Daharsen who was son of King Coach, religious head of Iraq-Baghdad Khalifa Hazard send his brothers son and his son-in-law Mohammad bin Kasim with a big troop of soldiers to attack Sindh. The troops of soldiers reached on date 10th of Muharram of year 711 at Deval Port ( Karachi). Unfortunately at that time representative of King Daharsen, Gyanbudh was present who was follower of Buddha religion. Due to this he believed in non violence and was feared seeing this big group of Muslim soldiers. Hence Deval port was easily captured by Mohammad Bin Kasam; some Sindh soldiers who protested were also killed. Mohammad Bin Kasam ordered his soldiers to kill men, women, children; the Muslim soldiers killed Hindus in mass. Buddha temple was destroyed and mosque was established at that place. Hindus were forced to convert to Muslim.

Dahasen received the information of capture of Deval port by Muslims. He gathered all the Brahmins and instructed to spread the message of taking revenge and increase the spirit of patriotism. The Brahmins moved in all parts of Sindh and finally a large group of soldiers was prepared to fight against Muslims. On getting this message Mohammad Bin Kasam didn’t dared to move further. Slowly their food stock and ammunition started reducing. Khalifa provided him more food stuff and ammunition with the orders that war shall be continued in any respect also instructed to win war with conspiracy and in false manner.

As per the instructed of Khalifa, Mohammad Bin Kasam went met Mohammad Alafi who was already surrendered to Dharsen. He gave money to Mohammad Alafi and asked him to support

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in war. Chief minister of Ner-Kot ( Hyderabad) Mokshwas, his brother Rasal and “ Senapati” (commander of soldiers) Shamni was threatened for death and was offered money and post by Mohammad bin Kasim and were made prepared to fight from his side. All the three helped the Muslims in all ways. Mohammad Bin Kasam last fought last war with Daharsen in Aror ( Rohari Sukkur). Mohammad Bin Kasim was badly defeated in this war, that he was requesting his soldiers in the name of Allah and Islam to stop fighting.

Looking to the piety condition, Daharsen on the humanity ground send food and message that even though are enemy soldiers , but nobody dies of hunger in Sindh, you can return back and also the expenditure for the war shall also be paid.

As per the guidance of Mokswas, a conspiracy was done, a soldier in the appearance of woman started crying to save her from the Muslim who is trying to kidnap her. Listening this, Daharsen moved separated from his soldiers to rescue her. He reached there on his elephant, after reaching at the spot he was attacked by firing arrows , due to this his elephant was scared and he could not face the enemies properly and got injured. Any way he escaped from the situation and reached at safe place. His injuries were serious which resulted in death. Thereafter whole family and soldiers of Sindh died fighting for protection of Hindu men, women and children. The protectors of the gate way to India were killed and thereafter whole nation came under the rule of Muslims.

Maharani Ladi:

Maharani Ladi was queen of Daharsen, on hearing that king Daharsen died of conspiracy of Muslims, instead of beating chest and crying she saluted her husband in his mind and decided to take revenge.

She adopted saffron cloths and asked the women of Sindh to adopt saffron cloth and join in “Nari sena” ( Women army). Soon Nari Sena was established. The army of women was leaded by Maharani Ladi and entered the fort and started attacking Muslim by arrows and knives heated in oil. But this war didn’t continue for long time as Muslim soldiers broke the gate and started to fight against Nari Sena. Many women soldiers were killed by Muslim soldiers and ultimately few women remained along with Maharani Ladi. As there was no way, few women along with Maharani Ladi ran and jumped into the fire of funeral. This was the first case of Sati Pratha” (Ritual of burning ladies on funeral pyre of their dead husband) which continued till the end of Muslim rule. In Rohri District-Sukkhur there exist “satiyo ka isthan” which is the Samadhi place of Maharani Ladi and other women.

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Daughter of Daharsen: Suraj and Parimal:

In year 712 Maharaja Daharsen was killed by soldiers of Mohammad bin kasam. Court of Muslim religious leader of bagdad of Iraq Khalifa Hazard was celebrating their victory. They looted the Sindh and brought in Bagdad so dance and songs were going on in court.

Daughters of Daharsen, Suraj and Parimal were kidnapped by fraud and brought in the presence of Khalifa. They declared in the noble court that Khalifa being kind hearted is offering both the girls to become maharanis. They were asked to accept this offer and salute the Khalifa.

Hearing this two sisters started laughing, hearing this there was pin drop silence in the court of Khalifa. One soldier who declared the intention of Khalifa shouted at them, that they are inviting death by laughing in this way.

Younger daughter with the courage told that your pride is false and this royalty is dependent on the loot, yours Khalifa is also habitual of using second hand things. Even though you all feel pride and think that everyone must salute you. We are laughing due to this.

Khalifa stood up and shouted on the two girls and said, you had really gone mad and are inviting death. On this the elder sister Parimal got a plan in his mind, and with her head down and told to Khalifa that, yours son in law Mohammad bin Kasim is presenting us to you as Maharanis , but he himself in Sindh had done the act due to which we are not virgin now. The Khalifa ordered his soldiers to march towards Sindh and arrest Mohammad Bin Kasim and kill him.

Hearing this both the girls felt relieved.

Troop of soldiers moved towards Sindh to obey the order of Khalifa, where as Khalifa sat on his throne depressed. Nobody in the court dared to look into the eyes of these two girls. Two sisters were surrounded by soldiers and on getting opportunity they snatched the swords from soldiers , injured the soldiers and also injured each other , both fell on the floor and were in dyeing condition. The cruel Khalifa tied their hair on the tail of horse and ran the horses in the streets of Bagdad which resulted into their death.

In this way the two daughters of Maharaja Daharsen took revenge from Mohammad Bin Kasim against the cruel attack on Sindh.

Sacrifice of these two little girls is remembered till today and shall be remembered till the existing of world.

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Naomal Hotchand Bhojwani:

After rule of Kalhoras in Sindh in year 1783-1843, there was rule of Mirss of Talpur Muslims. Mirs were four brothers and hence Sindh was divided and ruled into four regions. There were continuous clashes between four Mir rulers in Sindh. The rulers were poor administrative and were giving one lakh rupees to Shah Suza of Afghanistan, Maharaja Ranjitsingh of Punjab and to British government.

During rule of Talpurs economic condition of Sindh was very bad. Most of the hospitals, schools, colleges, dharamshalas (free guest house for public) and buildings of social service were established by Hindu-Sindhi businessmen. During British rule also 98% of the contribution in social sector was of Sindhis. The population of Sindhis were only 27%. Even though the contribution more than the population, they were harassed by Muslims and were forced to convert into Muslim. In the book written by Mohammad Ibrahim Zoya titled “ Shah Sachal Sami” it was written that the conditions in Sindh were such that if Hindu Sindhi spoke Rassa word or told that he is not businessman ( Vaniya) then on witness of two Muslims he was forced to convert into Islam. Also as told by old age people it is stated that any rich or honored person who is Sindhi- Hindu could not ride horse, they had only right to ride donkey or Khacchar (Hybrid animal between horse and donkey), also if government officers or relative of Mirs crosses, they had to get down from Donkey or khacchar and stand by road side to salute them. If they did not act like this it was treated as crime. Frequently rich and honored Sindhi Hindus were assaulted by Muslims.

The example of attitude of Meters was that Gulam Ali forced the daughter of old Diwan Seth Gidumal for marriage. Seth Gidumal was loyal and also saved Sindh from Iran’s attack. Such patriotic personality, to protect the Hinduism attempted suicide by drinking poison. Feeling this as insulting act Gulam Ali murdered Seth Gidumal. During Kalhoda rule famous Sufi Saint Shah

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Inayat was also killed. As directed by the Mir rulers, staunch Muslims kidnapped father of Naomal, Shri Hotchand Bhojwani and tortured very much, he was forced to convert into Muslim and forcefully circumcised (Sunnat). Any way Hotchand escaped and sheltered into Lakhpat in Kachchh district of Gujarat.

During period of Mirs the economic condition of Sindh was very poor that British thought that it is ill fate of Sindh. During 1803-1842 they collected lakhs of rupees as tax and were satisfied with that. All four brothers were in competition of proving them faithful to British. Hence British were never interested to capture Sindh. In yea r1939 when British army reached Sindh to capture Afghanistan, at that time Mir Sher Mohammad of Mirpur Khas and Mir of Hyderabad’s army jointly attacked the godown of British near Gidu bandhar (Gidu Port) and fired the godown after loot (forcefully taking away something). Companion of Colonial Partinger, lieutenant Lekh was residing near the godown of British near Gidu bandhar. He managed to escape any way and reached up to the army troop near Thatha and came to the hilly region near Sindhu river bank and camped the army near Jiraknagar. On hearing of this incident Mir Noor Mohammad of Hyderabad written the apology letter with commitment to pay 27 lakhs rupees as fine to Britishers.

In Sindh for four and five generations there was famous business family of Bhojwani. Seth Naomal Bhojwani had good terms with British officers. He had helped Britishers in every way for reaching them to Afghanistan through Sindh. He also helped Britishers by providing horses, camels, Khacchar, food and labours. Also he helped financially to the Britishers.

Before attacking Karachi, Britishers admiral Sir Fedric Mitland fascilated the family members of Bhojwani to shelter in safe place. Also as per orders of Colonel Partinger British soldiers were deployed for safety of Bhojwani family. There after Britishers attacked on Manhole fort of Karachi and after three hours firing by arms the wall of fort was broken and Karachi was captured. Thereafter British army leaded by Colonel Otram along with the support of Shah Suza thorough rout of Shikarpur attacked Afghanistan. After capturing Gajni, Kabul and Jalalabad once again Shah Suza was given throne of Afghanistan.

In February 1843 there was fight between Mir Rustam of Khairpur and Mir Murad Ali and both started gathering their army. Mir Murad Ali requested for help to Sir Charles Napier, on hearing this Mir Rustam ran away to Hyderabad. Sir Neptune’s army followed Mir and reached to Karachi where only Balochi army fought from the Mir’s side. Due to inexperienced army of Balochi they ran away. All four Mirs also ran away and hided in the fort. All four brothers of Mirs did not faced British directly and ultimately surrendered, their whole properties were seized by Britishers. In Mumbai and Calcutta cases against Mirs were lodged and it decision for 10 years Desh Nekali (Expatriate) was given by court.

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Hence Seth Naomal took the revenge from Mirs and ultimately on 21 February 1843 Sindh was freed from rule of Mirs.

Forefather of Seth Naomal Seth Bhojumal Shroff was in business and use to export the material through Shah Bandar, Lahari and Khadak Bandhar. He was having his home and office in Mumbai; also he was having branches in Bengal, Surat, Porbandar, Kashmir and Malabar. He was having branches in Bushar of Iran, Shiraj, Bahrain, Kabul, Kandahar, Harat, Kalat, Baluchistan, Gwadar and Loesbelo. He also used to make business in Europe. After sometimes approach to Khadak Port was filled due to silting and ships were unable to harbor on the port. Due to this Seth Bhojumal, Seth Asudomal and other some businessmen gathered and decided to establish new port Karachi near village Kalachi. In this way Karachi came into existing. They also constructed fort near the port and all employees and business man use to live in the fort. For security cannon were installed on the walls of the fort. Karachi town was established in year 1729. After Seth Bhojumal his younger brother Bhai Kevalram took over the business and expanded much more. In 500 places of different countries he had employed 400 persons.

Bhojwani family in 16th century was famous for their charity in the country. In 1723 Kevalram and his wife Takhat bai rescued the women, children and other who were taken into captive by Nadir shah and Nassir khan. They rescued all the captives by paying to Nadir shah and send them back to Mathura. In year 1811-12 due to famine in Sindh, Kachchh and Marvad, there was food crisis in which Bhojwani family continuously helped and provided food for 7-8 months.

Sadori: Padmini of Sindh:

Sadori was daughter of Diwan Gidumal, Gulak Shah Kalohod desired to marry Sadori and tried to forceful marry her. Sadori’s brother talked her to agree upon the marriage for security of family. She replied that don’t thinks that she will become begum of Gulamshah but she would feel like residing in hell by becoming wife of Muslim ruler. Women are treated as substance by this Muslim ruler where as it is honored by Hindus and daughter in law is treated as Laxmi goddess and welcomed by the in-laws. She also told instead of becoming begum she would like to die. After this discussion she died of taking poison and became martyr for the honor and respect of Hindu women.

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Freedom movement of year 1857;

In year 1857 due to visit of Nana Saheb and Tatiya Tope in Hyderabad and Sukkar in Sindh, freedom movement got accelerated. Main leader in Shikarpur was Sardar Lifakhan; In Jacobabad was Sardar Bahadurkhan, Dariya Khan Jakhrani and Saiyad Iniyat Shah. All these four leaders were arrested due to freedom movement. Due to this freedom movement in Sindh did not succeed. Alifa Khan was blown by cannon. Saiyad Wahah with his two companions managed to escape by jumping wall of jail. Due to fear of Sardar Khaso and Jakhrani’s escape they were send in” Kalapani “(Cellular prison in island) Jail in Adman Island. When Shivaji Maharaj’s grandson Chinna Saheb was prisoner in army camp in Karachi, two troops of Hyderabad and Sukkur protested in front of army camp in Karachi.

In year 1859 there was also protest in Nagarparkar (Tharparkar) King Rano and his minister were arrested. After hearing of two years in court Rano was sentenced for 14 years and his minister was send for 10 years in Kalapani prison of Andman jail.

As per government records on 14th September, 1876 21st regiment of Native Army of Mumbai protested in Karachi. Prime motive of the protestors was captured and fired with 5 protestor with cannon, 12 were hanged and remaining protestors were send in kalapani jail in Andaman.

All these protesters were helped by food and other necessary things by Bhamashah.

This type of protest is in records of documents of British government, on the eve of 100 years of 1857 freedom movement on 10th May, 1957 a book was published in which there were no references of contribution of Sindh.

Tolaram Meghraj Balani “Aziz”

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Sindh- Sahiti (Navabshah district) was the resident place of Tolaram Meghraj Balani; he was revolutionist poet and play writer. He was also press reporter who wrote articles for the freedom and protest British government.

He was first person in Sindh who send message of Swaraj and Swadesh (Self rule & Goods produced within country) to each and every village. In year 1905 when he was in 6th standard, his teacher was Lalchand Amardiomal Jagtiyani who use to teach Parsi. As per the statement of his teacher Shri Tolaram also wrote poems in English and Parsi also. He along with Dr. Choithram Gidwani, Lalchand Amardinomal established the Natak Mandli (Stage play group) to spread the patriotism in each and every house of Sindh. He also published and edited three news papers “Mata”, “Sadhah hi Sindh” and Voice of India in English. At that time one school was opened in Naushahro which was named as Madarsa. Due to such non secular name he protested against the government by giving public speeches at many places and wrote many articles in his news papers. Due to this collector of Hyderabad under act 124 decided to lodge the case but his deputy collector Diwan Kodumal Khilnani explained that Tolaram is very famous and popular figure and lodging case against him shall result in mass protest from public.

In year 1907 his book of patriotic songs named “Mulk madah” was banned and seized by British government. His publisher was feared due to same and refused to publish his any material, but he started writing by his own hand and multiple copied by litho press and distributed.

Due to his article against “Rowlatt Act” he along with his companions Jethamal Parsram, Shri Hariram Madiwala and Durgadas Advani were punished and send to jail.

He wrote many impressive articles on Hindu-Muslim unity, foreign wine, foreign cloths and Swadeshi articles. He also published small booklets named Dadabhai Naoroiji, “Talim Jo taro”, “kom khe ker tho bharkai”, “Niha je rang sa miha ji jung”, “madhur madah”, “mulk madah” and “gyan gulzari”.

After hanging to Krantiveer Saheed Khudiram Bose, the prayer was kept in Gidumal School and Dr Gidwani read the lines of poem of Shri Balani.

“Aa Milo Maidan Me Zor Dikhaneke liye, Zohar dikhane ke liye aur veer banne ke liye”

“mat hato, ayyar ke zulm sitam se bhaiyo, hum fakhat paida hue hai aazmane ke liye”

He was born in year 1884 on Diwali. He left this world on 13th July 1913 at the young age of 28 years.

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There after his family decedents Seth Tejumal, Parumal, Chetandas and Narayandas also kept on working in the interest of nation.

Swadeshi Movement: Year 1910:

Much before Gandhiji due to motivation of Veer Savarkar, Swadeshi Movement was started in Sindh. During this movement foreign cloths and other materials were burned publically and Swadeshi material was produced and promoted to use. Also Swadeshi education was promoted and schools and centers were opened. In year 1905 there was wave of self reliance and main personality to advocate the same was Acharya Kriplani, Professor Jawaharmal Mansukhani who became famous as Swami Govindanand after completion of his jail term in Komagata Maru Ship case, Lalchand Amardinomal who was the personality who willed that his ashes shall be flown in the Sindhi River (Nathuram Godse also made similar will). Other than these personalities the main promoter of swadeshi movement was Maharaj Vishnu Sharma , who left his studies in between and started a shop of swadeshi things in Hyderabad, he was studying in Banaras and during his studies came in tough with patriotic of Bengali brothers. With efforts of Verumal Beghraj swadeshi shops were opened in Sukkur. Seth Chetumal Hariram started industry of swadeshi clothes in Shikarpur and Sukkur. Brother of Acharya Kriplani, Shri Veerumal started

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shop of swadeshi items in Hyderabad, which was place of secrete meeting and shelter for young freedom fighters.

Wearing Khadi was symbol of person who promoted swadeshi things. Khadi was worn specially by administrations of education and other institutes, teachers and students. Diwan Dayaram Gidumal, Diwan Prabhdas, Diwan Kodumal Chandanmal Khilnani and other elder leaders wore khadi. Workers of Brahmo Samaj, Arya samaj, Dev Samaj, and other small and big society started wearing Khadi. Production of swadeshi consumables turned into industry. This became the major source of earning also. Due to this ancient craft of cloths of Sindh became live which became dead due to rule of Muslims and English.

Along with boycott of foreign cloths, people also stated boycotting foreign sugar; even if swadeshi sugar was not available people use to drink milk without sugar. Soon swadesh sugar industry also started and flourished. The production of swadeshi sugar and jaggary ( Gud) was so much that markets of the trading started. Due to this there was huge economic loss to british government, due to this they started punishing to person who promoted and advocated swadeshi things.. On date 12th January 1910 under act 124 Govardhan Sharma was punished for five years, Virumal Beghraj and Chetumal Hariram of Shikarpur were punished for three years. At that time age of Govardhan Sharma was only 20 years and Virumal Beghraj and Cherumal Hariram were of 35 years age. There was the provision of death penalty in the above mentioned act.

In swadeshi movement the first swadeshi biscuit company was started by J. B. Mangaram in India and first swadeshi cigarette Lucku-5 was manufactured in Sukkur.

Swadeshi Education:

For promotion of swadeshi education gurukul was started in Karachi and in year 1910 Bhramcharya Ashram in Hyderabad, Aryakul in Sukkher, and Bhramcharya Ashram in Shikarpur were established. In Bhramcharya ashram of Hyderabad education system as per Hardwar was adopted, there were two secretaries of this ashram one was Maharaj Kalidas and second was Doctor Choithram Gidwani. At that time Doctor Choithram Gidhwani was professor of medical college in Hyderabad. This ashram was also the center of promotion and motivation of patriotism. This ashram was also shelter for young freedom fighters. Acharya Kriplani and Jawahar Mansukhani use to live in this Ashram during the leave periods. The time when Kaka Kalekar was living underground in Baroda he was invited by Acharya Kriplani to shelter in this

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ashram. Kaka Kalekar and Acharya Kriplani became friends in Ferguson College during their studies. Kakaji in this ashram was introduced as Sanskrit teacher and was then known as swami.

In this ashram news paper published by Bhramcharya Ashram of Bengal used to be read in this ashram, these news paper were “Vande Matram” and “Karamyogi. This ashram had facility of accommodation of 40-50 persons. The ashram was also equipped with bed, furniture, cloths and food, the expenditure was funded by rich persons of the Sindh and money was collected and accounted by Dr. Gidhwani. Many rich persons use to bring food and clothes to this ashram.

Akhil Bhartiya Congress Sammelan: 1913:

In year 1913 there was 28th All India congress Sammelan in Karachi. This function was attended by lala Lajpatrai, Pandir Madan Mohan Malviya, Aduljee Dinshaw, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, laloobhai samaldas , there were 125 participants leaders from different area. This Sammelan was chaired by Navab of Maysoor Saiyed Mohammed, to welcome the delegates and leader 500 representatives of hindu and muslim participated from whole Sindh. Chairman of Welcome committee was Shri Harchandrai Vishandas and general secretary was Ghulak Mohammad Bhirdudi and Hiranand Khemsingh. The success of Sammelan was very much and in the speech of general secretary Dinshaw it was stated that arrangement was truly very good.

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The event also witnessed the bold words of lala Lajpatrai “ Britisher dogs kicked those who soothes them and he kicked those who soothes british dogs “ Lala Lajpatrai also visited many cities in Sindh. Donation of rupees 20 thousand from Karachi and Rs 10 thousand from Shikarpur were given by Sindhi people for the aid to Indians in South Africa. There was great attendance in Rani Baugh Hyderabad to listen speech of Madan Mohan Malviya. At that time “ Manpatra” was presented which was written in Sansktri by Maharaj Nenaram Sharma.

Komagata Maru Ship case: 1913

In south Africa there was terror against Indians by English people and to end this terror under leadership Baba Gurudutsingh a ship named Komagata Maru of Japan was hired from Kolkata. The ship was filled with arms and ammunition. This ship was restricted the entry on Vencuer port, hence ship was brought back to Kolkata. The ship was captured and Professor Jawahar Mansukhani and his brother Naraindas were arrested and both were on board of ship. Case was lodged and both were punished for five years. Baba Gurudut singh managed to escape and was living by changing appearance in the house of Lokram Sharma and Vishnu Sharma. Price of rupees forty thousand was declared by british government who gives the information about Baba Gurudut singh. After completin of jail term of 5 years Jawahar Mansukhani started Ramkrishin ashram and Bhramcharya Ashram and thereafter became to be known as Swami Govindanand. He was also companion of acharya Kriplani and Khemchand Balani. He along with Khemchand Balani started to publish two papers named ‘ anand” and “ Shakti”

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Azad hind Sarkar-1915

File photo of Obedullah Sindhi

In 1915 to get freedom from British government Azad Hind was constituted by famous freedom fighter Obedullah Sindhi. The president of this sarkar was King of aligadh Mahindra Pratap

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Singh, prime minister was Barkatali Bhopali of Bhopal and home minister was Obedullah Sindhi. This government established 12000 soldiers from tribal community. Azad hind sarkar was helped from German, Turkey and Afghanisthan, their leaders also met comrade Lelen. To pass the secrete message this organization used silk handkerchief “ Reshmi rumal”. The main person to use silk handkerchief for passing message was Diyo Kriplani. A film was also made in the name of Reshmi Rumal which resembles this story of freedom movement.

To decrease the communal difference between hindus and muslims for fighting for freedom , Diyo Kriplani converted himself into muslim and was named as Sekh Abdul Rahim. Diyo kriplani was brother of Acharya Kriplani. Another freedom fighter from Punjab also converted himself to muslim and was named Obedullah Sindhi, he was born in Sialkot in Punjab, he loved Sindh very much and hence named himself Obedullah Sindhi. Diyo Kriplani for azad sarkar sold the ornaments which were kept for marriage of his daughter and ornaments of his wife and other costly things of his house. He donaged all his money received from the sale of theses things.

Quote by Mahatma Gandhi:

After the first visit of Sindh by Mahatma Gandhi in year 1916 he stated after reaching to Mumbai that “ He felt and saw more patriotic movement in Sindh than in Mumbai’ “ Rashtriya chetna bambai se adhik Sindhi me dikhai di”

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Article by Maharaj Lokram Sharma in news paper “ Hindu “ for Home Rule.

There was first world war and war was going on between England and Germany in year 1914. Governer in Mumbai called a conference and kept the agenda for deploying Indian soldiers to help British government. Lokmanya Tilak agreed conditionally that after completion of war Home rule shall be implemented. But governor withough agreeing upon this condition passed the resolution for deploying Indian soldiers to help British government. Due to this Lokmanya Tilak along with his supporters left congress party. Maharaj Lokram Sharma in the news paper “ Hindu” wrote in protest of this issue” Hindustan will never support british govetnment in world war till independence is given. Due this article collector of Hyderabad called Sharma and warned him for printing such article which creates hurdle in deploying Indian soldiers in world war for helping british government.

Special train for Amritsar for congress conference;

To pay tribute to martial of Jaliyanawala baugh congress decided to keep 34th Sammelan in Amrutsar. This was also to demonstrate fearlessness. For attending this event a special train was arranged from Sindh to Amrutsar. Dr. Choithram Gidhwani appealed all the congress

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supporter of Sindh. Train was decorated with tricolor flag and whole group travelled singing patriotic songs and was welcomed on every station.

On reaching troops from Sindh visited and prayed at the place of Jaliyanawala Baugh. On the insisting of Dr. Gidhwani every Sindh made his own arrangement of food and other facilities.

Sindhis didn’t became burden on Swagat committee but they helped in all the activities. Under leadership of Dr. Gidhwani morning procession was arranged in streets of Amritsar by singing Sindhi lok sangeet and patriotic songs. In evening tribute was paid to saheeds and entered Jallianwala Baugh. Due to sprit of Sindh other regions were also motivated.

Chairperson of Swagat Samiti Dr. Kachlo and Chairman Pandit Motilal Nehru paid respect to Dr. Gidhwani and invited him to speak few words.

On the stage he read the poem of Tolaram Kalecha and listening this, whole atmosphere were covered by noise of clapping and shouted with slogans “Vande Matram” and “Bharat Mata ki jay”. Some persons lifted Dr. Gidhwani and went up to stage to seat Dr. Gidhwani between Mahatma Gandhi and Lokmanya Tilak.

Group from Punjab also sang and danced with swords in their hand. Dr. Gidhwani also danced with them and added one more line in their song.

In this event there arose the difference between Mahatma Gandhi and Tilak regarding Montigo Jhames Ford reforms, due to this all congressmen were divided into two groups.

In this situation Jayaramdas Daulatram made necessary corrections in the draft which was acceptable to both the groups. Hence unity among congress was maintained.

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Due to intelligence of a Sindhi this unity could be maintained; hence Mahatma Gandhi addressed Jayramdas as true gold” Sacha Sona”

Jayramdas Daulatram was governor of Assam in the tenure of Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. Due to his ability and initiation thousands of acres of land was saved from going into possession of China.

During this sammelan it was proposed by Shri Gidhwani for constitution of separate regional congress samiti in Sindh which was unanimously accepted. Thereafter in Sindh regional congress was established. The first chairman was Dr. Gidhwani; he was also named as Sher-E- Sindh in Sindh.

After partition he rehabilitated from Sindh, due to negligence by Indian government towards rehabilitated Sindhis, he left congress party. In 1852 he was elected as Member of Parliament from Thane constituency on the ticket of Socialist party. He was engaged in social service lifelong.

Banned and seized articles published in Sindh:

In year 1857 there was freedom movement against which British government killed many people. The terror by British government was published in various articles of news papers and British government banned such type of articles. A news published in Sindh named “ Sindh Kasid” in the edition of July protested against British government stated in the article that “ this type of dictatorial orders by British government shall result very bad which shall be harm British government” But such type of dictatorial policy continued till the independence by britishers. Due to such policy in Sindh literature against Britishers published in Sindhi and Gurmukhi language was banned and seized. In year 1907 also books written by Totaram Balani “Aziz” were banned and seized which was named as “Mulk Madah”

22 books containing 2200 pages of the articles for the freedom movement, a booklet published by “Hindu” news paper containing 40 pages titled “Lokmanya Tilak parcho” was also banned and seize. In these documents there were patriotic songs, stories articles and other such articles. The article also consisted of Rashtra Kavi Hundraj Dukhayal’s poems “Phansi geetmala” and “aalape azadi” in two booklet forms. Also the book written by Dwarkadas Rochiram Sharma “Inqulab zindabad” containing the story was the important documents seized and banned by British government.

Aalap azadi contained one song which is translated into Hindi as.

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Aab bhi ane se agar, karoge inkar aazadi

To dekhoge navjavno ke sheesh, dhar se alag aazadi.

“Inqulab Zindabad” was the story of 10 years old motherless girl having parrot as pet. The child was named as Ganga and he recited the parrot “inqulab zindabad” and “Hindustan azad” Gang’s father was police inspector in British government. In the town many freedom fighters were beaten during salt satyagrah. Ganga also participated in the freedom movement in “Bandar sena” and was killed during the freedom movement. His father saw his daughter dying in the freedom movement. When inspector reaches home the parrot appeared in front of him, then the father shouted the slogan of “inqulab zindabad”. Parrot also died without Ganga.

Following documents which were banned by British government are existing in British library and Indian office library in London. It was discovered by Hiro Thakur and he mentioned the same in his book “Dabhyal aawaz”. This book was published by Sindhi academy Delhi.

1.Phansi Geet mala- By Hundraj Dukhayal

2.Aalape Aazadi – By Hundraj Dukhayal

3.Gandhi Mala- By Maharaj Kalidas

4.Manmohan Bhajanwali- By Nathurmal Sharma

5.Gandhi Gulshan- By Mohandas Udharam

6.Gandhi geet- By Chatrabujh Lachiram

7.Aazad Bhajanwali- By Narayandas “ Aazad”

8.Swaraj jo sahino- By Jayramdas Moolchandani

9.Deshmala- in Gurukukhi part-I

10.Deshmala- in Gurukukhi part-II

11.Tilak ji Yaad- By Maharaj Krupaldas

12.Swaraj Mahatma- By Motardas Shobraj

13.Hindu news paper- Edition of Tilak

14.Bandhi Jeevan- 2 parts- Sindhi translation of Bengali novel.

15.Aaj-Kalha Jo sudhar- Sindhi translation of Gujarat novel by Naraindas Kishandas Chaturvedi.

16.Inqulab zindabad- By Dwarkaprasadh Rochiram

17.Dharasana kahani- A report by Tirthdas Lekhraj

18.Dharasana te kah- Book on salt movement

19.Community Padhar namo Part I & part II

20.Jinnah khe Javab- By Chandragupt VidhyaShankar and translated in Sindhi by Lalchand Arya

21.Posture on Angrezi Aasan

22.Ladia jo Lardat eh Kayaran jo Kukat- By Shahnavaz Pirzada.

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Non -cooperation movement in Sindh-1920-21

Editors of “Hindu” news paper arrested:

During non-cooperation movement of year 1920-21 British government was scared by the articles published in the news paper “Hindu”. This news paper was established by Maharaj Vishnu Sharma and Maharaj Lokram Sharma. The patriotic articles in this news paper motivated the freedom movement in Sindh. Article in protest of Jallianwala Baugh was also written in this news paper “British government tried to conceal their fault of mass murders in Jallianwala Baugh, each drop of all the Saheeds shall produce such power, which will destroy British government. British government also agreed their mistake for which they have to suffer. Under penal act 124 due to these objectionable articles eight editors were punished for imprisonment in jails. Vishnusharma was punished for three years, Daulatram and Professor Ghanshayam Shivdasani were punished for two years, Dr. Choithram Gitwani , Choithram Kalecha, Hiranand Karamchand and Lokram Sharma were punished for one year, Jhamatmal Lakhansing was punished for one and half year. On the advice of Mahatma Gandhi this news paper started publication in India in the name of “Hindustan”

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Editors of “Vatan” weekly magazine arrested:

During non-cooperative movement, editors of weekly magazine “Vatan” were arrested. This magazine was published by Lilaram Ferwani. Under penal act 124 editors were arrested which were Lilaram Ferwani, Bilandram Vasandmal, Tikamdas Damodardas and Kanyalal Thakurdas.

Title of editorial article was “Yatha raja tatha praja”. In this article a entertaining story was written in which it was stated that” Once King Akbar travelled by boat and asked the boatman that whose rule was good, his rule, his father Baber’s rule or his grandfather Humayu’s rule. Boatman with folded hands stated that during rule of Humayu his grandfather was in same occupation, one passenger forgets his bag in the boat and my grandfather searched his addressed and gave the bag to his owner. During rule of Baber my father was also in same occupation, one passenger forget his bag in the boat, my father brought the bag in his home and when passenger came searching for bag in his home he gave the bag to the owner. In my case when a passenger forget a bag, I took it to my home and when passenger came searching for the bag, I told that I don’t know any bag. Now Akbar you decide whose rule was better. The saying of “Yatha Raja yatha praja” is for the story. This means that the people are good when king is good and people are bad when their king is bad.

Editors of “Shakti” weekly magazine arrested:

Famous weekly news paper “Shakti” was published by land lord of Nosharo- Navabshah Sahiti Shri Khemchand Balani. In March 1922 four editors were arrested. Khemchand Balani was punished for one year, his brother Gurumukhdas Balani for three months and Mansingh Cuharmal for one month. Swami Shivanand was punished for three months and there after one more year. Before that this paper was published monthly by Swami Govindanand (Jawahar Mansukhani)

Editor of “ Hindwasi” Jethamal Parasram”

Editor of news paper “ Hindwasi” Shri Jethram Parasram was also arrested under the penal act 124 in which the penalty up to death could also be imposed.

On 30th March 1919 during the protest of “ Rowlatt Act” British police fired to the protestors. Swami Shradanand stood firmly and exposed his chest to invite the bullets of British police. Shri Jethmal Parasmal wrote an article in this protest along with the lines of famous poet Shah Abdul Latif. Government advocate argued that he had used word killing where as in real sense the word meant Atma Balidan. The advocate of Shri Jethmal also argued the same in the court.

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The argument of his advocate was not considered by the Judge and was punished for 18 months jail.

As per Sindhi language “Sh” is converted into “Ha”, hence Sindh as hind, Saptah as hafta, hence Kusarh means self killing and Kuharu means killing. If the judge and government advocate had knowledge of Sindhi literature that Shri Jethamal could have acquainted .

Quit India daily bulletins:

Price for information of publisher and editor of quit India daily bulletin was declared by British government of Rs ten thousand.

The bulletin was published from different location and distributed. Shri Prabhdas Bhramchari and Deepchand Trilokchand Belani were publishing and distributing secretly in whole Sindh. Wife of Shri Belani, Shrimati Mohinidevi was arrested eleven times for distribution of this bulletin. Twelfth time when she was arrested for two months , she was carrying child in her womb. The main supporters for the publications were Shri Pitambar Melharam Vaswani, Shrimati Ganga Metharam Khilnani and Shrimati Shanti Sahani.

A person arrested in “ Pindrapol bomb case” gave information that the publisher of this bulletin is Deepchand Belani, hence warrant was issued for arrest, but as he was not openly working for the bulletin hence police could not recognize him.

In Navabshah District this bulletin was published under guidance of Prabhdas Bhramchari by Trilok Tulsiani and Duhamel. Many times it was also printed in press of Khemchand Balani. Police raided this press many times but returned empty handed. Trilok Tulsiani was punished to stay within boundaries of Navabshah, but he disobeyed and was sentenced to six month imprisonment. Nari Gurnani and twenty other supporters were punished due to same reason.

Editor of “ Nav Bharat” jailed:

“ Nav Bharat” news paper was published by Deepchand Trilokchand Belani in year 1937. The editor was Motumal Sachhanand Thavani. This paper had motivated the freedom movement . The paper also published the articles of public problems.

Editor Motumal Thavani under the penal act of 120 was sentenced for four month imprisonment.

Editor of “ Mata”- Dadi Krishna Devi:

“Mata” was published in Nosaharo in Gurmukhi language and was specially for women, it was published weekly. The editor of the paper was Dadi Krishna Devi Hindorani and co-editor was

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Shri Gulabrai Shivandas Savnani. In this paper articles for freedom movement motivation and social awareness were published. After some years this paper was published monthly.

Forty family members of Khemchand Balani family arrested:

In Naosaharo Firoz of Navabshah District 40 members of Khemchand Chetandas Balani family were jailed due to freedom movement. His brothers were Gurmukhdas, Parsram, Kotumal and Kesumal Balani. Khemchand Balani was big land lord, his six big houses were the center of freedom movement. These houses were used as girl’s school, Congress office, Printing the articles for freedom movement, godown of storage of food stock, library, for conducting secrete meetings and shelter place for wanted and underground freedom fighters. Shri Balani published “ Anand” news paper and was editor of “Shakti” news paper. On 7th march 1922 he published the article of protest against which he was punished and send to jail, also land of his father Chetandas was seized by British government. British government many times raided his house and seized lot of print material of articles of protest. During year 1917-18 due to epidemics of influenza he along with Jawahar Mansukhani served the people and visited many villages.

After partition he settled in India and refused the pension given to him as freedom fighter. He quoted that “ serving mother land is the duty of son, it is not patriotism to get the reward against the service done to the mother land”

Shri Jaykishin Balani was from his family and was the honest police officer of Rajasthan.

Sacchanand Ferumal Thavani’s eleven family members jailed:

Sacchanand Ferumal during his child hood was involved in freedom movement and he was resident of Naosaharo Firoz of Navabshah District. His eleven family members were jailed for participating in freedom movement. This included himself Sacchanand, his son Rochiram, Motumal, Govindram, daughter-in law Kamla, Jhanki, Tulsi and two children, his daughter Kesi and son-in law Nihalani. Rochiram Thavani of this family also participated in freedom movement, at present he is settled in Nagpur- Maharashtra and is involved in social service, he use to send “Rakhis” on Rakshabandhan made by women by hand to the soldiers along and greetings with dry fruits on the occasion of Diwali.

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Service to country and “Jail Yatra” by whole family:

There were many families in Sindh , in which whole family was involved in freedom movement and were sentenced to jail.

1.Famous land lord of Navabshah of Sahiti District Tejumal Balani resigned from the post of Magistrate and surrendered his license of gun. His son Hundraj, Kesumal, Parmukhdas and Laherimal, his Brother Seth Chetandas’s son Khemchand, Seth Naraindas’s son Parsaram, Seth Parumal’s son Kotumal and other members took part in freedom movement. Kesumal, Gurmukhdas ,Khemchand and Kodumal were jailed due to freedom movement.

2.Whole family of landlord kaka Nebhandas Fatnani participated in freedom movement in year 1921. He was owner of Middle School in Dadu where he was head master. Whole family including women use to wear khadi. His elder son Hariram left his studies due to freedom movement, his brother Bhai Damomal, his brother’s son Atmaram Verumal and Roopchand resigned from the government service due to freedom movement.

3.Professor Hasanand “Jadugadh”( Magician) , his son in law Shyam Fatnani and his father Kaka Nebhandas Fatnani participated in freedom movement

4.Landlord of Halani Vishandas Gurbani, his sons Nevadram, Nekumal, Lalchand, Prabho, Manu and daughter –in law Dadanbai were jailed due to participation in freedom movement.

5.Diwan Kodumal Khilnani, his son Manohardas and daughter in law Amrutadevi participated in freedom movement.

6.Maharaj Nenaram Sharma, his son Lokuram Sharma, Vishnu Sharma and his brother’s son Dwarkaprasadh Sharma participated in freedom movement.

7.Acharya Asudomal Gidwani, his wife Ganga, his brother Alamchand and sister Parpati participated in freedom movement.

8.Acharya Kriplani, his elder brother Dio Kriplani (Sheikh Abdul Rahim), younger brother Veerumal and Gopi Kriplani, Sister Kiki Lalwani participated in freedom movement.

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9.Topan Mukhi of Kachchh, his wife Kamla Mukhi and daughter Shanti.

10.Shrimati Shamidevi, Shri Khiyaldas and his daughter Kaushalbai.

11.Shrimati and Shri Bhagwandas Nandusingh and his brother Dayaram Nathusingh.

12.Resident of Navabshah, Shrichand Mevaram and his wife took part in freedom movement and was jailed for same. They established girl’s school in year 1924.

13.Verumal Beghraj and his son Ramchand Beghraj.

14.Shrimati Sushila and Shri Jethanand Bhagwandas Lalwani.

15.Shrimati Leela and Mohandas Ramchandani.

16.Shrimati Mohini and Shri lalchand.

17.Doctor Isardas Jagtiyani and his brother Bherumal Isardas Jagtiyani.

18.Kamladevi and Govindrai Bhariya.

19.Shrimati Gopibai and Shri Roopchand Fatwani.

20.Communist leader advocate Banaram, his daughter Pushpa Laxman Banwani.

21.Shrimati Seetadevi and Doctor Dayaram.

22.Shrimati and Shri Seth Parsaram.

23.Shrimati Laxmidevi and Shri Isardas Kodai.

24.Shrimati Kamladevi and Shri Kishan Chawla.

25.Shrimati Padmadevi and Shri Dharamdas Jiandani

26.And many such families.

Khudabadi Sonara Navjavan Mandal:

During the visit of Pandit Nehru in 1936 in Hyderabad Sindh, idol of Nehru, Gandhi and Subhash Chandra Bose which were decorated with pearls were gifted to Nehru. Also the golden garland of 100 grams was presented.

Non-cooperation movement:

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During Non-cooperative movement at least 200 people from Sindh were punished and send to prison. But as per the book published by government “ Non-cooperative movement in Sindh” it is stated that only 130 freedom fighters were jailed. In this movement 72 persons were Muslims also as they were insisted by Mahatma Gandhi during Khilafat Movement to support Hindus in freedom movement. This was the major participation of Muslims. At the end of the government document district wise persons jailed was mentioned. Karachi -29 persons, Hyderabad-20 persons, Sukkur-20 persons, Larkana-20 persons, tharparkar-28 persons, Jackobabad- 20 persons.

Some names of freedom fighters were as;

Lalchand Amardinomal, Nathram Damodar ,Manilal Vyas, Sarsingh Nanumal, Swami Krishnanand, Bhagumal Tarachand, Kesumal Jhangiani, Pamandas Sugnomal, Amalsingh Nevandram, Verumal Beghraj, Bhojraj Motumal, Sugnomal Khialdas, Bhagwandas Hazare, Parasram Tahalramani, Maharaj Dwarka Prasadh, Pandit Udaybhan, Gangashanker Prabhushanker, Dhalumal Kishanchand, Bhagumal , Sachanand Ferumal, Kesumal Tejumal, Dharmumal Khiomal, Hasomal Chandumal, Govindram Naraindas, Khemchand Chetandas, Chadomal Santdas, Hemandas Sevakram, Nevandram Tirthdas, Dr. Meghraj Chenrai, Pherumal Teckchand, Kodumal Hiranand, And Thakurdas Motandas,

In spite of these names , names of editors of news paper were also mentioned who published protesting articles. Minimum names of 157 persons were mentioned in this list which was from Sindh who boycotted and resigned the government job and other status.

The main names of these persons are

Hasomal Bharumal Shivdasani- Astt. Collector, Tarachand Deomal Gajara, Sukhramdas Tulsidas, Metharam Isardas, And Nanikram Jivatrai.

Names of some advocate are as:

Pahalajrai Sakhatrai Gidwani, Ratansingh Gidumal Malkahi, Moolchand Ferumal, Lakhasingh Karamchand, And Arjandas Roopchand.

During non-cooperative movement in Matiyari near Hyderabad one Muslim was killed in police firing. Hence there was tense in Matiyara. Due to this one freedom fighter named Mahobat Ali Shah in the jail went on hunger strike for 11 days. Lot of efforts were made by Dr. Choithram Gidwani and Sheikh Abdul Masjit to sooth the tense situation in Matiyari, due to these efforts inquiry was conducted on police who fired and police were found guilty. There after peace restored in Matiyari.

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During non-cooperative movement participation Bhojraj Motwani, Vedomal Vaparimal and Pamandas Gugnomal were sent to the famous Visapur Jail which was named as “ Hell” in that period. Non-cooperative movement was also on its highest during year 1921 also. This year was the punishment year of the persons conducting public addressing, strikes and protesting activities.

File photo of Jhamanlal Bajaj

In Nagpur local authorities had vowed to hoist the National flag. Due to this under leadership of Jamnalal Bajaj, “Jhanda- Satyagrah” was organized, to participate in this movement many freedom fighters from all over country came to Nagpur. Group of 7 persons from Sindh reached Nagpur on 1st July 1923, which included Kodomal Abhichandani, Narsinghlal and Namomal . The British government ultimately removed the restriction on flag hoisting.

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Simon Commission: 1928:

In year 1928 Simon commission was constituted under Mister John Simon to investigate the reforms and changes done by regional council and assembly. There was no Indian member hence congress boycotted the Simon commission. The procession in this protest was taken out by Punjab Kesri Lala Lajpatrai in Lahore. The protestors shouted with slogan “ Simon commission, go back” and protestors were beaten by police with sticks. Lala Lajpatrai was also injured in this attack and left this world on 17th November 1929. It was ill fate that such type of National leaders left this world before independence. Lokmanya Tilak also left this world before independence which was also ill fate for the nation. Dr, Choithram Gidhwani from Sindh went to pay tribute to Lalaji, there was the protest in whole nation , and similarly protest was made in Sindh also.

A proposal was made in central assemble by Swaraj party to protest this Simon commission. All the assembly members reached Delhi to vote for the proposal. At that time assemble member of Sindh Seth Harchandrai was not well. On knowing this Sarojni Naidu reached Karachi and insisted Seth Harchandrai to reach Delhi to vote. Doctors didn’t advised him, even though Seth Harchandrai came to Delhi to vote. He reached the assemble by wheel chair and voted. On his return journey back to Sindh on 16th February 1928 he left this world for heaven. The place on which National conference of congress was held in 1931 was named as “ Saheed Harchandrai Vishanas Nagar”

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Total Independence : 1929 “ Purna Swaraj” ( Declaration

of Independence )

In December 1929 in Lahore congress conference, under Chairmanship Pandit Nehru proposal of independence was placed. In the previous year of 1928 it was decided by the congress party that if British government did not implement Domain state than next year total independence shall be demanded. Due to constituency of domain state , Hindustan was to become member of British common wealth as other nations. Canada, Australia etc were member of British common wealth. But British government did not accepted this demand, hence in year 1929 on the bank of Ravi river in Lahore conference, national flag was hoisted and was vowed to secure total independence. In this conference it was decided that 26th January every year shall be celebrated as Independence day.

After passing of total independence proposal, it was declared for Namak Satyagraha to disobey the British laws. It was of opinion that British government had done unjust to poor by imposing tax on salt. Before that poor people use to make salt from the sea water for which there was no tax.

Namak Satyagrah: 1930

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For total independence ( purna swaraj) various movements such as non-cooperation movement , boycott of foreign things and Namak Andolan was started by Mahatma Gandhi. But it is state that 15-20 years long back Shyamji Krishna Verma gave the mantra of non-cooperation movement. He uncovered the false mask of britishers who pretended to be polished, he started the movement in Europe sitting on the chest of the britishers, and he unmasked their polished mask in front of whole world. In year 1906 in Kolkata conference of congress Dadabhai Navroji was the first to spell the word “ Swaraj” He stated that it is objective of Indian National congress to obtain Swaraj for Bharat. In this congress it was addressed to people that they should boycott foreign things and promote swadeshi education.

15-20 years before Namak Andolan, Bal Gangadar Tilak addressed not to pay tax on salt production. He also addressed that they will not pay tax for salt production to British government, we will not help government for maintain peace and law, we will not cooperate in running the courts but we will establish our own courts. If the time demands we will not pay any tax. He also addressed that you should gather and implement this, if this is implemented you are independent from that day.

Under the leadership of Gandhi in year 1930 Namak Satyagrah was started. On date 16th April 1930 a group of 73 satyagrahis reached the sea coast near village Dandi where all manufactured the salt by boiling water. One of the satyagrahi was Anand Hingorani from Sindh. To participate in Dandi march five representatives from Sindh, Dr. Choithram Gidwani, Sitaldas Kashiram, Master Gobindram, Bharumal Kakwani met Gandhiji, but Gandhiji told to return to Sindh and make Salt Andholan successful in Sindh.

Attack on satyagrahis at Dharasana salt depo.

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Mahatma Gandhi was arrested after Dandi March and before starting satyagrah on Dharasana Depo in Gujarat. Sarojni Naidu leaded the troop towards Darasna Depo for satyagrah . In this troop under the leadership of Hariram Mandiwala and Shevak Bhojraj , 21 satyagrahis from Sindh participated. In this reference Shri Hariram Mandiwala wrote in his book” In the early morning all satyagrahis prayed to god that they are landing into war field of satyagrah and life and death of them is in hands of god” After prayer group reached in front of salt depo and submitted themselves to surrender, then a sound of “Maro-maro” ( Kill-Kill) was heard, within seconds all armless satyagrahis were beaten by deadly weapons. Protector of public started beating to helpless and armless satyagrahis . All the persons were injured and not a single part of body was excused. All the satyagrahis were naked and abused with bad words and sticks were inserted in their back side. Their private parts were beaten by their foots, the police danced on their chests in unmanly manner. On the unconscious protestants nails were inserted and horses were run over them and they were thrown into bushes and pits.

This was fight between violence and non violence, sprit power and animal power, All the protestors without any word and opposition continued to be beaten , this is the true braveness

. Such braveness is rarely seen in the world. In this incident Shri Tulsidas Bhatia ( Music teacher) and Pamandas of Sindh were badly injured.

Namak Satyagrah in Sindh:

Before starting of Namak Satyagrah, Muslims were separated from the congress and joined the Muslim league. Mohamad Ali Jinnah opposed the Gandhiji’s address to Muslims to co-operate and participate in Khilafat Andolan and non-cooperation movement. Due to the opposition Jinnah left congress. There after leaders of Muslim league explained Jinnah to join the Muslim league. Due to this address of Mahatma Gandhi to Muslims, many Hindu leaders also left congress and joined Hind Sabha. During 1937 assemble election Hind Sabha won 10 seats which was also equal to 10 seats won by congress. Due to this Gandhiji was suspicious about the success of Namak Andola in Sindh. But his suspicion was found not to be true.

6th to 13th April in Sindh was celebrated as “Kaumi Saptah”. During this period groups were formed to boycott the salt tax. In the first troop who was to break salt tax law on 13th April 1930. In this group leaders of Sindh, Narayandas Bechar, Swami Krishnanand, Manilal Vyas, Dr. Tarachand Lalwani, Maharaj Vishnu Sharma and Dr. Choithram Gidwani were present. Under their leaderships a grand procession was started with thousands of people participating, in this procession men, women and children participate. Thousands of people drawn water from the sea and started manufacturing salt. The news of breaking of salt tax law spread like electricity in Karachi and whole of Sindh.

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On 16th April police arrested all the above 6 leaders of the Namak Andolan and were presented before Magistrate Richardson in the court. Thousands of the protestants were present in front of court. Police to disperse the crowd lathi charged them. The protestants started pelting stones on the police. Jayaram Daulatram with his folded hands requested the public to keep peace , but without any warning police opened firing on public. In this firing one youth from Shikarpur Meghraj Lulla and one from Maharashtra Shri Datatrey Maney were killed. One bullet was also hit the knee and crossed the leg of Jayaram Daulatram . on the second day Death procession of two youths killed in firing was taken

Sindhis roared like lions in the court in Namak Andolan:

After 16th April 1930 Namak Andolan continued in full fledged in Sindh. Under the leadership of Bhagwandas of Shadadpur Navjavan Mandal of Navabshah District, resolution in two village panchayat Navaz & Sarhari were passed to ban for twelve months foreign cloths, wine , cigarette and other things. Bhagwandas also motivated the Namk Satyagrah on 2nd June 1930 in Kumbh Liman where Shri Phonomal prepared salt, in this panchayat also it was banned for six months use of foreign cloths, wine, cigarette and other things. The same group went in Sarkand to make publicity against Namak Kanoon, where the same Phonomal prepared the salt and broke Namak Kanoon.

On 10th June 1930 under the leadership of Dr. Chimanlal a group consisting of Khilumal, Maulvi Mohammad Muaz, Maulvi Mohammad Kasam, Kishiandas and others reached Navabshah from Hyderabad for evening public gathering. The public was addressed and Shri Lokumal boldly prepared the salt on the stage and broke the Namak Kanoon. Effigy of foreign cloth was burnt and salt was distributes in small packets.

To make Namak Satyagrah successful it was planned by Professor Hasanand Jadugadh to promote the satyagrah he started travelling in Sahiti area of Navabshah. The first group of these satyagrahis consisted of Prabhdas Bhramchari, Jaychandrarai Nanakram Nathani, Kevalram Thavani and Motumal Thavani. They travelled Halani, Bahilani, Khan Vahan, Kamal Dero, Mohabbat dero, Jatoi, Kariya Kaloda and Kandiyare villages of taluka Maharabpur and broke the Namak Kanoon , also effigy of foreign cloths were burnt. They addressed to public to boycott foreign things and letters swearing for wearing khadi were signed by people. In the same way this group visited the villages of Nosaharo taluka of Navabshah District, they reached the Bhiriyan village on 7th May where after morning prayer, it was organized for public meeting in the evening. In this public gathering Hindu-Muslims, men-women and children participated in big numbers. The stage was occupied by Prabhdas Bhramchari, Jaycharanrai , Thavani brothers and Hasanand Jadugad. The public meeting was started by the song sung by Hasanand Jadugadh and whole public sang along with him. After public address of other leaders, salt was

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prepared and was distributed in small packets at the cost of Rs 10 to collect the funds for satyagrah. The group than reached Nunariyan village where salt was already prepared. On 9ths May 1930 at Swaraj Ashram of Nosaharo, salt was prepared in open ground by Prabhdas Bramchari, Jaychandrai, Motumal, Khemchand Balani and Kevalram, a song was sung by students of Rashtriya Kanyashala at the end of program.

On 17th May the group consists of Kevalram Hirachand Halani, Sadhuram Lakhumal Mithiyani, Bhramanand and Maharaj Shevaram and others travelled in villages Molan, Tharushah, Dalipoto, Tinhi, Tatiyu and villages of Nosharo talukas, they also prepared salt and broke namak Kanoon. The group travelled for two months and covered all the villages of Navabshah and Sahiti taluka and reached the Kandhiyar on 15th June 1930. Here workers from Sahiti held the meeting to discuss future planning. In the evening public address Kaka Sacchanand delivered very effective speech.

CID of British government was behind these groups of satyagrahis.

On 16th June police arrested all the four leaders and on 17th June 1930 presented before Sub- Divisional Judge of Navabshah.

All the four leaders, kaka Sacchanand Thavani, Prabhdas Bhramchari, Hasanand Jadugad and Harchandrai Nathani did not defend but they roared in the court like lions and accepted the crime. The statements in the court were as below:

I agree that , I had protested against the British government who does not have any right to rule the nation but forcefully secured it. I deliberately broke the law and specially Namak kanoon. I will face any consequence of this, any punishment for the same shall be the “ prasadh” of motherland.

Arya Samaji Prabhdas along with Gulabrai Shivandas Savnani and Dadi Krishna Hindorani started National Girls School in Naosaharo and also use to run the Sheva Ashram.. In year 1925 he started weekly news paper “ Navabshah gazette” and along with Dada Shevak Bhojraj started “ Balako ki badi”

After partition he settled in Ajmer he along with Deepchandra Trilokchandra continued his social services , he also worked for self employment and self reliance of poor Sindhi community. He also started publication of “ Phoolwadi” for children.

Professor Hasanand “Jadugadh”:

Professor Hasanand Jadugadh was from Arya Samaj; he was poet and was also great singer. In his early child hood he put his hand into the hot vessel and hence his two fingers were joined

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together. His two fingers which were jointed were boon for him for magic. He was also best mimicries and use to speak in voice of different type of persons and also he could sound like different animals. He used to entertain the people by magic along with his poems and songs. Thousands of people use to gather in the program where he was decided to address. He was jailed number of times and during the jail term also he used to entertain his jail mates.

He learned the magic from his friend from Bengal Goga Pasha and from K.Lal. he was also known as King of coins within the magicians. He also promoted Hindi language through medium of magic. He during his life time preached the people for not taking dower. He also declared that he shall marry his two daughters in the family who are against the dowry. Kaka Nebhraj Fatwani offered to marry his two sons to the daughter of Hasanand Jadugadh without any dowry. In the marriage of his two daughters he gave Charkha (spinning wheel), Chakki (flour grinding wheel), chulha (stove) and material to prepare khadi thread. His son-in law Shyam Fatwani was also jailed for participation in quit India movement.

After partition he settled in Delhi and served the society lifelong. He struggled for inclusion of Sindhi language in the constitution of India in the list of languages of India. He left this world on 28th September 1966.

Rashtriya Kavi Hundraj Dukhayal:

Rashtriya Kavi Hundraj Dukhayal was the freedom fighter who with his poems & songs motivated for freedom movement in Sindh. He was such a poet that during freedom movement his songs were on lips of freedom fighters. In year 1930-31 his two books “Phansi geet” and “Aalap” were banned and seized by British government. These books give the indication of protest against British government. His two songs were famous “Varn and Kulhari” (tree and axe) & “Aita ji aawaz” (voice of spinning wheel).

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He was born on 16th January 1910 in Larkana Sindh; his mother was Tilubai and Father Leelaram. His guru was Mahakavi Kishanchand “ Bevas”. He boycotted and left school in year 1921 during non-cooperative movement. In 1925 he started the business of shroff (Business of giving money on interest); he started the movement for benefit and upliftment of harijans in year 1934. He was sentenced to jail due to participation in freedom movement in year 1930, 1931, 1942 & 1945. And last in year 1948 for false case of conspiracy to break Pakistan. He travelled fifty thousand kilometers for “Bhoodan” and “Sarvodya” Andolan along with Saint Vinoba Bhave and Jayprakash Narayan. After partition he settled in Kachchh and worked for the rehabilitation of Sindhis in Gandhidham township. He left this world in year 2003.

British governor forced to returned back from Sindh:

“ Governor go back”

A plan was prepared for success of Namak Andolan. The main guide ( nirdeshak) was Jayram Daulatram and his companions were Choithram Kalecha and Dr. Vatanmal Gidhwani. After Jayram Daulatram was injured the work of guidance was done by Choithram Kalecha. He travelled in whole Sindh and in every town groups of Namak Andolan were framed. Choithram Kalecha was arrested due to these activities, hence Nihalchand Himatsinghji was appointed for the same work. Leaders of city troops which were constituted were as:

Hyderabad- Dr.Chimandas, Professor Ghanshyam and others,

Navabshah- Sahiti- Sacchanand Ferumal, Nevandram Vishandas, Prabhdas Bhramchari, Hasanand Jadugar, Metharam Harumal, Jayachandrarai Nathani, Keval Thavani and others,

Ladkana- Kako Motumal, Hundraj Dukhayal, Vadhu Keswani.

Sukkur-Seetaldas Kashyap, Thakurdas Gulomal, Gopaldas and others.

Shikarpur- Kaka Shobraj Kalecha, Swami Priyag Bharti, Maharaj Mathurdas and others.

Jacobabad- Swami Angaddev, Choithram Dembala and others.

In book of Motiram Ramvani “ Ratan Jyot” freedom fighters arrested in Namak Andolan , districtwise figures were given as, Karachi-254 persons, Shikarpur-100 persons, Hyderabad-90 persons, Sukkur-70 perons, Mirpur Khas-60 persons, Larkana-40 persons, Jackababad-40 persons, Navabshah- Sahiti-60 persons. Total-724 persons in whole of Sindh.

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Some incidents happened in Sindh during freedom movement; one such incident was that local authorities of Jacobabad banned to hoist National flag. Against this number of freedom fighters from all over Sindh came to Jacobabad to break this law of banning to hoist national flag. This was done on the instructions of Sindh congress. Shri Nihalchand was arrested in this movement along with his many companions. In the mean time due to agreement between Gandhi and Irvin all freedom fighters were released from Jail.

In the second incident , governor was to visit Navabshah- Sahiti. To control the Namak satyagrah police beaten 50 students, all students were send into jail and each was forced to beat the other by bat for 6 to 10 times. Other than students some 200 more freedom fighters were arrested.

It was pretended by the administration that they had succeeded in controlling satyagrah and all the people shall welcome the governor in fear.

But when the procession of governor reached Naosaharo and Navabshah there was total strike done by the residence and all the shops and markets were closed. Processions with black were taken out at many places with people shouting the slogan “governor go back”. One officer came and told the protestors to cool down and governor will go back in few movements, and really governor went back. The planned program of governor in school of Tharushah was also cancelled. The main organizer of this procession was young Harishchandra Thavani. One more youth sang songs of Hasanand Jadugadh and public also accompanied him.

Boycott of wine and foreign cloths:

In year 1930 along with Namak Satyagrah, there was the movement to boycott wine and foreign cloths. In this movement women and children also participated. In front of shop of foreign cloth protestors gathered in which family member of government servant and cloth merchants also participated. There was great boycott in Karachi. Hundreds of women protested with the spinning device of prepare khadi thread, they with their folded hands explained to the people about the ill effects of wearing foreign cloths and asked to wear khadi and boycott foreign cloth. The main women leaders were Jethi Sipahimalani, Kiki Lalwani, Kasturben and Parvati Gidhwani.

In Hyderabad the prime women leaders were Kamla Hiranand, Devi Hasomal and Mohini Lalchand and others. In whole over Sindh women participated equally as men in this movement.

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In Shikarpur Ganga Devi was the first women who was arrested for protesting in front of liquor shop near Ganga Gate.

To oppose against foreign cloth “foreign cloth boycott committee” was constituted in Karachi, the first secretary of the committee was Moolji Vishram Narsi, second Bhagwandas Ranchordas, and third Seth Sukhdev Udhavdas Bharvani. Sukhdev was elected as member of parliament in year 1945. Member of Sindh assemble Seth Harchand was from Udhavdas Bharvani family. Seth Sukhdev was having great hold in cloth market that nobody dared to disobey his instructions. He also use to fine the merchant who sold foreign cloths. In this reference a article was published in English news paper” daily gazette” that “ Seth Sukhdav is running parallel government” Due to this British police arrested him and lodged the case with serious penal acts. If the total punishment of these acts were concluded than it was worked out as 75 years imprisonment. But due to absence of any witness police was forced to withdraw the case.

It was warned by “foreign cloth boycott committee” that all the cloth merchants shall stop selling foreign cloths within a week and send back the stock to foreign agents. Foreign agents collected the cloths and started transporting through hand carts towards railway godown; the protestors laid down on the road in front of hand carts and stopped to proceed towards railway godown. Hence agents were forced to send the stock of foreign cloths in Britain by sea route.

Children also participated in this movement as “ Vanar Sena”. If any merchant sells foreign cloth than “Vanar Sena” protested in front of the shop with shouting slogans of “hai-hai” The merchant was in this way compelled to stop selling foreign cloths.

After Irvin- Gandhi agreement all the congress members were freed from the , but freedom fighters and other were not freed.

Karachi conference- 1932

In year 1931 there was national conference of congress in Karachi. The chairman of the organizing committee was Dr.Choithram Gidwani and secretaries were Dr. Tarachand Lalwani, R.K. Sidhwa , Isardas Varandmal , treasurer was Lalchand Bhanamal and Idanmal Lalwani was General commanding officer. The place where this conference was held is named in the honor in the name Saheed Harchandrai Vishandas and named as “Harchandrai Nagar”. In the conference for first time Abdul Ghaffar Khan “frontier Gandhi” with his “Lal Sena” participated, the sena was named as Pathans use to wear red cloths.

In this conference name of Mahatma Gandhi was decided to participate in round table conference. Also outline of fundamental rights of India was drafted in this conference. As per the decision Mahatma Gandhi went to London for round table conference. The conference

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didn’t prove successful and Gandhiji returned empty handed. Congress expressed happiness for Irvin- Gandhi agreement but this agreement failed as no decision was taken in round table conference. Country was unsatisfied over this issue, hence Lord Irvin was called back in London so that the situation in the country remains in control and Lord Willington was appointed as Viceroy in place of Irvin.

Before the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi from London, main leaders of congress party were arrested. Due to this reason on date 2nd January 1932 it was declared for “Avagya Andolan” in working committee of the congress. On the next day members of the working committee of congress were also arrested.. British government declared the congress and other small and big organizations of the nation as illegal and were banned. In these banned organizations some were only involved in social work. Members of congress party were in custody for one month without lodging any case and were released on the written condition. The condition was that they will not participate in any movement, they will not move out from the area and they have to pay attendance daily in the police station. The condition of paying attendance daily in police station was broken by some freedom fighters. Due to this reason under leadership of Choithram Kalecha a group of freedom fighters which included was arrested, they were penalized with prison of two years and fine of Rs 500. Failure to pay fine shall increase the jail term for six months. During this movement about 1200 person of Sindh were Jailed.

A poem was also written by Kavi Hundraj Dukhayal in these inhuman laws of British government.

Editors of the news paper were arrested who wrote articles in this protest in the news paper ‘Hindu”, the editors were Hiranand Karamchand, Vishandas Shivdasani, Hasomal Issardas and Mansingh Cuhadmal which were arrested and sent into jails. The publisher of this news paper was “ Desh Seva Mandal” which was banned and declared illegal. The publisher restarted the news paper by changing name to “Sindhu” The editor of this news paper was Anand Hingorani and publisher was Shri Suraj Uttamsingh. The British government also banned this news paper.

Quit India Movement:1942

A letter was written by Viceroy Churcill to Prime minister of Britain that on one side during world war 1942 Indian soldiers fought with courage and there is great movement by Azad Hind fauj, the quit India movement at present is the greatest movement and protest after year 1857.

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The British government had concealed this material fact from the world for security purpose. The letter was written on 31st August 1942.

In Sindh 2600 freedom fighters were arrested under “ Quit India Movement”

Sindhi Women Participation in freedom movement:

National flag hoisted by Sindhi women and protested against Govardan cloth market for boycott of foreign cloths and items in year 1942. Thousands of woken scarified due to these movement and their name are still not known to the world. In Namak satyagrah 5000 women participated , they drawn water from the sea and in every street, every home salt was prepared and Namak kannon was broken. This type of the scene was never seen in the area other than Sindh.

In Karachi which is termed as queen of Sindh and city of lights, during boycott of foreign cloth and wine women from the family of wholesale cloth market participated. About 300-400 women participated , they faced and fought with police, the situation worsened and Mayor of town Jagdish Mehta any way stopped the police for taking actions. All the merchants cancelled the orders of foreign cloths and saffron flag was hoisted in whole of Karachi. The scene was such that as if there is no more British rule in Karachi. The news was published in head line of English news paper “daily gazette” that in Karachi activities of British government had came to stop”

Gangadevi was teacher in Sindh, she protested boldly in Shikarpur against foreign wine in year 1930 in front of the shop; due to this act she was arrested. She was the first women of the country who was sentenced to jail.

Shrimati Mohini Deepchand Balani was sentenced to jail for 12 times and during one term she was pregnant.

In 1932 during Avagya Movement participation , woman of Shikarpur Laxmi Devi was sentenced to jail. She was middle class and uneducated woman. After completion her jail term of two and half year she was questioned by press reporters. She said “ this two and half year jail term was like two and half minute for her”

Sindhi woman Harsha Hiranandani use to distribute news paper on the cycle, this was the period when publishing and distribution of news paper was the act against British government.

The main women freedom fighters were Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani, Krishnadevi, Ganga Gidwani, Parpati Gidwani, Kiki Lalwani, Gopi Kriplani, Ganga Shikarpuri, Sadori Agnanani,

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Shrimati Laxmi Sidhwa, Kamla Thawani, Jhanki Thawani, Kesi Nihalani, Sati Jagtiyani, Kamla Hiranan, Shrimati Haridevi, Savatri, Ishwari, Nanki, Gulazar Begum, Mihir Bano, Kishnidevi, Guli Sadarangani, Gomibai, Sati Melwani,Sati Vaswani , Devi Hasomal, Bhagwanti Chanchlani, Devki Dalwani, Kamla Topan Mukhi of Kachchh, her daughter Shanta Topan Mukhi and Kasturben. Kumari Sinha from Bengal and her sister Sishir Gosh.

Quote by Prime Minister Churchill; He stated in the parliament of Britain that country is divided into two parts and shall be on reliance of British government. But as one hardworking and sensible community is being divided into two countries , hence this division shall not last long.

Lioness of Sindh- Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani:

Chief Minister Allahbaksh Sumro was in favour of Hindu- Muslim unity. On 14th May, 1943 he was killed by terrorist in Shikarpur. There after Khuhado became Chief Minister and Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani became the Dy speaker of assemble. During tea break of one meeting of cabinet, kumara Jethi Sipahimalani roared against the chief minister Khuhado that “you are the killer, even if British government had pardoned you, I will not drink even the water of yours house”

After partition Kumari Jethi settled in Mumbai, she was elected that Dy Speaker of Assemble of Maharashtra. She with his brother Mangaram Sipahimalani helped Sindhi refugees in rehabilitation. She constructed the apartment of 7000 houses in Mahim in name of Navjevan Society. The houses were cheap, beautiful and with all facilities. This was the first multistory building in Mumbai.

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Krantidoot of Sindh:

Many youths in Sindh were symbol of Kranti, one of such youth was a 19-20 years aged Hemu Kalani. From his early child hood he had learnt the lesson of Kranti from his Uncle Shri Mangaram Kalani. He was member of “Youth Circle” which was established by famous freedom fighter Parcho Vidhyarthi. Youth circle was constituted for freedom of Sindh as independent nation.

Hemn Kalani with his companion planned to detail the train loaded with arms and ammunitions, the train was to pass through Sukkur Sindh. When they were derailing the railway track, they saw the police coming and Hemu Kalani advised other companions to run away. He alone remained there and surrendered himself. Due to this activity he was punished for hang till death punishment. On 21st January 1943 all the jail mates protested for death punishment and went on hunger strike for whole day. In spite of knowing his punishment, he had gained weight and courage also. His last wish was that everybody present during his death sentence shall say “Vande Matram” Hence due to his last wish even Britishers were compelled to say “Vande Matram”

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During swadeshi Andolan the first person who was arrested was Govardan Sharma on 12th January 1910 under the penal code of 124, he was sentenced for 5 years imprisonment with Rs 500 fine, Veerumal Begraj and Seth Chetumal Hariram of Shikarpur were sentenced for three years imprisonment with Rs 100 fine. Under this penal code the ultimate punishment was death penalty. At that time age of Govardan Sharma was 20 years and that of Virumal Beghraj and Chetumal Hariram were of 35 years age. The fault of these youth was that Govardan Sharma published small booklets named “Foreign sugar as impure” (Videshi Khand Apavitra) and “Swadeshi hulchul me desh bhakt tilak ke vichar) “Thoughts of Lokmanya Tilak for swadeshi movement “This was the translation only and previously this document was published in Hindi and Gujarat language also. Verumal Begraj and Seth Chetumal were publishers of these booklets.

All the three went to prison with smiling faces. Father of Govardan Sharma, Shri Vallab Sharma said to this son that their punishment of 3 and 5 years is not that big where as Lokmanya tilak was sentenced for 6 years and Shri Ram was send in exile for 14 years. On hearing this Verumal Beghraj told that these five years shall be finished like 5 minutes. During this event thousands of protestors gathered behind the door of prison and shouted with slogan of “Vande Matram”. On that day whole Shikarpur went on strike.

Due to these booklets people of Sindh boycotted foreign sugar and started using swadeshi things.

Freedom fighters such as Nirmal Jivani and Laxman shall always be remembered. They sacrificed their life in freedom movement. Nirmal Jivani of Hyderabad was young poet and he use to sing the songs of Kishanchand Bevas, Dada Dukhayal, Tolaram Balani and his own written songs in the streets of Hyderabad. He was sentenced to imprisonment many times and due to poor food and torture in the prison his health was deteriorated and ultimately resulted into death. There was one more youth, general secretary of Hyderabad congress and youth leader Laxman. He was aggressive youth; he worked for morning processions for public awareness and worked day and night for public awareness activities. Due to his continuous walking for “Prabhat Feri” for public awareness his feet were injured and he also suffered from severe head ace. He remained unconscious for many days during his treatment. Whenever he become conscious he use to shout slogans “ Hindustan aazad ho”, Inqulab zindabad & Bharat mata ki jay. He also use to sing the patriotic songs of Dada Hundraj Dukhayal on his bed.

One day while singing the patriotic songs in his bed , he sweated badly and suddenly all his body movement was stopped. He ultimately sacrificed his life for freedom movement.

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Freedom movement by Students

During non-cooperative movement, in Shikarpur, Swami Prayag Bharti use to take morning processions ( Prabhat Feris) and sing the patriotic songs with his sitar. During this movement thousands of government servants boycotted the government service and thousands of students boycotted the schools. In Karachi Asanand Mamtora was the first student to boycott the New High School. The owner and principal of this school was Tarachand K. Shahani who discontinued the school administration with the government and changed the name of school to Swaraj Mahavidhyala. The first teacher to boycott the teacher’s job was Shri Lalchand Amardinomal Jagtiyani.

10th January 1921 was celebrated for winning the war ( first world war) and as a part of celebration batches were distributed in all educational institutes on which it was mentioned

.“Honor and liberty” . In Shikarpur government school first assistant professor Tarachand Gajara was called and was given duty of distribution of these batches. Shri Gajara gathered all students and starting addressing them by saying that “ Honor and liberty” is written on these batches , but under British there is no honor and liberty, hence he does not wish to distribute these batches and I feel that this type of government job is crime and I am resigning from this job. After that hundreds of students also boycotted and left the government school.

After that movement swadeshi schools started in the Sindh. In Karachi students of D. J. Sindh college also boycotted government education. There were many students who never turned back in any school in their life time and dedicated their life for freedom movement. Names of some students are Shri Hirachand Karamchand, his brother Shevakram, Kesumal Jhangiyani, Nevadram Vishandas, Choithram Kalecha, Alam Gidwani, Ram B. Motwani , Nihalchand Himatsinghji and others.

Shri Lilaram Ferwani was student of Grant Medical college of Mumbai, he also left the studies and returned back to his homeland Shikarpur and started his activities in non-cooperation movement. He use to deliver effective public speeches which motivated hundreds of students to leave the studies in government school and colleges. Many students started their studies in swadeshi school and colleges. Due to increase in strength of students in Shikarpur itself two swadeshi schools were established. The principal of one school was Tarachand Gajra and of second school was Lilaram Ferwani. Shri Lilaram Ferwani was also good poet.

Some names of freedom fighters that left government job and started teaching in swadeshi schools are as Sukhramdas Tevarmal, Parsram Vishandas Tahalramani, Hasaram Pamnani, Asoodomal Gidwani, Nevadram Vishandas , Revachand Nathani and others.

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During non-cooperative movement some advocates also boycotted the government courts and established swadeshi courts. In these courts dispute resolutions of various issues and between the parties were made. Swadeshi court of Sukkur was one of such famous court.

During non-cooperative movement about 200 freedom fighters from Sindh were arrested which consists of some Muslims also.

During 1942 quit India movement, leaders from Sindh were arrested, hence the work of quit India movement was continued by student leaders and groups. Some senior leaders such as Choithram Kalecha use to motivate the students. The main leader of the students was Parcho Vidhyarthi, Hemu Kevalramani, Shobo Gianchandani, Ashi Vidharthi, Narayan Wadhwani, Tulsi Tahiliyani, Anand Ambwani, Udho Raisinghani, Kirat Babani, Govind Mahali and Asan Utamchandani. Some leaders were inclined to communist thinking and gave the name n” janta ki Jung” ( War of public)

Sindhi quit India movement consists of three activities.

One , on every 9th August in every city procession , public addresses and protests were done against British government and freedom fighter attested themselves in masses.

Second , communication system was disturbed by cutting wires of telephone, burning post boxes, derailing railway, issuing false and fabricated government orders to bail the freedom fighters, issuing false transfer orders of government servants.

Third to loot the government treasury.

Ashi Vidhyarthi and Narayan Wadhwani were arrested for cutting telephone wires and were sentenced for three years imprisonment.

On the issue of fabricated government order, Alam Gidhwani was released from the jail. In this offence on the information given by government spy Moti Mirchandani, witness Jethi Mirchandani, four students were arrested which were Hari Hotchandani, Hargobind Ramchandani, Harjas and Uttam , also the complaint was filed against them. The case was in court for ten months and all four students were released as there was no proof for their activities.

Tirth Sabhani was arrested who tried to calm the students protest against the arrest of senior leaders. Tulsi Tahiliyani was injured due to lathi charge by police against the big procession by students.

Students were arrested under “Defense of India” rule and were detained for undecided period.

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Magistrate of city court was Roopchand who was Sindhi Hindu; he often gave trifle punishment to the students.

The student leader who suffered longest jail term was Udho Raisinghani and who was released along with the last student leader.

Another student leader was Mithu Sahani, his elder brother was jailor and some relatives also were in police department. He used to live in bungalow of jail officers. But he was also involved in freedom movement and was jailed. Due to his police background he was send in “ B” class jail , but he demanded to keep him in “ C” class jail along with other students. Three times he surrendered before police, there was also incident that he arrested in the next day he was released, he was again was arrested in another case. He almost visited all the jails.

Students and youth’s group use to work under guidance of Pahalajrai Rajpal, Shri Rajpal use to live underground and plan the various schemes for movement. Shri Rajpal was motivated by Shri Choithram Kalecha who himself use to live underground. Other student leaders were Jethanand Lalwani, Nand Gidwani, Nirmal Jivtani and Hiro Jagtiyani and others from Hyderabad. Anand Ambwani and Mulo Motiyani from Sahiti-Navabshah. Parcho Vidhyarthi, Ashi Vidhyarthi and Narayan Wadhwani worked under the guidance of Gopaldas Jagatrai in Sukkur. Kaku Asrani, Baghat Talreja, Jhamandas Talreja from Shikarpur. Udho Relwani and others from Dadu.

Lathi and guns replied by Bombs:

There were three groups in Sindh, who use to reply the British government with bombs to the guns of British government.

One group of Hyderabad consists of Moti, Shivo and Chandu. All the three were son of Jawaharmal Gulrajani, Gulrajani use to live in Vradh Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi. Gulrajani brother ran ink factory in Karachi. Trade mark of the ink was “ Mark Ink” Gulrajani brothers came in contact with a teacher Jethanand Gehani through a person named Kishan Lulla. Jethanand Gehani taught the Gulrajani Brothers how to manufacture bombs. During October 1942 they manufactured some bombs. The companions of Gulrajani brothers installed one bomb in the court of Judicial Magistrate and two bombs in two Quetta mail trains. Before the bomb could blast somebody identified and informed to police. The bombs were examined and found that they contained glass pieces and on one of the piece was embossed with “ mark ink” which was the trade mark of ink factory of Gulrajani brothers. Thereafter ink factory was raided and glass bottles along with some objectionable printed material of pamphlets containing some articles. Three Gulrajani brothers were arrested and complain was lodged with different provision of penal code, Chandu and Shivo were released as there was no proof against them but Moti was sentenced for three years imprisonment.

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Kishin Lulla who introduced Gulrajani brothers to Master Gehani was also active in freedom movement and planned many activities for the same. Totasingh of Shikarpur was companion of Kishin Lulla who used to purchase guns and explosives from the Pathans of Afghanistan.

In Sindh bombs were exploited at many places. Military camp of Sukkur was destroyed by fire, in this activity there was the hand of Kishan Lulla and Totasingh .

Second group consists of Feru Sangtani, Amar Golani and Vishnu Chabariya. They were injured as a bomb was exploded during manufacturing. After some period Feru Sangtani left this world.

In Karachi bomb was exploited in Pinjrapol Building of Karachi and the police case of the same was famous as “ Pinjarapol bomb case” In this case ten persons were arrested which included the master mind Gehani, Gobind Thavani and Devkrishn Lakhiyani. Moti and Jamno of this group were turned into government witness. Master Gehani was acquitted due to non availability of proof where as all others were sentenced to five years imprisonment. But Master Gehani thereafter was jailed for preventive custody.

Protest by Navy:

There was difference in salary and other facility between English and Indian soldiers in British government. Due to this on 17th February 1946 it was protested by “royal Indian Navy” which included 74 ships, 40 fireboats, 200 coastal boats and four main camps, all the Indian soldiers participated in the protest.

Navy of Karachi also participated in this protest which included some Sindhi soldiers also. Due to protest 9 Khalasis (sea workers) and one officer lost their life and one officer and 29 soldiers were injured. Due to the protest British government lost control over “Royal Indian Navy”. The compromise was arrived with the help of Sardar Vallabbhai patel.

In 1942 British ere became weak due to world war and were famous as dacoits of freedom, the protest and opposition by Indian soldiers of “royal Indian Navy” was one of the reasons which forced the British government to think for giving freedom to the country.

Tharparkar District Congress Committee case:

During quit India movement in year 1942, a case was lodged under section 120 of penal code against District congress committee president Asandas Khushaldas, Devji Lalji, Karsanbhai Melhuram, Moolchand Mangaram, Daulatram Jagatrai, Nityanand Jagatram and Dholumal Kishanchand. The lower court imposed heavy penalty to all the above. But the higher court acquitted all the above expect Assandas. The case lasted long and Shri Assandan was also

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released after nine months imprisonment, most of the period of the punishment was completed in police custody.

Age twelve years and punishment five years:

There is famous example of inhuman attitude of the Britishers who terms themselves true gentlemen. One child of ten to twelve years Narayan Lalchand Makhija in one speech told that “British government had cut the hands of the craftsman of world famous Malmal (soft cotton muslin) cloth and had permanently finished the art of cotton cloth in India” This speech was termed as offence by British government and he was sentenced for five years in children’s prison in Mumbai.

In 1930 Namak Andolan also two children of Larkana District Dharamdas Lakhani and Parasram Moolchand were sent to children’s prison of Varda for participating in Namak Andolan.

Dayaram Gidumal and Dayaram Jethmal:

He was the prime leader to establish “Sindh Sabha” for bringing awareness in people in year 1882. Diwan Gidumal was the first Sindhi amongst three Sindhi students to complete his degree in law. He studied in elephant college of Mumbai. He came in tough with Justice Ranade, Bahramji Malbari, Pandit Ramabhai. Public service was his main aim and he was the just like Justice Ranade of Sindh. He published two news papers “ Sindh Times in English” and Sindh Sudhar “ in Sindhi. In these news paper articles of problems of public and news of protest against British government were published. Dayaram Gidumal had important role in preparing these articles.

Dayaram Jethamal In year 1887 in Karachi they established D.J. Sindhi arts college under his leadership and support of Diwan Dayaram Gidumal Diwan Sadhu Navalrai and Diwan Metharam Sahani. Diwan Dayaram Jethamal was the leader who worked for social and national improvement. Hence he was the most honored person of Karachi; he was looked as father of society. He established National congress in Karachi and standing committee of congress. He was also honored as member of legislate council of Mumbai.

Youth freedom fighters from Navabshah:

In Sindh under the leader ship of Parcho Vidhyarthi many youths were motivated and worked for freedom movement to secure independence of the country. The various activities of protest were carried out by youth. The main activities were to burn government offices, damage and remove the rails , issue fake government orders, cut the telephone wires, fire the post offices

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and post boxes and steal phosphorus from the laboratories of the schools.. Many youths use to live in the house of Dadi Krishna HIndorani in Nosaharo. Youths of Sindh were helped by Prabhat Bhramchari. Maximum damage was done by the youth freedom fighters in Sindh during quit India movement.

Prime young freedom fighters from Navabshah were Shobraj Motwani and Rochiram Thavani. Shobraj Motwani was sharp minded and bold and was sentenced to jail many times. In spite of his young age he became member of Congress Sewa Dal. General Secretary of congress Suzan Ravtani stole the typewriter from the school and he prepared bulletin on this type writer. His younger brother Sacchanand was also arrested and beaten by police.

Nanakram Tekchandani was from the land lord family of Mithiyana, he prepared a bomb and blasted on the rear wall of police station. These types of activities were also done by Dulhomal, Melaram Ramrakhiyani and secretary of congress committee Aialdas Roopchand of Moto taluka. Aildas used to blast government office by phosphorous and also worked in derailing railways. In Nosaharo this type of work was done by members of Khemchand Balani family, Jaykishin Balani, Motumal Balani, Asan Balani and Ram Gunomal. Jaykishin Balani burned many offices, hence due to these activities he along with his companion were arrested, but due to non availability of proofs he was released.

In Nosaharo congress office was seized by the British government, which was burned by some youths. In this case Khemchand Balani was arrested but latter released due to non availability of proofs.

Quotes by Lala Lajpatrai: In Amritsar Congress conference, after the completion of conference he told to the workers that “We must learn patriotism from the people of Sindh, looking to their eagerness in freedom movement “

Quotes by Bal Gangadar Tikal: After completion of Sindh yatra he quoted “looking to the patriotic of Sindh people he is confident that now freedom is not far away:

Saheed Harkrishin:

He was a lovely son of freedom fighter’s family. He was a young freedom fighter and his ambition for freedom of country was not less than Saheed Baghatsingh. He was punished for death sentence by the court. His father visited in the prison and instead of inquiring about his health and condition he asked that “you are good shooter, then how British governor was saved” (beta tu accha nishanebaaz hai, fir VO lal muh wala Bandar, bach kaise Gaya)

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Harkishin replied that he shot with gun, standing on the chair and due to movement in the chair he could not shoot governor to the death, but he was injured. I shot another bullet but the security guard cam in the way and was killed.

The father than told” why didn’t you not shot standing on the ground”

Harkishin replied. If I stood on ground and shot than the bullet could have hurt some other person as many persons were around the governor. When I was about to shoot third round, Dr. Radhakrishin came in the way, due to which governor was saved.

Father: “ I could be more proud on you ,If you had succeed in killing British governor

On 26th January 1931 Lahore Session court had given judgment of death penalty to Harkishin.

His grandmother visited the prison and told “Son Hari, keep the sprit high during the death by hanging”

Harkishin” Dadi I am the grandson of lioness, don’t worry death will also shy from me”

The prison in which Harkishin was to be hanged, in that prison Baghatsing was also there. On knowing that Bagatsing is in same prison, Harkishin wished to see Baghatsing. Jail authorities didn’t heard his requested then he started on hunger strike. After nine days Baghatsing was brought to Harkishin in his prison. The hunger strike of Harkishin was finished by a cup of milk served by Baghatsingh.

Baghatsing was hanged till death before Harkishin.

His father was Gurudasmal who was also arrested and badly tortured by British police which resulted in death of Gurdasmal.

Younger brother of Harkishin was Bagatram, who was also great freedom fighter, he helped in escaping Subhash Chandra Bose from the “nazar quaid” (House arrest) of British government, he also managed to send Subhash Chandra Bose to Germany through Kabul.

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Saheed Sant Kanvarram and Veer Hasaram pamnani:

Muslim Pir of Barchandi forcefully converted forcefully Sindhi-Hindus to Muslim, Pir use to Kidnap the people and force them to conversion. Due to this people of Rohedi- District Sukkur beaten son of Pir and his companions. To take the revenge Pir Killed Sant Kanvarram, as sant Kanvarram helped both Hindus and Muslims and was equally popular among them. Both Hindus and Muslims worshipped sant Kanvarram. He used to sing baghat which was listened by both Hindus and Muslims.

Hasaram Pamnani was born on 10th April 1889 in Roheri –District Sukkur. He boycotted and left government service of teacher in school, he thereafter was dedicated in freedom movement. He used to spread religious knowledge and message of swaraj in whole over Sindh. He published two news papers named “ Satsang” & “ “ Dharmdarshan”. He was advocate also and was member of Sindh assemble. Due to murder of Sant Kanvarram he placed “Avishvas Prastav” (No confidence motion) in the Sindh assemble, due to this cabinet was dissolved and rule of existing government came to end.

Hasaram pamnani also lodged the complaint against British government for supporting Pir of Barchandi and government had given all freedom of kidnapping and doing any violent acts. Pir was convicted in the case of murder of Sant Kanvarram but the final verdict was pending. Before the final verdict of court supporters of Pir killed Hasaram Pamnani outside Roheri railway station on 17th July 1940.

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Swami Leelashah:

Swami Leelashah was the great saint. He visited the whole nation and visited the Harijan colonies and motivated them for maintaining cleanliness, he also helped Harijans in many ways. He had the great knowledge of ayurved; he was against idol worship and believed in Karma instead of prayer. He also wrote religions books. After independence he worked for empowerment of women, worked against dowry. He conducted mass marriages in which dowry was not allowed. He was also promoter Sindhi language and he always carried books on his shoulders whenever his travel.

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Parcho Vidharthi:

There were some freedom fighters in Sindh who dreamed of independent Sindh after freedom from British rule. The prime leader of dreaming Independent Sindh was Parcho Vidhyarthi. He Jumped the prison wall along with his companion Feru and Vishnu, police chased and fired at them, but they managed to escape without being hurt.

Parcho Vidhyarthi use to quote frequently that “No bullet of British government is still manufactured which will hit him”. British government use to fear only from Parcho Vidhyarthi in Sindh. There were many cases against him “Landi shooting case”, Madrid road loot case”, “Pinjrapol Bomb case” these were the case of looting government treasure and other.

The total verdicts of punishment were 63 years imprisonment and hang till death, hang till death sentence was replaced by 20 years imprisonment. Hence he was sentenced for total 83 years imprisonment. This was the maximum punishment of imprisonment; even Veer Savarkar was sentenced for 65 years of imprisonment. Hence he was termed another Veer Savarkar.

He was born on 15th June 1919 in village Kharo Dero of Larkana District. He studied up to B.A. He dreamed of Sindh as “Switzerland of Asia”. A book on the biography of Parcho Vidhyarthi was written by Mohan Kalpna named as “Aaftab Inqulab”. Hari Motwani also mentioned Parcho Vidhyarthi in his book “Aabo” At present he is living in Ulhasnagar.

During the visit of author Prem Motiyani in December-2006 Parcho Vidhyarthi narrated some of his memories.

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Kevalram Ailiyani was father of Parcho Vidhyarthi, he was from congress party. He was sentenced to jail for two times and also participated in Dandi March. Parcho Vidhyarthi was of different opinion, he was against non violence method of seeking independence, and he never liked to beg independence from the British government. He always dreamed of Sindh as Independent country. Shri Parcho was of opinion that British government, congress and Muslim league all together cooked a conspiracy in name of independence, which shall result in new type of Ghulami (slavery) of the nation.

Hence Parcho Vidhyarthi went his own way and established “ Bharat Seva Samaj” which had two thousand student members. His prime companion was Shobo Gianchandani, Hashu Kevalramani, Jamalludin Bukhari, Amin Khoso, Ashi Vidhyarthi, Jhaman Kalani, Dayal Kalani, Narayan Wadhwani, Sakhavat Chotrani, Feru, Vishno, Amirkhan Rand Baloch, Murli Raisinghani, Nand Jethra, Atu Motwani, Santoshkumar, Preetam Tahaliyani and Khemo. Also some active women members were Kumar Hardevi, Kumari Savitri, Kumari Ishwari, Kumari Sarla Ahuja, Kumari Rajkumari , Kumari Nanki and other.

There were number of branches of “ Bharat Seva Samaj” in Sindh. The main activities were

1.Attack with Bomb on Police stations

2.Destroying post by acid or fire in post boxes.

3.Printing and distribution of news papers

4.Issuing false government orders to release their companions from prison.

5.Issuing false transfer orders of government servants

6.Disturbing communication system by cutting telephone wires.

When he was released from the prison in the case of Landi Shooting case, he found that nation is split into two in the name of independence. He felt that Gandhiji had not fulfilled his commitment in reference of partition.

He thought that all his activities through “ Bharat Seva Samaj” are wasted, all the efforts of his companion and risk of life taken for independence was also wasted. Even one District Tharparkar was not given to Sindhi-Hindus; his heart was lost and cried a lot. Even though he gathered courage and met Gandhiji and other leaders.

He met Mahatma Gandhi in Kolkata and Gandhi told him that “you are runaway prisoner and please do not attach his name with me, I wild advice you to surrender, but as there is rule of Muslim league in Pakistan, you will he harassed too much and shall never be released, hence I am not giving this advice, bur you shall take shelter in Gibralta.” He regularly met Mahatma Gandhi for three continuous days, he also explained the condition of Sindhis in Pakistan, but no solution was arrived and he returned to Sindh with broken heart.

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Even after partition Parcho Vidharthi continued his effort of making Sindh as independent country. He was expert in changing his appearance. Sometimes he used to change his appearance as British Officer, sometimes Police Inspector and some time as Muslim Woman in Burkha (Veil), he continued his movement in different appearance. He along with his companion looted seven lakh rupees from Bank of India branch and after getting sufficient money he purchased lot of arms and ammunitions. There after he planned to attack and capture Arms factory of Sindh, Radio station, air force, etc. For this planning with the support from Bhaipratap Dialdas, he asked for help from congress leader Jayram Daulatram, Dr. Choithram Gidwani and exchanged his views. He also met Rajkumari Amrutkaur and gave his views, but nobody agreed upon his planning. He made another attempt and met Dr. Choithram Gidwani and told that Pir Pagaro is also with him along with his “Lal Sena” and if Dr.Choithram agrees upon the plan, he will be termed as leader of Sindh after successful operation, if the plan is not implemented than whole of Sindh will go from hands of Sindhis to Pakistan. He also suspected that Hindus will be harassed in Pakistan. Doctor Gidwani heard the plan of Parcho Vidharthi and asked for 24 hours to take decision, and within these 24 hours he left Pakistan through aircraft and reached India.

File photo Pir Pagarp

Pakistan Intelligence got some clue that some activists are going to make some movement in Sindh, and they started arresting some suspects who included Shobo Gianchandani, Hashu Kevalramani and Kirat Babani. Police started search operation for Parcho Vidharthi but failed to get him, they also started searching wife of Parcho Vidharthi , but she along with his five year old son took shelter in some secrete location.

British Government had declared price of Rupees 15000 who helped the government in arresting Parcho Vidhyarthi live or dead condition.

There were the exchange between prisoners of India and Pakistan on 13th October 1948 and during this exchange Parcho Vidhyarthi was send to India.

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There was one interesting incident of year 1946. In the front of Karachi Jail one handsome man came out of the car and started singing a song. To hear the song Prison officers and police man gathered near the jail gate. At that time Parcho Vidhyarthi along with Feru and Vishnu was imprisoned. During that time they using duplicate key and released themselves. All three walked quickly towards wall of the prison. Feru stood along the wall and Vishnu climbed on his back, Parcho Vidhyarthi jumped the wall climbing Feru and Vishnu. Outside prison their companion was waiting in a car. Parcho took rope from his companion and hanged along the wall so that Feru and Vishnu could climb. In this way all three climbed the wall and ran away. Police chased them and also fired many round of bullets but none of the bullet hurt anyone. The ran in the car and after some time changed the car and reached to the secrete place. Police raided their homes and their other places but could not get them.

He was expert in changing appearance; he often used to move out as Muslim women along with Dayal Kalani wearing Turkey cap and Salwar Kameez. One day Parcho Vidhyarthi was travelling by boat in the makeup of British Officer with round hat on his head. On the boat there were two policemen who were going to Kharo Dero to search for Parcho Vidhyarthi. Two police man saluted Parcho Vidharthi assuming him as British Officer as he was also fluent in speaking English as Britishers. He asked the policemen that where they are going, they told that they are in search of Parcho Vidharthi. He told them that English government can never arrest Parcho Vidharthi. When boat reached the shore he took pistol out of his pocket and asked the policemen to raise their hands and took away their guns. After going far away he told to policemen that he was Parcho Vidharthi and he already said that British government cannot arrest Parcho Vidharthi.

Parcho Vidharthi felt no harm in looting the British government who looted the public; also the looted money was being used for the noble work of freedom movement. He felt that they should reply to loot by loot and this is not the activity against the nation. He planned to loot from the railway employees carrying cash worth Rs 40 lakhs for salary. On 23rd May 1947 they hired a taxi from Karachi. On the way driver suspected that they had hire for some illegal work so he stopped the taxi on the way and refused to move further. Kodyand Manik who were companion of Parcho Vidharthi shot the taxi driver and thrown him out of the car. All took the taxi and started moving towards place where they had planned to loot. The train in which the railway employee was travelling went away as they were late due to protest of driver. The injured driver informed the police and Parcho Vidhyarthi along with his companions was arrested. The news of this incident spread in the whole nation. During the hearing of this case Indo-Pak partition happened and he was released by Pakistan in exchange of prisoners.

Parcho Vidhyarthi after independence settled in Ulhasnagar, he was elected as legislative assembly member on the ticket of Forward Block.

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Efforts of Sindh as Independent country by Parcho Vidhyarthi:

Under the leadership of Parcho Vidhyarthi, Ami Khaso and Jhaman Kalani, 2000 members were willing and working for freedom of Sindh as Independent Country.

In the famous Landi shooting Case of 23rd March 1947

On 23rd March 1947 in the famous Landi shooting case, which was for looting government treasury following were arrested, Madhavdas Sharma, Sakhavat Chotwani, Pahalaj Gwalani, Bhoolchand Kriplani, Laxman Banwari, Lakhan Masand, Kishin Dembla, Tirth, Topan, Bheru Abhichandani, Nenu Jethra, Ratan Rajpur, Atu Motwani, Shevaram, Anand Tarachandani, Prem, Tikam, Shrichand Chumani, Pahilaj Chugani, Bhojraj Rajpur, Manumal Chabariya, Amir Khan Rand Baloch and others. During hearing of this case Indo-Pak partition took place otherwise some of the freedom fighters would have sentenced to death penalty in this case.

A group named “ Jiye Sindh” was established after partition for freeing Sindh from Pakistan, the members of this group were, Saheed Hemu Kalani, Ashi Vidhyarthi, Nanik Ahuja, Vishno Chapru, Hiro Bagi, Nabi Baksh Khuhado, Nand Jethra, Manek, Tirth Kasturiya, Baghwan Hazare, Jivat, Hundraj, Shivaji Singh, Sunderdas, Murli, Kody, Gopaldas, Tulsi Navani, Ishwar Ahuja,Udharam Relwani, Ram, Kalidas, Profesor Mishra, Bhai Gangaram, Keshavlal Adval, Keshavlal Joshi, Shambudas, Mulchand Mayus, Hari Masand, Hashu Kevalramani, Shobo Gyanchandani, Dayal Kalani, Kumari Haridevi Parsaram, Kumari Savitri Chandnani, Kumari Ishwari Khilnani, Kumari Sarla Ahuja, Kumari Rajkumari, Kumari Nanki and others.

Communist leader Amin Khoso and leader of “Youth Circle” of Sukkur- Rohri Jhaman Kalani were also members.

Hemu Kalani was arrested in the case of derailing of train loaded with ammunition. Parcho Vidhyathi and Jhaman Kalani made the effort to free Hemu Kalani from prison by blasting the bomb on the wall of prison. During this effort they were surrounded by CID police. After half hour clash with police, Parcho Vidhyarthi fired in air and was escaped along with his companion.

The modus operandi of Parcho Vidhyarthi was much secured; they use to do activities in small troops of 4-5 members, so that all the members are not arrested at the time. He divided the Sindh into five regions and leader of each region was separate, Nand Jhurani- Karachi, Topandas- Hyderabad, Amir Khan Rund Baloch- Larkana, Jhaman Kalani and Kartar Baksh Bijlani- Sukkur. Nandu Jhurani worked for providing finance to all the groups of Sindh.

There was the event when Dayal Kalani along with his companion thrown a bomb on British Sergeant and police troop and escaped. He went to one nearby house and returned with only

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Underwear and Baniyan and was present on the scene where British Sergeant had fallen on ground and police troops were injured. He dared to come back on the scene and nobody recognized him.

Shikarpur Colony Bomb Case:

After Indo-Pak partition in year 1947, Hindus were killed, attacked and harassed by Muslim activists. Government of Pakistan did nothing to protect Hindus but supported Muslims. Due to this some members of Rashtriya Swayam Sewak Sangh started gathering bombs and arms. Near the extension of port road of Karachi there was a two storey building of Totaram Hingoani, this building was given to his relative Nand Balani and he was shifted to Udaipur. For appearing in drawing exam of NID Engineering college Nand Balani for some period went to live in Karachi at his brother’s house. In the house of Totaram Hingorani Shri Kishin Mata along with member of Punjab relief Committee use to live. Shri Kishin Mata was RSS worker. In the house of Totaram there was small factory of manufacturing bombs. On 9th December 1948 one powerful bomb exploded during manufacturing and blast was so powerful that whole Karachi realized its vibration and sound. Wall of house was collapsed in bomb explosion. Prabhu Balani was immediately killed in explosion and Vasdev Baba was totally burned and was crying out of pain. From the ground floor Kishin Mata and Loknath Jetley ran on first floor and immediately police also came on the site. On seeing the police coming both ran away from the house. Police found dead body of Balani and Vasdev Baba in critical condition, but before interrogation by the police he also died. Police seized the equipments of making bomb and got the receipt of Punjab Relief committee from the house.

During the investigation many other houses of Shikarpur colony were raided and 17 persons of RSS were arrested. The person arrested were advocate Khanchand Gopaldas, Nand Badlani, Govind Ajwani, Daulat Sajnani, Narayan Mirchandani, Tikamdas Vazirani, Hargovind Gidwani, Santo Gidwani, Vishnu Jagesia, Nanak Ramrakhiyani, Dhanraj Oza and Mangaram Jhurani.

The case was lodge and was proceeded in court as Shikarpur Colony bomb case. On the instructions of Mahommad Ali Jinnah, Judge Rahim Baksh on 13th September 1948 gave the oral judgment in which he sentenced Khanchand for life imprisonment and fine of Rs 50000 and ten years imprisonment to others. The written verdict was pending and in the mean time they were released with other freedom fighters in the exchange of prisoners Dr. Kureshi who was friend of Jinnah. They were send in India on 13th October 1948.

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“Abhinva Bharat” and RSS workers jailed after murder of Mahatma Gandhi:

On 30th January Mahatma Gandhi was Killed. Nehru for this reason instructed to arrest the workers of “Abhinva Bharat”of Veer Savarkar and “Rashtrya Swayam Sewak Sangh”. Most of the worker had not committed any crime. Gobind Hukumani was also arrested who was the regional administrator of Rajasthan; he was punished for twenty one months. Before partition he lived in Rohadi Sukkur and was active member of RSS.

Azad Hind Fauj and Sindhis-1943:

In year 1938 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was appointed as President of congress but due to the insistence of Mahatma Gandhi congress did not cooperate he and ultimately he left congress. In year 1940 he was house arrested in his own house in Kolkata by British government. With the help of Bagatram (who was from the family of Gurdasmal and Saheed Harkishin) Netaji escaped from the house arrest. On 26th January 1941 he reached Berlin through Kabul where he met Sadder Ajitsingh.

In year 1942 Japan army captured Singapore, Malaya and Rangoon. During April 1942 Japan Bombarded on Vishakhapatnam and Kakinada. Navy of Japan was also seen in Bay of Bengal. Japan had arrested 60 thousand Indian soldiers in Malaya. Army of twenty thousand soldiers was established out of 60 thousand soldiers and gave the message in Germany to Subhash Chandra Bose to lead this army. On 21st October 1943 Subhash Chandra Bose merged this army into his group and established “Azad Hind Fauj”. There after he also established provisional government in India. Netaji Bose gave the slogan “ You give me blood- I will give you freedom”( tum mujhe khoon do main tumhe aazadi dooga.) “ Delhi chalo” and” Jay Hind”. The army was very bold and was famous in South-East Asia. With the help of army of Japan Azad Hind Fauj

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entered in border of India. Netaji tried to free the nation through Assam and Manipur route, but British army recaptured Burma. Hence plan was dropped by Azad Hind Fauj.

Sindhi businessmen of Burma, Honking, Singapore, Japan, Manila, Indonesia and other foreign countries financially helped Azad Hind Fauj to get the freedom of nation. Two Sindhis from Mumbai Hotchand and Parsram Bagnani always accompanied Subhash Chandra Bose. There were to Sindhi soldiers Harchandrai Pamnani and Bhoolchand Ramchand Narvani from Bhirayan village of Sahiti played import roles in freedom movement. Shri Bhoolchand Narvani was previously in British army and being with in army him destroyed Petro storage by setting on fire, he escaped to China and then jointed Netaji’s army.

In year 1939 during visit of Netaji in Sindh, Sindhi women gifted their precious ornaments to Netaji. In Singapore Azad Hind Fauj was supported by Chotarmal farm. The Manager of this farm was Maganmal whose father Udharam Baharani was a freedom fighter and was sentenced to prison in year 1910. Udharam Baharani was doing business in Kolkata , where he helped Bengali and Punjabi freedom fighters. In Japan Netaji use to arrange secrete meetings in the house of Soni Jhamatmal Sukhramdas Purswani and his brother’s son Vasumal Purswani was soldier in Fauj of Netaji. In Indonesia businessmen Soni Lilaram Lekhran and Soni Panjandas were supporters of Azad Hind Fauj, after war they lived in India secretly underground.

A businessman of Indonesia Seth Tejumal Vadhumal Bhojwani also financially helped to Azad Hind Fauj.

State Elections -1937 & 1945

In year 1935 Federal law was passed by British government. Under this law there was provision of establishing provisional government through elections under Viceroy. Nationwide Congress and Hindu organizations termed this law as “black law” and protested for the same. In this law Hindus and Muslims were given opportunity to elect their representatives. Also Anglo-Indian was given special position. To protest for this law congress in the whole nation protested through slogan “ todi baccha hai-hai”. British government ignored this protest and declared election in year 1937. Congress decided that they will participate in election and after establishing provisional government, they will bring the government to stand still. Congress won from six seats from seven seats in Hindu majority areas. There after they changed their policy and in the name of public service started propagating congress and enjoyed the rule. In Muslim majority areas Khudai Khidmadgar supporter party of congress was elected from North- west region, In Punjab United party of Sikkandar Hayat was elected, In Bengal Krushak Praja Party of Fazuul Hak was elected. Muslim league lost from all seats.

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File Photo Allah Baksh Sumro

In Sindh there were 40 seats where Muslim government was established and chief minister was Allah Baksh Sumro. Allah Baksh Sumro believed in Hindu-Muslim unity. In non Muslim majority areas congress won from seven seats which were Shri Popatlal, Shri R.V. Sidhva, Shri Isardas Varandmal, Shri Nevendraram Vishandas, Professor Ghanshyam Shivdasani, Professor Hararam Pamnani and Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani. Ameen Khoso from the congress was also elected who left the congress after riots in 1939 at Mandilgah.

Partition of India and Pakistan was under planning by British government, hence to make the Sindh as Muslim majority areas it was separated from Mumbai region on 1st April 1936.

After elections of year 1937, a proposal by Muslim league was about to place in the house of assemble for creation of Pakistan , to protest against this proposal Shri Abdul Kalam Aazad visited Sindh. Sindhi leaders Dr.Choithram Gidwani, Jayram Daulatram, Professor Ghanshyam Shivdasani and J.M. Saiyad were of opinion to support the chief minister as he believed in Hindu-Muslim unity. But G.M. Saiyad along with some Sindhi leaders supported Muslim league and didn’t oppose the bill. Hence this bill was passed which was the base of creation of Pakistan.

Chief Minister Allah Baksh Sumro on 14th May 1943 was killed by terrorist and supporters of Bahadur Kuhado. There after Bhadur Khuado became Chief Minister and Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani became Deputy Speaker of assemble.

In elections of December 1945 there were 60 seats in Sindh Assemble. Before these elections Mahatma Gandhi said “I promised that even though his body is cut into pieces he will not allow

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constituting Pakistan and partition of the nation” the same was also published in news paper of Mahatma Gandhi “Harijan” on date 22ne September 1943.

Pandit Nehru and other congress leaders also gave same promise. People of Sindh believed on this promise and in these elections congress won 10 seats and Hindu Sabha won 10 seats.

Muslim league in these elections used the slogan’ Bantwara karke rahegge, Pakistan banake rahege” Muslim league in this election came to majority, as majority of the Muslims supported creation of Pakistan. During the election campaigning Mohammad Ali Jinnah termed Allah Baksh Sumro outgoing Chief Minister as “kafir” and stated that Muslims are not safe under his rule. Muslim league won on 38 seats and elected Mir Bande Alikhan as Chief Minster and Seerumal Israni was elected as Deputy Speaker.

Ten elected representative of congress and ten of Hind Sabha were as;

Madhavdas Khurana- Jacobabad, Dr. Govindram Punjabi- Shikarpur, Choithram Kalecha- Sukkur, Lala Meghraj- Rohiri, Serumal Israni- Larkana, Parasram Tahiliyani- Dadu, Serumal- Navabshah, Nevandram Vishanchand and Swami Krishnanand – Tharparkar, Maharaj Vishnusharma, Professor Narayandas Malkani and Professor Ghanshyam Shivdasani- Hyderabad, Dr. Popatlal – Karachi, Nihaldas Vazirani- Karachi, Mukhi Gobindram Pritamdas –representative of landowners, Parasmal Tahalramani- Dadu, Seerumal- Navabshah, Bhai Pratap Dialas- Mirpur khas, Professor Narayan Malkani- Hyderabad, R.K. Sidhva- Karachi, Kumari Jethi Sipahimalani- Karachi, Isardas Varandmal ( Representative businessmen), Narayandas Bechar- ( Representative of labour), In Lok Sabha Seth Sukhdev Udhavdas Bharvani and in Vidhanabha Nevandram Vishanda were elected unopposed.

After election Muslim league gave the indication of direct actions in pre-preprtion of Pakistan. This meaned they had given green signal to kill, harass the Hindus and evacuate them from the favorite places. Under this planning there was a great violence in Kolkata which spread in West Bengal, Bihar, Delhi, Amritsar, Lahore, Rawalpindi , Karachi and in other parts of the nation. Against this violence Hindus replied in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Thereafter on 12th August 1946 it was requested by Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru to Muslim league and finally on 25th October 1946 Muslim league became part of central government.

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Freedom of the captives of Nadirshah: By Seth Kevalram of Shri Naomal Hotchand Bhojwani family.

Nadirshah of Iran and Nasir Khan of Afghanistan together conducted loot and murders in India. The made slaves and captive to Brahmins of Vajra and Mathura. In year 1723 Nadirshah was returning to Iran through Kabul.

Nasirkhan was taking captives by route Multan to Shikarpur of Sindh and reached Shikarpur. On getting information the famous Naomal Hotchand Bhojwani’s decedent Seth Kevalram and his wife Takhat Bai freed the captives by paying Rs 100 to 500 for each captive to the dacoits , hence Brahmins and women were freed. In this issues Sindhi panchayat of Shikarpur also contributed. Shri Naomal Hotchand Bhojwani’s business centers were almost in major cities of Hindustan. He also facilities the Brahmins and women by food and money and send them back to Mathura , this effort was done by his employees of various centers.

Diwan Gidumal- Year 1750

Shri Behramji Malabari and Diwan Dayaram Gidumal (Left)

In year 1700-1783 Sindh was ruled by Kalhoas. During period of Miya Noor Mohammad Khan in 1740 Sindh was attacked by Nadirshah of Iran. On receiving information of the attack Noor Mohammad ran to Amarkot to save his life. On condition of paying of one crores and twenty lakhs per year, Nadirshah gave back the rule to Noor Mohammad. About in year 1750 due to non receipt of annual sum Nadirshah decided to attack the Sindh. This was during the rule of

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Ahmedshah Abdullah in Iran. On getting information Noor Mohammad discussed with Diwan Gidumal who was his clever minister. A plan was prepared and three boxes with ornamental carving were send to Iran.

The three bags were presented by Diwan Gidumal in the court of Abidali of Iran. Diwan Gidumal stated that he is presenting precious gift from Sindh and requested to accept the gift. Boxes were opened and it was found that instead of expected diamonds and jewelry they were filled by soil. On seeing this Abidali was very angry. On this Diwan Gidumal stated that this soil of Sindh consists of the ashes of Hindu and Muslim saints of Sindh. For us no other this is precious than this. On hearing this Ahmedshah Abidali was happy and bowed down and made tilak on his forehead by the soil of Sindh.

In this was Diwan Gidumal saved the Sindh from attack. During the period of Kalhor vansh name of Niran Kot was changed to Hyderabad and in guidance of Diwan Gidumal new fort was developed. A new village was developed near Sindhu river and was named as “ Gidumal ka tanda” A port was also developed there and was named as “Gidu Bandhar”

Kodumal Chandanmal Khilwani;

In year 1897 epidemics of plague was in Pune, during this period the famous social worker Shri Kodumal Chandanmal Khilwani leaded many workers from Sindh to Pune. Due to his services British Government titled him as “Rai Saheb”

Navjagran by Sindh Sabha:1882

In 1887 independence movement “ Brahmo Samaj” was constituted by Raja Ram Mohan roy, “ Nav Vidhan Brahmo samaj” was constituted by Keshavchandra sen, “Arya Samaj” & “ Prathna Samaj” was constituted by Shri Dayanand Saraswati, “ Sarvajanik Sabha” was constituted by Justice Rande. Similarly Navjagran wave was produced in Sindh.

Indian vernacular press act was imposed by British government and against which Sir Surendranagh Baneerji visited main towns including Karachi. Hence independence movement was enhanced in the Sindh due to this.

Due to this Navjagran effect, in year 1882 “Sindh Sabha” was established. In Sindh Sabha, Sindhi, Muslim, Parsi, Gujrati, Marathi and Bengalis came to one platform and first president of Sindh Sabha was the famous Seth Naomal Hotchand Bhojwani’s family member Seth Atmaram Bhojwani. His brother Alumal Bhojwani was also member and along with other members such as Rajrishi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal, Sadhu Hiraram Shaukiram Advani and his brother Sadhu

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Navalrai, Diwan Dayaram Jethmal, Maharaj Nainaram, Diwan Tahalram Khemchand Vazirani, Diwan Kodumal Chandanmal Khilwani, Seth Harchandrai Vishandas, Diwan Udharai Moolchand, Jamshedji Nadir, Fatehchand Atmaram, Sharif Sale Mohammed, Koke, Aduljee Dinshaw, M.M. Marzban, Nagendranagh Gupta, Sahajram Gangadhar, Hasan Ali, Hiranand Masand, Fateh Ali Khan, and secretary was Daulatram Jethmal ( Father of Jayramdas Daulatram)

Rajrishi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal, Diwan Tahalram Khemchand Vazirani and Seth Harchandrai Vishandas were first Sindhis to complete B.A. LLB exams.

Two news papers were published by Sindh Sabha, “Sindh Times” in English and “ Sindh Sudhar” in Sindhi . In these news papers problems of towns and villages were published and matters against atrocity of English government and their solutions were published. Diwan Gidumal was lead person to prepare all the matters of news paper, even though he was government officer. He was educated from Elephanta College of Mumbai, he also came in touch with famous Justice Randhe, Baharamji Malbari, Pandit Ramabhai, public service was his basic objective, and he was also representative of Justice Rande in Sindh. Due to his efforts he insisted Sadhu Hiranand to come back in Sindh and take the responsibility of editor “ Sampadak” of the two news papers. Sadhu Hiranand agreed to give services for two news papers. Sadhu Hiranand passed BA from Kolkata, he also served Swami Ramkrishan Paramhans, he was living in house of Keshav Chandra in Kolkata and sometimes in “Bharat Ashram” He was also active member of “Band of Hopes “of Shri Keshav Chandra Sen, even after coming to Sindh he regularly communicated by letters to Shri Sen. His brother Navalrai was also main member of Sindhu Sabha even though he was government employee.

Voice of “ Sindh times” and Sindh Sudhar”

After Sadhu Hiranand took over the charge of editor of these two news paper the articles and news in these papers become sharper. In 1884 the articles were published this was “ Hindustan had given 4.5 crore pound to England in year 1882-83 and similar amount in the year 1883-84. Comparing loot of Nadirshah in Hindustan it was 3 crore 20 lakhs only and that too was not done every year, now Hindustan pays to England 4.5 crore pound every year. As per the words of Doctor Hunter this loot is surprise when 5% of Hindustanis live on the half meals. Hindustan is poor country nobody will disagree , also poverty is due to yearly loot by English government from the country. If British government is really in the interest of the Hindustan than they should give attention to grooving poverty and curtail the needs of British government and shall stop sucking blood of Hindustanis.

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Indian National Congress movement in Sindh: 1885

In year 1883 “ Brahmo Samaj” was established by members of Sindh Sabha, also a big building of the same was erected. In 1885 after establishment of National Congress , members of Sindh Sabha became member of National Congress. In National congress first meet at Mumbai Diwan Dayaram Jethmal, Vishandas Parvani and Diwan Udharam Moolchand were representatives from Sindh who participated.

In January 1887 first swadeshi college “ D.J Sindh Arts College” was established under the leadership of Diwan Dayaram Jethamal. This was for development of education and increase Nationalism amongst people. For establishing swadeshi college Rajrishi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal, Diwan Metharam Sahani and Diwan Sadhu Navalrai contributed a lot. Diwan Dayaram Jethamal was great leader and social work hence was respected personality in Karachi and was known as father of society. He established National congress in Karachi and then congress standing committee in Karachi, whose secretary was Shri Nagendranath Gupta. Diwan Dayaram Jethamal was honored as member of Legislative council of Mumbai. After his death on 16th August 1887, Diwan Udharam Moolchand was nominated for this post, also he took over the charge of congress and was chairman of Karachi Municipality. In year 1887 Diwan Tahalram Khemchand, Seth Harchandrai Vishandas and Nagendra Gupta were elected in Karachi Municipality.

There was always participation from Sindh in all the activities of congress. In 1888 Allahabad congress Adiveshan Diwan Tahalram Khemchand and Harchandrai Vishandas participated. And in 1889 Mumbai Adhiveshan Sadhu Hiranand participated as representative from Sindh.

First regional conference of congress in 1895:

With the efforts of Diwan Tahalram Khemchand first regional conference of congress was held in 1895. In this event there was huge participation of people from various areas of Sindh. Chairman of inauguration committee was Allah Baksh Sumro and secretary was Shri Narayan G Chandwarkar. The credit of success of this conference went to Diwan Tahalram Khemchand, Diwan Daulatram Jethmal, Seth Harchandrai Vishandas, Diwan Hiranand Khemsingh, Diwan Lalchand Navalrai, Janab Majhludin Abdullah, Thakurdas Khemchand, Himatsingh Gajsingh, and Lekhraj Trilokchand, professor B.J.Badshah, Diwan Thakurdas and Janmab Ghulam Husain Chagla. Four proposals were passed in this event.

1. Solution of problems by arranging meeting of working and non working members.

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2.In Mumbai council more representations of land owners to be made, instead of only one representative.

3.Increasing salary of Sindh Provisional source to the tune of Gujarat Maharashtra and Karnataka.

4.High court to be established in Karachi.

Parsram Balani:

Parsram Balani was from the land lord family of Navabshah. Even though from the land lord family he vowed to walk bare footed till independence if not achieved. In spite of head in summer he used to walk bare foot for collecting funds for Tilak Swaraj. Due to such hardship his health deterred and was expired in year 1924. He was also joint secretary of Navabshah District congress committee . He was famous person of Balani family.

Khadi Prachar by Harkishandas Pardasani much before Gandhiji.

Long before Mahatma Gandhi in year 1917 in Navabshah- Sahiti district, village Bhirayan Khadi was promoted first by Shri Harkishandas Pardasani. In Sindh in every school there was rule to produce Khadi by hand wheel “Charkha”. In many schools Khadi industry was also developed. Students were weaving Khadi cloths by their hands. In many villages and towns Khadi centers were developed. In this reference it was stated in the book of Seth Metharam Harumal Khilnani “ Azadia lai Andholan” “ Harkishandas was resident of Biriyan village and was school principle in English school of Tando Adam. He resigned from this government job and took the task of Khadi promotion. He also wrote a small booklet in which he stated – due to Khadi industry there shall be lot of local employment, money used for foreign cloths shall be utilized for employment and khadi production in the country.

Shri Harkishandas also use to wear only Khadi and use to promote in whole Sindh. He established Khadi udyog in village Biriyan in 1920; students also use to learn khadi weaving. Sahiti and Tharparkar district were main centers for Khadi industry. In Sahiti district khadi centers were in Berani, Shahadpur, Tando Adam, Naoshahro, Daulatpur, Halari and Miyani. Also there were small centers in all villages for making khadi threads. Foreign clothes were burnt and social workers use to sell khadi cloths on their shoulders and move house to house for the sale. Chief minister of Sindh Shri Allahbaksh Sumro was also one of the member to sale khadi.

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Contribution of Arya Samaj:

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During freedom movement in year 1857 Hindus were fighting for freedom where as some Muslims and Muslim league were busy in conversion of Hindus to Muslims. Hindus were frightened by kidnapping , loot , killing and physical assaults. Congress at that time didn’t care about the Muslim policy of conversion where as the congress continued to advocate the unity of Hindu- Muslims. Congress was always inclined to Muslim interest so to stop such activity Arya Samaj took lead role.

In year 1892-93 in Hyderabad Sindh many educated Sindhi Hindus were converted into Muslim due to fear of terror of Muslims and also some due to some type of temptations. Looking to this condition Rajrishi Diwan Dayaram Gidumal, Diwan Navalrai, Diwan Gulab singh , Diwan Dayaram Jethmal and others wrote letters and telegrammed to the Saheed Swami Shradanand of Punjab for help. On receiving letters Pandit Lekhraj and Pandit Puranchand were sent to Sindh. They guided and established Arya Samaj in Sindh. The first president of Arya Samaj was Diwan Gulabsingh Bijasingh and secretary was Diwan Chuharmal Dharamdas Vaswani. There after many centers of Arya Samaj were established in Sindh, under these centers various schools, libraries, news papers, Dharmshalas and Vyayamshalas were established. Many converted Muslims were reconverted into Hindus, many kidnapped women were released and helped to meet their families. Arya samaj promoted Yagya Sanskruti, and also preached to avoid untouchable, avoid child marriage, avoid sati pratha, and promote education and many such social activities.

Saheed Lekhram Arya:

Pandit Lekhram Arya was born in Punjab. Arya Samaj in Sindh was established under his leadership. He had made efforts of reconverting Muslim to Hindus and brought back to Hindu religion the persons which were previously converted into Muslims. Due to this many efforts by Muslims were made to kill Pandit Lekhram Arya and ultimately he was killed by one Muslim by attacking with knife.

Saheed Nathuram Sharma of Arya Samaj:

One time in newspapers article to defame the Hindu god and goddesses were published by some Muslims. In this article some wrong words were used against god and goddesses of Hindu religion. Against this one booklet was published by Shri Nathuram who was born in Hyderabad Sindh. He was Aryasamaj pracharak. An article heading “Muslim itihas” and questioner in reference to a book published by Christian priest Amaludin. The answers were asked from Muslim leaders. Muslims lodged a case against Shri Nathuram in Hyderabad court and in

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judgment he was convicted for one and half year with fine of Rupees 1000. It was then appealed in Karachi Judicial court.

On 20th September 1934 during the hearing of this famous case, in presences of many advocates and judges one Muslim terrorist stabbed Shri Nathuram in stomach and was killed.

Arya Veer Khemchand Shuddiwala:

His name Shuddiwala was given because shuddi means purity and he had made many converted Hindu Muslims back into Hindu religion. This conversion he had carried out at very risk of attack from Muslim activists.

Arya Samaji Shri Krishnanand:

He was preacher of Arya Samaj . He had also worked for reconverting people to Hindu religion who had become Muslims. He was born in Tharparkar District on date 6th March 1891. He was famous preacher of Arya Samaj in Sindh. He took active participation in “Quit India Movement “. In election of year 1945 he was elected as member from Hindu Maha Sabha. After partition he was settled in Himachal Pradesh and was elected as independent candidate in assemble elections from 1952 to 1957.

Arya Samaji professor Tarachand Gaajra:

He was great freedom fighter of Sindh. Even though a great learned person his economic condition was not good and he did not gathered money and property. During preaching of Arya Samaj in Sindh he had influenced many young people for freedom movement and love for country . He was also jailed many times . At the age of 82 years he was expired on date 19 January 1968.

Swami Shri Angdev Sharma- Arya samaji:

He was the only son of the rich Shroff of Afghanistan. He neglected the richness and became Sanyasi. He travelled during Jan Jagran Movement for independence in Quota, Baluchistan, Sukkur, Shikarpur and Jacobabad. He also donated Rupees 1.10 lakh for establishment of news papers “Sadalak”, “Nai Duniya” and “Vatan “of Govind Punjabi. He also served people during flood in Sindh. After partition he continued travelling and preaching for Sindhi unity.

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Arya Samaji: Pandit Udaibhanu:

He was preacher of Arya Samaj and lifelong bachelor. He had also travelled for freedom movement in “Jan Jagran “and preached for Arya Samaj and freedom movement.

Maharaj Tejbhan Sharma:

He established unit of Forward Block of Subhash Chandra Bose in Sindh. He was master in astrology and wrote number of books. After partition he settled in Ajmer and had starting doing social service.

Aryasamji Amarsingh Verma:

He was preacher of Arya Samaj. He participated in Satyagrah movement in Hyderabad- Dakkhan. He was jailed many times for freedom movement . After partition he continued the work of preaching of arya samaj.

Poet: Chetandev Verma “ Yamraj”

He was poet of veerras. He wrote about 1600 poem of veerras and wrote 73 books. He was brilliant person from his younger age. He many times participated in religious debates of Hindus and Muslims. He also preached Hindu religion through news papers “Rajput rattan”, Fateh” “ Arya premi”

Arya Samaji Roopchand Sipahimalani:

He was born on date 29th April 1915 in Karachi. He was commander of Arya Veer Dhal. He was secretary of Sarva Hindu Panchayat in Sindh. He was publisher of newspaper “ Prabhat” He also wrote book on independence movement of year 1857.

Veer Saheed Gandhiwadi and Revolutionists

Veer Saheed Neruram Sharma:

Veer Saheed Neruram Sharma was born on 2ne October 1920 in Hyderabad Sindh in the family of Pandit Pitambardas. He was eldest amongst three brothers. He was married to Liladevi daughter of Mukhi Hundraj in year 1940. He was attached to Rasjtra Swayam Sewak Sangh from his early child hood , he attended RSS Shakha regularly, and he used to say his wife and friends that he shall be proud if he dies like Saheed Hemu Kalani in freedom movement.

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On one side there was freedom movement for independence and on other side some Muslim activists were on mission to convert Hindus into Muslims. This was one of the act for creating Pakistan. On date 24 May 1945 RSS Hyderabad center was attacked by Muslims by sticks and knives. Veer Saheed Nenuram Sharma protested and fought against Muslim for protection of children members of RSS. He was beaten on his head by stick and then attacked by knife on his stomach. He was severely injured and hospitalized . He died on 29th May 1945 during treatment.

Other members of RSS such as Master Bherudutt, Mohanlal Sharma, Thakurdas Tandon, and Gobind T. Chatlani were severely injured. Indian penal code act of 144 was imposed in the town and even though all Hindus gathered and showed their unity by procession and demanded punishment to culprits. Muslim culprits were then arrested and imprisoned for lifetime.

Padamshree Dada Shevak Bhojwani:

To attack famous Dharasana salt depo , Dada Shevak Bhojwani and Hariram Dadiwala from Sindh leaded the delegation of 21 Satyagrahis. In year 1932-33 during non-cooperative movement they left the government servant and joined into the movement. He constituted “ Service of people society “ and “ Harijan Seva Sangh”. He insisted the students for social service and nationalism. After independence he settled in India and was honored by the title Padamshree.

Student leader- Hashu Kevalramani;

Hashu Kevalramani lived in London and was part of Indian League of Shri V.K. Krishna Menon and worked for freedom of the country. He returned to Sindh around year 1938. He was associated with famous freedom fighter Parcho Vidhyarthi and fought for rights of labours and farmers. He was named as Comrade due to his activities. Being student leader he constituted “ Vidhyarthi Parishad” and encouraged the student leaders such as Santoshkumar, Roop Pardasani, Prito Tahalramani and Moti Motwani. He was arrested in year 1940 and was given punishment of 1.5 years, he was imprisonment in Sakhar Jail of Karachi. After his arrest there was huge protest from the students by strikes in school and colleges in Sukkur , also big historic procession by students was organized. After independence he settled in Delhi and he actively participated in the movement for reorganization of Sindhi language in Indian constitution.

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Saint Tulsidas:

He was famous as true saint of Tando Mohammad Khan, he use to wear Khadi and motivated all his followers to wear Khadi. He was writer of many books on Swadesh prachar, against foreign fashion and cloths, social development and “Daheji pratha”( Dowry). He was jailed many times. After his death , people use to celebrate his birthday in which famous Professor Hasanand Jadugadh and Parsaram Jiya regularly attended.

Uttamsingh Jivatram:

He was born on 22th June 1908, He was publisher of ‘Rojana” newspaper. During 1932 to 1942 he participated in every activity as congress worker. He was also jailed many times. His father also died of getting shocking news of Shri Uttamsing Jivatram being jailed.

Maharaj Nainaram Sharma:

He was born on 29th May 1890 in Hyderabad and was expired on 21st December, 1933 in Karachi. His entire family participated in the independence movement. During his study in Kashi in year 1905 he participated in the freedom movement. After coming to Sindh he established the news paper “ Hindu”. He provided facility to hide in his house the famous freedom fighter Baba Gurudatsing and Hansraj Wireless which were involved in Koma Gatamaro ship case. Maharaj Lokuram and Vishnu Sharma were his two sons.

Maharaj Vishnu Sharma:

He was son of famous Maharaj Nanaram Sharma, and brother of Maharaj Lokuram. He established famous “ Bhramcharya Ashram” under the influence of Swami Govindacharya, Acharya Kriplani and Doctor Choithram Gidwani. This ashram was also the shelter place of freedom fighters. He was member of Hindu Mahasabha on behalf of Sindh assemble.

Bhai Moolchand Aajwaro:

He helped financially the freedom fighter secretly. It is said that to donation shall be learned from Bhai Moolchand. He never turned back any needy person from his door.

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Young poet Nirmal Jivtani;

During his young age he participated in many “ Prabhat Feris” morning processions , due to his constant participation he became sick. He wrote many poems of freedom movement and sang poems till his death.

Freedom fighter Jagdish Gope Advani;

He participated in many freedom movements. He kept running police behind him and was also jailed many times.

Professor Jhamatmal Lakhsingh.

He was editor of “ Hindu “ news paper , he was famous by name” Azadi ki shama ka parvana” He provided facility to hide the freedom fighters in farmhouse in Fuleli in Hyderabad. He used to motivate the young children and rich person for freedom movement and love for Nation. He use to supply petrol and other blasting material to the freedom fighters. He used to change his appearance as painter, Rangrez and was famous as “Bahurupiya” (Person having art of changing appearance). He participated in blowing away the military camp of British government . After independence he settled in India and use to publish the news paper “ Hindustan”

Babu Kishanchand Melwani:

He was the aggressive leader. He was promoter of Khadi and worked for Harijan uplift, he also encouraged to students for freedom movement and love for nation. He used to give shelter to freedom fighters in his home. He was having good terms with “ Sindhwarki” ( Sindhi persons living in foreign for business), hence he collected lot of funds from them for freedom movement. After partition his farmhouse and dairy was captured by Muslims from UP and Bihar.

Shri Harisundar Roopchand:

He was son of Baghat Roopchand. He was elected as member in Hyderabad Municipality. After independences and partition he lived in Sindh for some time and then settled in Ajmer. In Ajmer he worked with Dada Deepchand Trilokchand and Bahu Prabhu Bhramchari. He established children’s school “ Harisundar Bal Vidhyalaya” and his daughter Dr. Data and his Son Ishwar use to serve in the school.

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Dr. Chimandas Ishwardas Jagtiyani:

Jagtiyani family was famous as “ Roshan Minar” in Sindh. His all brother were freedom fighters. He was jailed number of times. He helped in establishing big TB hospital. After partition he settled in Puna and established the newspaper named” Swatantrata”

Shri Isardas Premchand Kapoor:

He was resident of Jacobabad. He was jailed nine times. He was promoter of Khadi and fought for Harijan’s rights . He actively helped in flood and malaria epidemics.

Shri Daulatram S. Mangtani:

He was resident of Dadu District of Sindh, he was restricted to move out of district by the court, and due to non following of the restriction he was punished and jailed for 2 years. He participated in every movement along with Khan Abdul Samad in Balochisthan and Quetta. After partition he settled in Ulhasnagar and became chairman of cottage industry association. He was also jailed in Hyderabad and Sukkur . He visited Hongkong and motivated the Sindhvarkis ( Nonresident Sindhis) for freedom movement and was arrested by British government in Hongkong. He continued social service in Pimpri, Pune and other place lifelong.

Social servant of poor farmers: Jethamal Parsram:

He was famous freedom fighter and press reporter. Jethamal Parasmal was born in Hyderabad. He had learned poems of by heart of Surdas, Gurunanik, Shah, Sachal, Sami, Dalpat, Bevas and Shakespeare. Due to this his speech was very effective. He actively participated “ Darzian” movement . He also struggled for each and every poor farmer’s right. Being the leading freedom fighter he was send to jail in Nasik. He was great welcomed by Sindhi community during his visit to Singapore. His services in literature were famous and noted. He was expired in Mumbai on 6th July 1948

Shri Seerumal Vishandas Israni:

Shri Seerumal Vishandas Israni was noted advocated of Larkana Sindh. He was respected person in public life and his professional life. He use to meet frequently with great social servants and rich personalities. He use to help every poor person who came to his house. He was member of legislation on from Congress in Sindh. Due to expert in law he became Dy. Speaker in the assembly. He was also jailed many times due to participation in every freedom movement. After partition he settled in Jaipur and helped Sindhi refugees in their resettlement.

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Sadhu Rijhumal Lahorei:

He was president of Larkana Municipality. He was graduate in law and after his studies dedicated his time for service of Harijans and poor. He served the people in 1929 cholera epidemics and was himself infected by cholera which was his reason of death. Due to his service people had installed his statue in his memory in Station Chowk in Larkana.

Choithram Kalecha: Guide of young and student in Sindh.

A party of young and students was established by Shri Pahalajrai Rajpal. Shri Rajpal use to plan many projects of students and young , his activities were secretly done. He was motivated by Shri Choithram Kalecha, he was also active worker behind the scene. In 1938 after the case of Manjil Shah Masjid of Sukkur there were dangerous clashes between Hindus and Muslims. He promoted unity for Hindus and Muslim after this incident along with Parcho Vidhyarthi and Narayan Wadhwani, all of them worked hard for the unity. Under the leader ship of Shri Choithram Kalecha meeting of leaders of both the community was held and all were vowed the they will not fight in future and remain in unity.

Maharaj Kirpaldas Piriram Sharma:

He was resident of Kotdi, he was jailed about 5 times for freedom movement. He settled in Ajmer and continued his social service.

Reporter Goswami Shevapuri.

He was jailed many times due to participation in freedom movement. After partition settled in Jaipur and started the newspaper “ Hojmalo”. He served for Sindhi refugees and helped in rehabilitation.

Nanki Motwani: Of Chicago radio

He was owner of Chicago radio company. He helped financially in every event in Sindh. He was in personal tough with Mahatma Gandhi, Pandit Nehru, Dr. Rajendraprasadh , Sardar Vallabbhai Patel, Dr. Radhakrishan and Morarji Desai. After partition he helped Sindhis in rehabilitation.

Saheed Allahbaksh Sumro:

He was chief Minister of Sindh, even though he used to sell and promote Khadi carrying on his shoulders. He became Chief Minister in 1937 elections. He was advocate of unity of Hindus and

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Muslims. Due to his action of promoting unity, he was killed by guns of the people of extremist Muslim Mohammad Ayub Khuvaro on 14th May 1943.

Dwarkaprasadh Sharma:

Due to participation in freedom movement he was send to Yerwada Jail of Maharashtra. In jail he came in contact with Veer Savarkar. His book “Inqulab Zindabadh” was banned and seized by British government. He translated Bhagwat Geeta and many other historic books into Sindhi language.. He was leader of Hindu Mahasabha. He flourished Sindhi literature with literature and history.

Jethanand Bhavandas Lalwani:

His literature on freedom movement was banned and seized by British government. His wife Sushiladevi also participated in freedom movement. After partition he settled in Mumbai and started magazine “Raj Filmstan “and newspaper “Bharat Jeevan”

Diwan Tilumal Abhichandani:

He established Sita Printing Press in Tande Adam. He use to publish news paper “Fakarfaad”

Shevanand Shevakram:

He was first jailed at early age of 20 years due to participation in freedom movement. He published newspaper named “ Shakti”. After India-Pakistan partition he settled in Ajmer and contributed in running news paper” Hindwasi”

Kishan Khanchand Gurnani:

He was born on 25th March 1924 in Navabshah. He jumped into freedom movement in his early age. He started public awareness program through news paper “Azadi”. He became Municipal president at the age of 23 years.. After Indo-Pak partition he settled in Ajmer and was elected as unopposed member, thereafter he became chairman of the municipality. He continued his social service in Ajmer and due to his work one ward was named as “Gurnani Ward” in his respect.

Dayo Nathani:

During his early child hood he was companion of famous freedom fighter Parcho Vidhyarthi. After India-Pakistan partition he settled in Nagpur-Maharashtra. He was famous in Sindhi Sahitya in Nagpur.

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Kirat Bhabani:

During his early child hood he was companion of famous freedom fighter Parcho Vidhyarthi. After India-Pakistan partition he settled in Mumbai-Maharashtra. He was publisher and editor of two magazines “Sindhu Dhara” and Sujag Sindhi”. He was chairman of Akhil Bharat Sahitya Sabha and Akhil Bharat Sindhi Boli.

Ashi Vidhyarthi:

He was famous as “ Joshilo Jawan” in Sukkur. He was companion of famous freedom fighter Parcho Vidhyarthi. He was in jail for 3 years and after partition he was released in exchange of Kasam Rizvi and send to India.

Dharamchandar Jiandani:

He was resident of Sukkur Sindh and participated in every freedom movement. After partition he worked with Dr. Choithram Gidhwani for resettlement of Sindhi refugees in India.

File photo of Choithram Gidwani

Deepchandra Trilokchand Belani:

He was born on 17th April 1907 in Naushahro in District Navabshah. He was friend of Bhau Prabdas Bhramchari. Along with him he established Kanya path shala. ( Girls’s school). He used to work in freedom movement behind the scene. His wife Mohini Devi was jailed for 12 times due to freedom movement. After Indo-Pak partition he settled in Ajmer and continued his services for Women Education, Social reforms and helped poor and needy. He wrote book on Sindhi Basha Sahitya. He was publisher and editor of children’s magazine “Phoolwadi” till today

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this magazine is being published by his son Rameshchandra Belani. At the time of his funeral President Gyani Zail Singh was present and paid homage to Shri Deepchandra Belani.

Maharaj Govardhan Sharma:

He was the first person along with Verumal Beghraj at the age of 20 to start Swadeshi Movement and oppose foreign articles, due to this in year 1907 he was jailed for three years and was punished with fine.

Totasingh Bharti:

He was member of Inquilabi party, hence was known as Inquilabi Totasingh. This Inquilabi party constitutes of students and Youngs and was in relation to Inquilabi Party of Veer Bhagat Singh. He was also member of Bharat Seva samaj of Parcho Vidhyarthi. Before coming to Sindh he was in Uttar Pradesh and was known as comrade due to his work for the rights of labours and farmers.

Chancaldas Ramchandani:

He was from Arya Samaj and was born on 18th February in year 1909 in Naushahro Feroz in District Navabshah. He was lifelong preacher of Arya samaj. As a teacher he used to spread his teaching of Arya samaj. He wrote book on Veer Savarkar and many other books also. After Indo-Pak partition he settled in Ajmer and continued his service to Arya samaj.

Ramchand Bacchani:

He was from Arya Samaj and was born on 26th May 1904 in Tando Ahiliyar. He was pure Aryasamaji. He was also president of Municipality. He was editor of weekly magazine “ Satya Samachar”. After indo-Pakistan partition he settled in Ajmer and expired on date 11th January 1965.

Rochiram Ladharam:

He was from Arya Samaj and was born on 26th January 1908. He was secretary of Arya Samaj, he also participated in freedom movement of Dakkhan Hyderabad.

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Parcharam Arya:

He converted many Hindus who were converted to Muslims, back to Hindus. He was due to this reason threatened for death many times. Complain against him for insulting Quran Sharif was lodged which was proven to be false.

Shri Govind Punjabi:

He was editor of monthly magazine “ Nai Duniya”. He was famous Sindh Sahityakar. He was also member of editors of “ Ratan” and “Roshni” news papers.

Mukhi Jethanand:

He was the main freedom fighter , he financially helped many freedom fighter. His house was searched by police in the case of “ Reshmi Rumal” of Azad Hind Sarkar.

Pandit Sitaldas;

He was born in Mehad, in Hala taluka. He use to wear and promote Khadi cloths. He was follower of Bhagwat Geeta, in his temple he use to celebrate many festivals which includes birth dates of many freedom fighters and Patriotic.

Shri Kranti Kriplani:

He was born in Hyderabad. He became member of Arya Samaj and Rashtra Swayam Sewak Sangh at his early age. He wrote about 18 books, and some books were banned and seized by British government . Some of his books were “ Arab Ki Khajoor”, Hindu Veeran Dahu” Inqualib ji aag”, “ Saheed Charitrawali, Hindu swatantrata, “ Rashtra Jwala, “ Revolutionist, “ Veer Garjana, Sindhu Sangram” etc.

Seth Sukhdev:

He was elected as Member of Parliament in year 1945. He was from family of Saheed Seth Harchandrai Vishandas Bharwani family who was member of Sindh assemble. He was secretary of “foreign cloth boycott committee “He was having great hold in cloth market and nobody dared to avoid his instructions and orders. In English news paper “ Daily gazette “ it was mentioned that in Karachi Seth Sukhdev is running parallel government to British Government. He was arrested by Police and charged with heavy penal codes. He was charged with 75 years imprisonment in various activities. Due to non availability of any witness against him, police was forced to dismiss his case.

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Kishinchand Bevas:

He was the great poet. He was Head teacher in Larkana Municipal School. He was poet of patriotic songs and religious songs. His poems were part of syllabus in the schools. One famous line of his poem was “Desh Ki Bhakri, Desh Ki Seva, Swarg Baugh ka meetha meva”

Shri Lalchand Amardinomal Jagtiyani:

He was freedom fighter. During Non cooperation movement he resigned from teaching job in government school. Thereafter he established “ Vande Matram Mandali” in Hyderabad. He was famous Sahityakar. He wrote a will that his ashes to be flown in Sindhu River, this was same as per the will of Nathuram Godse.

Lilaram Ferwani”

He was resident of Shikarpur. Five days after his marriage he delivered the speech of opposition against British government. He was jailed for two years for the same.

Dhanashah Seth Mangaram Pamnani;

He was owner of famous biscuit company “ J.B. Mangaram” He used to motivate his factory employees for freedom movement. He used to pay the salaries to the workers who were absent from job due to satyagrah movement. He secretly helped financially many freedom fighter

Shri Jivanlal Jayramdas:

He was resident of Gadhi Khere of district Jacobabad. He was companion of Dada Dukhayal. He was general secretary of Akhil Bhartiya Harijan Sabha. He established Rato Dero Harijan Ashram which used to carry out activities for benefit of Harijans. After partition he used to live in Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmadabad.

Shri Madhavdas Khurana:

He was son of great land lord. He was youngest member of Sindh assemble . He was jailed for freedom fighting movement for three years. After partition he settled in Ahmadabad and helped for rehabilitation of Sindhi refugees.

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Saheed Abdul Samadkhan.

He was famous freedom fighter of Baluchistan. Near the Indian border he motivated people for freedom movement for which British government was very annoyed . He was killed by the guns of stanch Muslim in year 1973.

Seth Shri Chetumal:

He was the first person along Shri Virumal Bhegraj and Govardan Sharma to start Swadeshi movement and boycott foreign clothes and material. Due to this he was jailed for three years and fine was also imposed.

Shri Hero Jagtiyani;

He was student leader. Even after imposing of Marshall Law he participated in quit India movement. After Indo – Pak partition he settled in Mumbai and worked for Bengali refugees and their rehabilitation.

Doctor Mangaram Kalani:

In Swadeshi movement, he resigned from his government service. He started serving people from his personal hospital. To promote patriotism he started “ Swaraj Sena Mandal “ from his early childhood. In his personal hospital every evening a meeting was held of young freedom fighters. During these meeting the current status of the country at that time was discussed and lifestyle of famous freedom fighters were discussed. Members of Swaraj Sena Mandal used to take processions in early morning “Prabhat Feri” and sing patriotic songs and shouting with slogans of “Bharat Mata Ki Jay”, with this public awareness for freedom movement was developed. Hemu Kalani was his brother’s son which was under great influence of Dr. Mangaram Kalani.

Saint Swami Harnamdas:

He was famous saint of a famous religious place of Sindh, Sadh Belo. He was religious as well as patriotic person. He gave shelter to many underground freedom fighters and also served them lot.

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Veerumal Begraj:

He was born in Shikarpur Sindh in year 1874. He was in difference the Mahatma Gandhi in reference to his inclination towards Muslims of Turkey for Khilafat Movement. The act of Mahatma Gandhi was called “Aaafat” by Shri Veerumal Begraj. His idol was Lokmanya Tilak.

During the Sindh visit of Lokmanya Tilak he visited Veerumal’s house. Under his leadership Lokmanya Tilak was warmly welcomed in Shikarpur and Sukkur and also presented the donation in a bag containing one lakh rupees. In year 1907 he started movement of Swadeshi Khand (Sugar) and published & printed one lakh booklets for Lokmanya Tilak. Due to this reason he was punished for five year, during entering into the Jail he told that these “five years shall be finished like five hours” He established Home league in Sindh and established ‘ Tilak Hall” in Sukkur.

In year 1919 he presented the soil of Jallianwala Baugh to Lokmanya Tilak and Tilak applied the soil on his forehead with honor. He vowed to free the Mother India from the British government. Shri Veerumal had established many industries of Swadeshi Items. He was jailed many times and was patriotic lifelong. He expired in year 1955.

Jawaharmal Mansukhani:

He was known as Swami Govindanand, he was companion of famous freedom fighter Baba Gurudutsingh. He was involved in the famous “Komagata Maru Ship” case along with his young brother Bhai Naraindas. Along with other freedom fighters he was taken into custody in Kolkata. He was punished with five years jail in this case. After completion his jail term, he returned to Sindh and established Ramkrishan Ashram and Bhramchari Ashram and thereafter he became to be known as Swami Govindanand. He was old companion and friend of Acharya Kriplani and famous land lord Khemchand Balani. Along with Balani he started two news papers “ Anand” and ‘ Shakti”, also he worked as editors of the two papers.

Shri Manganmal Udharam Bahirani:

He was companion of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. He was convinier of one he committee of Azad Hind Fauj .His father was the first Sindhi who laid his life in freedom movement in Sindh. First Martyr (Saheed) of Sindh.

Saheed Peer Pagaro:

It is said in Sindh that if Saheed Peer Pagaro was properly guided, than his nine lakh followers could drive the British from India. He was having nine lakh soldiers in form of his followers. He

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was financed by the landlords of Sindh and Hind. For number of years Britishers were sleepless due to Peer Pagero. British’s government arrested him in Karachi and shifted to London Jain where he was hanged by the British government. It was feared by the British government that they have to face great opposition from his followers so his death was not declared and kept secret for long time.

Kaka Trilokchand Gopaldas;

He was born on 11th March, 1886 in Navabshah and left this world on date 26th June, 1955 in Ajmer. He used to give shelter to many underground and wanted by British Police freedom fighter in his secrete places. He was editor of weekly magazine ‘ Hind Samachar”. After India- Pakistan partition he settled in Ajmer and established Sindhi Panchayat and Pursharthi Panchayat. He also started publication of “ Hindu” news paper. He was elected as member of Municipality on the ticket of Pursharthi Panchayat. Also he was elected in Rajasthan assembly from Ajmer. He served the poor and needy people lifelong. In his remembrance and honor one area in Ajmer is named as Triloknagar. His family is celebrating his birth anniversary every year with all society of Sindhi community.

Baldev Gajara:

He was born in Shikarpur Sindh. He was member of many congress committees and took active participation in freedom movement. He was jailed number of times. After Indo-Pak partition he settled in Kandiveli in Mumbai. He published and edited daily news paper “ Bharatwasi” in Mumbai. He was also writer of a book titled( contribution of Sindh in freedom movement) “aazadia je yudh me Sindh jo bagh”

Master Ladharam:

He use to promote the patriotic feelings within students. He participated in almost every freedom movement. He was principal of the school and served the people in field of education. After Indo-Pak partition he settled in Baroda, he left this world in Baroda and in his memory a school is established.

Shri Seetaldas:

During freedom movement of Sindh many toughing events happened which could never be forgotten. For freedom movement a fixed sum was to be collected by each district in Sindh. For collecting the amount in Sukkur Sind one poor Sindhi Shri Seetaldas climbed the stage and declared that he is willing to auction himself and become the slave those who purchase him and the amount so received shall be donated for freedom movement.

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Due to this scene lot of people were motivated and encouraged to donate for freedom movement.

The event was of year 1921 in the year which Mahatma Gandhi announced that “one crore rupees are required to be collected for Tilak Raj fund and also one crore members of congress are targeted to be made. If he became success in collecting fund and registration of one crore members then independence shall be achieved in twelve months.

Bhai Pratabh Dialdas:

For national integrity and unity he promoted Hindi as national language. He donated extensive amount by heart. He started a center in year 1919 in Naushahro in Navabshah, under which National girls school was started “Rashtriya Kanya Shala”. In which Hindi was taught and promoted by Pandit Indradev, Prabhdas Bhramchari and Deependra Bhramchari. Examination of Hindi languages were held in Navabshah, Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur and Shikarpur. For Hindi promotions Baba Nagarajan and Kaka Kalekar visited Sindh.

Sardar Motusingh:

He was resident of Larkana. After partition he was injured by attack by Muslims in the train coming to India. He settled in Bharatpur in UP after partition.

Pandit Daulatram Sharma:

Basically he was from Punjab and was settled in Tharparkar district. He promoted for Harijan improvement and national language Hindi. He also worked for public awareness for freedom movement in Hyderabad “ Janjagran karya”. After partition he settled in Ajmer.

Shri Mirchumal:

He established “ Bandar Sena” for promotion of patriotism amongst children. He participated in almost every freedom movement.

Dr. Vatanmal Gulabchand Gidwani:

He was cousin of Dr. Choithram Gidwani. He was resident of Mirpur Khas. He was jailed many times. In Tharparkar District he solved many problems of farmers and Harijans. His son also participated in various freedom movement.

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Mulo Motiyani:

He was born in village Mithiyani of Navabshah District. During Satyagrah Movement he left is studies from college and started addressing and giving speeches of freedom movement from the stages of Karachi. Due to this reason he was sentenced for three months jail. Along with Harishchandra Thavani he boycotted the governor’s visit in Tharushah. He was beaten by police of British government by hunters during his fourteen months jail period in year 1932. Due to this his became severely ill and left this world at the young age of twenty five.

Khan Abdul Ghaffarkhan:

He is known as Gandhi of Baluchistan. He was warmly welcomed in Sindh, he gave britishers many sleepless nights due to his freedom movement . After constitution of Pakistan he was jailed.

Shri Narsingh Jethanand:

He was companion of famous patriotic Shri Jethanand. He use to distribute patriotic bulletins and promote freedom movement. He was also jailed many times. After partition he became Sanyasi and settled in Haridwar.

Shri Hariram Mandiwala:

He was companion of famous Shri Jethanand and Durgadas Advani. In 1919 during boycott of Rowlett Act all the three were sentenced imprisonment for one and half year.

Shivanand Shevakram:

In year 1924-25 along with Prabhdas Bhramchari he worked as editor for two papers “ Navabshah gazette “ and “ Shakti”. In this papers public awareness, social improvement and patriotism ware promoted. He managed two educational institutions. He participated in almost every freedom movement .

Mansingh Cuhadmal:

He was editor of famous news paper “ Hindustan” in Navabshah. He published the news against tortures by district collector Mr. Sezwick. Due to this questions were raised in Mumbai Council and also in England assembly. Due to this collector was transferred from Navabshah.

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Melaram Vaswani:

In year 1921-22 from Hindu Press Hyderabad and thereafter from Karachi Shri Melaram Vaswani published monthly magazine named “Sunder Sahitya”. His elder brother Bhai Fatehchand also use to write the articles but being government servant could not be published in his name. The articles were to promote patriotism hence articles of Premchand, Sudarshan and articles of Maharana Pratap and Shivaji used to be published.

Kazi Abdul Rahaman and Maulvi Abdullah.

Kazi Abdul Rahaman was regional congress committee president and was resident of Dabhire Village and lived in Safed Masjid. He along with Maulvi Abdullah participated in Khilafat Andolan and was also jailed due to the same.

Bhoolchand Narwani:

There were many Sindhis in Azad Hind Fauj of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. A young person of 18 years from Navabshah of Sahiti District Shri Bhoolchand Narwani joined British Army. He worked as store keeper in Malaya during Second World War between Hitler and Britishers. During this war Britishers were in great trouble due to Hitler.

During attack on English soldiers by Japan air force, letters of Ras Bihari Bose were dropped in which it was mentioned regarding freedom movement for independence of India . Due to this reasons many Indian soldiers in British army worked against the English Government. On one day Bhoolchand Narwani on getting opportunity fired and destroyed the petrol storage drums and quietly went and rested in his tent. English lieutenant suspected Shri Bhoolchand, but Major Chibbar helped him to run away from the army camp. In the mean time due to defeat of British army from Japan army the camp was shifted in Singapore. British army was also defeated in Singapore also by Japan army. During this period Shri Bhoolchand got the opportunity to steal the car and ran away along with cook of British army Shri Kartarsingh. Shri Bhoolchand with 41 such Indians in British army joined Azad Hind Fauj. In these persons one Sindhi Parso Bhagnani was also one of them.

Hansraj Wireless:

Hansraj wireless established the Inqulabi party. He was news maker in all Sindhi and Hindi news papers of Sindh due to participation of freedom movement secretly. Swami Krishnanand of Arya samaj of Tharparkar supported him in his activities. In 1929 he thrown bomb on viceroy’s vehicle and was also involved in many bomb attacks in single day in Punjab. He was

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living in costume of sadhu in Sadh-Belo in Sukkur. He use to carry freedom movement with comrade Malkani. On2nd June 1932 he was arrested by British police while he was sleeping.

Shobo Gianchandani:

He is still famous as comrade , he was leader of labors and farmers. He took part in many freedom movements from his student life. He was also jailed many times. During partition he was being forcefully sent to India in exchange of prisoners of both countries. At that time he told that he is son of the soil , now it may be Pakistan but first I am Sindhi and I have right to live there, I am going back to Sindh to meet my mother land , if you want to stop you can fire me. He thereafter lived in Sindh and worked for uplift of labour and farmers without any discrimination.

Sheikh Ayaz who was the famous Krantakari for “Jiye Sindh” movement wrote in his book regarding Shobo Gianchandani that “he had never seen such person of independent thinking and deep truthful”

A resident of Pakistan who worked with Bruton Russel and Saritte was asked by someone while he was going to Larkana that “Have you seen Mohan-Jo-Daro”. He replied that he had seen some greater reality than Mohan-Jo-Daro, he had seen Shobo Gianchandani”

Really nobody could step into shoes of Shobo Gianchandani.

Women freedom fighters of Sindh:

Ma Haridevi:

She was daughter of famous Paras Parumal who was cloth merchant in Karachi. She was also companion of famous Parcho Vidhyarthi of Sindh, when Shri Vidhyarthi was in jail she use to secretly help financially. She provided duplicate keys to Shri Parcho Vidhyarthi in Jail and with help of which he successfully ran away from jail along with his two other companions.

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Dadi Krishna Devi Hindorani:

She was resident of Naushahro of Navabshah. She was leader of Nari Dal in year 1921. She was editor of women’s newspaper “ Mata” which was published in Gurumukhi language. She was principal of Rashtriya Nari Pataskala. Many freedom fighter companions of Parcho Vidhyarthi use to take shelter in her home by becoming guests. During these period planning to damage government buildings and damage railway were being made in her home. After Indo-Pak partition she settled in Ajmer and established Nari Darbar and continued Satsang and service to people lifelong.

Shrimati Jamna Sadhuram:

She participated in freedom movement along with her husband. After partition she settled in Bareli in UP and elected as Member in Municipality. She also promoted Sindhi language and literature.

Srimati Devi Hasomal:

She motivated patriotism amongst women and young girls. She served for Harijans and poor. After partition she helped Sindhi refugees for rehabilitation.

Shrimati Saraswati Devi:

She was famous Sindhi poetess. Her patriotic songs were sung by young freedom fighters on roads and streets for promotion of freedom movement.

Shrimati Mohini and Shri Lalchand.

Shrimati Mohini along with her husband participated in Freedom Movement. She use to promote Khadi door to door due to which she was jailed. Both husband and wife after partition settled in Ajmer and worked for Sindhi refugees’ rehabilitation and supported a lot.

Shrimati Satidevi Vaswani:

She worked for freedom movement, women awareness, and in field of education lifelong. Her husband Professor Shyamdas Vaswani also participated in freedom movement and done social work lifelong.

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Shrimati and Shri Harchand Maganmal Chandwani:

They were resident of Doro Naro. Both participated in freedom Movement. After partition they settled in Panipat in Himachal Pradesh.

Shrimati Mohini Kona:

She was famous woman leader. She worked in Swadeshi movement and other freedom movement. She was jailed many times.

Shrimati Jamnadevi Govindrai Bhatiya:

She was famous for her Bal Sanskar Kendra. After partition she settled in Maharashtra and was engaged in social service lifelong.

Shrimati Leeladevi and Mohanlal Ramchandani:

Both participated in freedom Movement and were jailed number of times.

Shrimati Meeradevi and Mathuradas Katariya:

Both were jailed many times due to participation in freedom movement. She promoted women awareness and also helped the families of freedom fighters who were in jail. Shri Mathuradas Katariya also participated in every freedom movement. After Partition they were settled in Indore in MP. They published news paper named “ Sindhvani”

Shrimati Seetadevi and Shri Hiranand;

Both participated in freedom movement.

Shrimati Parmeshwari Mirchandani:

She promoted awareness amongst women and girls. She participated in freedom movement in Jacobabad and was send to jail.

Shrimati Laxmidevi and Shri Harpal Chainrai Vaswani:

Both participated in freedom Movement and were jailed number of times.

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Shrimati and Shri Khiyaldas Mehta:

Both were resident of Ubhvado of Sukkur Sindh. Both were punished with imprisoned due to participation in freedom movement.

Sindhi women Jailed during “ Quit India movement”

Leaders of Navabshah Sahiti decided that more and more women shall participate in Quit India Movement in Karachi. Marshall Law was imposed and during this time women camped in Artillery ground, in these camp women from all over Sindh participated. The main women leader during this freedom movement were Mohini Deepchand Belani, Ganga Metharam Khilnani, mother of Nanakram Baghat Shrimati Radhadevi, Bahan Krishna, Jamna Sadhuram Khilnani, Dadi Gurbani, and Vani Mohandas. Many were also send to prison for two times.

Donations for Tilak Fund:

“Garam Dal” of Sindh was greatly influenced by Lokmanya Tilak. During his visit in Sindh he was welcomed likes Kings and under the leadership of Shri Verumal Begraj Rupees one lakh were donated in a bag. From Sukkur along Rupees 35 thousands were collected.

The event was of year 1921 in the year which Mahatma Gandhi announced that “one crore rupees are required to be collected for Tilak Raj fund and also one crore members of congress are targeted to be made. If he became success in collecting fund and registration of one crore members then independence shall be achieved in twelve months. For this fund rupees 80000 were collected from Karachi, Rupees 80000 from Hyderabad, Rupees 26000 from Sukkur, Rupees 12000 from Larkana, Rupees 25000 from Shikarpur, Rupees 18000 from Jacobabad and Rupees 13000 from Navabshah – Sahiti were collected and donated.

During visit of Mahatma Gandhi in February-1929 and visit of Subhash Chandra Bose many women in Sindh donated their golden ornaments to them.

Veer Arya Narayandev and Saheed Gagumal” 6th January 1948.

After Indo-Pak partition there were major communal clashes in which Hindus were most sufferers in Pakistan, a conspiracy for harassing and expelling Hindus from the Pakistan was made by some Stanch Muslim , Hindus were beaten and looted and property were also encroached by local Muslims. Hindus required permit to move from Pakistan and also could not

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sell their properties. On 20th august 1947 in Quota and on 15th December 1947 in Hyderabad there was mass rioting against Hindus in Pakistan. Also on 6th January 1948 special Muslims of UP and Bihar riot the Sindhi Hindus and started looting and encroaching properties of Hindus, due to this Sindhi Hindus were forced to expel from Pakistan.

Many Hindu Sindhis gathered on Karachi sea port to get the accommodation in the passenger ship for Mumbai in India, they waited for day and night to get accommodation in the ship. Due to this arrangement of their shelter was done by Arya samaj in Arya Dhanpatrai Kanya Pathshala in which about 500 men-women, children and old age persons were accommodated.

About 2000 Muslim terrorists attacked the school with deadly sharp weapons in their hands and accommodated on the closed gate of the school and started threatening. Due to shouting of slogans by Muslims, all Hindu Sindhis in the school started shivering with fear. On inside door only two person guarded which were school administrator Acharya Narayandev and other Gagumal. The main gate was broken by the terrorists and entered the school. The two protectors of Sindhis Acharya Narayandev and Gagumal fought with the Muslims for about 30- 35 minutes and ultimately were killed by the Muslims. There after helpless Sindhis were looted by Muslims and all golden ornaments and cash were taken away, they went back after looting and shouting with slogan “Allah O Akbar”.

6th January 1948 is the day remembered for saheed Acharya Narayandev and Gagumal. Narayandev was born in Sultankot of Sukkur district and was follower of Arya Samaj from his child hood. He was skilled in fighting with the Lathi (stick) hence was able to resist Muslims for some time. He also educated many youth in yoga, physical exercise and fighting with lathi, also he use to give natural treatment to sick people.

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Contribution of Sindhis in Goa freedom movement

Famous press reporter Baldev Gajara wrote in his book named” Azadia me Sindh Jo Bagh” about participation of Sindhi youths in freedom movement of Goa in year 1955. It is proud to read about this regarding patriotism about Sindhis. Contribution of Hindu Sindhis is never written in history and not educated to young children in independent India; hence new generation is not at all aware about contribution of Hindu Sindhis in freedom movement. Basics of Sindhu civilization is in Sindh of Pakistan and even though fighting for freedom and many Sindhis gave their life and suffered in jail, but ultimately they were forced to expel from their mother land, even though after independence and lot of suffering due to migration to India bare handed and unemployment, their sprit was still high to participate in the freedom movement of Goa.

In year 1955 a youth Sindhi advocate Shri Roop Sadhwani of Kalyan camp observed that whole country was preparing for Goa freedom but in Ulhasnagar it is still silence about this, hence he published one paper and distributed to the people and motivated them to participate in Goa freedom movement. He gathered many person and on 11th August 100 youth person were prepared for Goa freedom movement in which 10 Sindhis were included. All the youths started moving towards Goa. They reached in Puna and conducted “Sabha” (Assembly) and some more

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youths were joined and moved towards Belgam. On 13th August 2000 freedom fighters started m arching with 5 miles long line of freedom fighters. It was leaded by Shri Sadhwani on roof of one car with tricolor flag in his hand.

Famous Sahityakar Mohan Kalpana walked 40 miles and joined this movement. There were seven posts near border of India and Goa. Hence all youths were divided into seven groups and moved forward. On 15th August when Roop Sadhwani along with youth troops reached on one border post then six gunmen from Goa stopped him. One military officer told to handover flag to him otherwise he shall shoot him. Roop Sadhwani with soft voice and cool attitude answered that he will not stop his movement and he told the soldier that he believes that you could not shoot as you are also Indian and we are also Indian and both are brothers, brother could not kill brother.

After this troops leaded by Roop Sadhwani moved forward , after few moves the opposite army officer ordered to fire, and soldiers opened firing , all the youths of troops lied down on the ground but four youth and freedom fighters were injured by bullets fired in their chest. All the four injured freedom fighters were moved to the Savantwadi hospital near Indian border. In this freedom movement along with Roop Sadhwani following Sindhis participated whose name are 1) Mohan Kalpana 2) Thavardas 3) Gagandas 4) Lalchand Swaraji 5) one representative from Gandhidham Kachahh 6) Satram Karamchandani 7) Jeevan Shadadpuri 8) Girdarilal 9) Nanikram from Gandhinagar 10) Nenumal Mirchandani.

Warning of Bhimrao Ambedkar in his book “ Pakistan par vichar”

In Islamic country Pakistan it is not possible for Hindu to live there. Either Hindus shall be killed or forcefully converted into Muslims or shall be forced to leave Pakistan .Hence it is required that there shall be exchange of population. This shall be true decision.

Kaka Prabhdas Tolani:

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He was great patriotic, even though along with Rashtriya Kavi Dada Dukhayal he was forced to leave Pakistan. Due to expulsion of such person Pakistan had changed his fate due to this the country is in poor condition. People of Pakistan didn’t fought for independence but fought for bifurcation of the nation. After partition every effort to harass Hindu Sindhis in Pakistan by loot and assaults to them. But in India leaders took secular stand and use to promote same by speeches, so in India Muslims were not forcefully expelled as in case of Pakistan. After portion most of the Sindhis from all districts of Pakistan stated moving to India where as Sindhis from Larkana were not ready to leave the country (motherland). It was asked by British government by collector to inquire the facts of Lakdana. It was reported by the collector that people of Larkana feel safe till Prabhdas Shekhavatrai Tolani is living there. Hence conspiracy was created against Tolani in which raid was conducted on 26th October 1948 by Pakistani police and radio transmitter was seized and declared Tolani as spy of Hindustan and was taken into custody under Pakistan safety act. He was Presented before District Judge who was Gopal Tolani Son of Prabhdas Tolani, then he was kept in custody for 100 days and all his property and land was seized by Pakistan government. If he decided to live in Pakistan then he may be punished by death of life imprisonment, he was advised by some of his Muslim friend that he shall go to India empty hands if he was to live.

Kaka Prabhdas Tolani was the biggest land lord of Sindh and big contractor also, he use to pay income tax of 50000 at that time. He was also famous for his charity; he also paid properly to Muslim labours of his farm and also provided the facility of proper housing and other amenities. He was president and chairman in Larkana municipality for 28 years and shown great progress in the city. During his tenure water supply, electricity, roads, hospitals, sanitation and public utility services were provided to the people of the town. He was secretary of district congress committee and actively participated in many freedom movements. He was also jailed many times.

In 1949 he settled in Mumbai and started the work as contractor , he earned lot of month there. Baghwat –Gita was his idol and following which he established Tolani Charitable Trust. In education field he gave importance to women education. In 1969 he established Gandhidham collegiate board in remote district Kachchh of Gujarat. He established many colleges such as Arts, Science, Commerce, Home science, polytechnic etc. His son established shipping company in Goa named as Tolani Shipping Company.

Sindhi never dies by Death:

Sindh is in heart of Sindhis, if bullet is fired in heart of Sindhi than by blood coming from the heart map of Sindh shall be formed on the ground.

Sindhis are hard worker, hence advocate of less profit and great turnover. Hence in Sindh in every street at least there is small shop of cottage industry. Sindh was concurred many times but Sindhis sustained due to their knowledge of business and economy.

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In history Sindhis use to fight against the attack of foreign forces. Sindh was attacked by Alexander, Mohammad bin Kasim, Arguno, Turkhano and many more, fighting with all of them Sindhis were tired and felt that survival by only fighting is very difficult for Sindhis, hence they thrown sword and taken “taraju”( weighing balance) in their hand ( Weight balance equipment) i.e. they started doing business instead of fighting. Sword was hidden in the hearts which was only use to fail all the plan and conspiracies of Muslim for the existing of Sindhis. Sindhu Civilization is the ancient civilization which gave the name Hind and Hindus, this old civilization exist in Sindh as “Mohan Jo dharo” and Sindhis are expelled from their own mother land. All efforts were made to destroy the existing of Sindhis in Sindh. Sindhis were brought in military camps in Ulhasnagar of Kalyan in Maharashtra. There was no facility of water and electricity, tents of military became homes of Sindhis and they use to sleep on open ground along with small children, many incidents of pigs carrying small children also happened there. After some years Sindhis demanded to name the camp area as Sindhunagar against which they were beaten by local police. Some Sindhis shouted and protested for delay in getting ration from the shop against which it was fired by the police.

Due to continuous struggle in such a way Sindhis became more strong. Sindhis have to fight for their existence always.

Raibahadur Dharamdas Hiranandani:

Pakistan came into existence due to religious split. This did not happen overnight but started since initial stage of freedom struggle. The foundation was laid by the Anglo-Muslim organization. This foundation was further strengthened by stanch Muslims in year 1920 by “Khilafat movement”. On advise of Mahatma Gandhi some soft cornered congress leaders supported. The support of congress was also opposed by Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Famous freedom fighter and press reporter said this support as “aafat”; in real sense the same became trouble to Sindhis. This resulted into Pakistan and Sindhis were forced to leave their motherland. Even in such condition Sindhis were always patriotic and always acted in the interest of nation. The greatest proof of the same is of Raibahadur Dharamdas Hiranandni’s effort to stop the merger of Junagadh into Pakistan. In Junagadh there was rule of Muslim Navab who wished to make Junagadh part of Pakistan. At that time many Hindu kingdom were merged into India.

Navab and his minister Abdul Kadir went to America for treatment of heart, on date 1st May 1947 Shah Navab Bhutto was made chief of Junagadh. He was father of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Raibahadur Dharamdas was revenue commissioner of Junagadh, he told his colleague Shambu Prasadh Desai that Bhutto is cunning fellow and we must be alert.

In the court of Navab Mohammad Khan in Junagadh on 14th August 1947 majority of the presence were of Muslims and it was decided in his court it was to decide whether Junagadh shall be merged with India or Pakistan. Navab shah Bhutto already brainwashed the begum ( wife) of the Navab. In the court it was majority of Muslims and Shah Bhutto gave speech

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against merging in India and stated that Pakistani army is ready to help and can come through sea route for help. Navab was confused and during this time Raibahadur Stood up and stated “Why Junagad is going to suicide” listening this faces of all the members became pale. He further stated that decision is to be taken by Navad Mohammad Khan where as Bhutto with his speech is trying to bring wrong decision as nobody is going to help from Pakistan. Junagadh is part of Hindustan and is all-around covered by Hindu sansktiti; it is defiantly going to be suicide operation if merged with Pakistan.

Navab did not hear the suggestion of Raibahadur and decided to be merged into Pakistan. After this statement all Muslim members clapped. After this decision again Hiranand stood up and opposed this decision and declared to resign from his status and left the court of Navab Mohammad Khan.

Rai Bahadur went home where his colleague Shambu Prasadh Desai was waiting. He told that Junagadh had decided to suicide and he is now going to office for resignation. He went to his office gave resignation and went directly to Rajkot as he knew that Bhutto shall take revenge from him due to his opposition. His presumption was correct and his house was raided by police raided his office and asked where about of Raibahadur, it was told police to wait as he will come back from office but he didn’t came and police could not get him.

Rajkot was capital of Saurashtra under which there were about 300 small and big kingdoms. There was also office of all the ambassadors of kingdom and also office of British government. He gave the message of Junagadh’s intension for merging into Pakistan to all the leaders and officials in Rajkot. Hindus were aggravated about this decision, also Shambu Prasad Desai was arrested but he anyhow managed to escape and went to Saurashtra.

At that time the communication system was not that much good but Hiranand anyhow managed to send this message to Sardar Vallabbhai Patel in Delhi. The entire Hindu kingdom started opposing Navab of Junagadh. There was different situation in Rajkot where as nation was celebrating independence. Under guidance of Hiranand and with support of many leaders including Shyamaldas Gandhi the armed force was prepared. This was done within 10 days and on 25th August 1947 Bavariyawada area of Junagadh was captured and temporary government was established in Junagadh. On order of temporary government palace of Navab of Junagadh was seized on 30th August. After this Navab of Junagadh felt sorry and wrote letters and telephoned to Sardar Patel but his act could not be neglected and ultimately he along with his wife and Bhutto ran away to Pakistan. In this way, Raibahadur’s efforts helped Junagadh to be part of India.

Raibahadur Dharamdas Hiranandani was experienced , bold and honest officer . During British government he was collector and latter promoted as secretary.

He shall always be remembered for his patriotic and bold task of merging Junagadh with India.

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Bhai Pratap Dialdas:

Sindhis were homeless after partition, Sardar Vallabbhai Patel was worried about this and he was willing to settle all Sindhis at one place. In the Jaipur congress conference Sindhis were termed refugees, it was objected by Sardar Patel that don’t address Sindhis as refugees. Sindhis are the business community of higher level, they will strengthen the economic condition of India. “Sindhis are not Sharnathis but Pursharthis” (Sindhis are not refugees but hard workers)

Famous Chinese traveler Hiuen Tsang considered Kachchh as one of the part of Sindhu Nation. There is a village named Dahar Nagar near Maliya-Miyana in Kachchh which is the proof of Kachchh being part of Sindh as Dahar Sen was King of Sindh. In the Jaipur congress conference a proposal was passed that due to geographical, cultural and language similarities Sindhis shall be rehabilitated in Kachchh area of Gujarat. This job was assigned to the Sindhi Businessman Seth Prataprai Dialdas. He was good administrator , rich and was having good business terms in foreign countries. He was also in close relation with Nehru family. Bhai Pratap Bialdas shifted in Kachchh with his family to develop new Sindh in Kachchh. Bhai Pratap was foresighted person to think about social concepts. He established Sindhu Resettlement Corporation and he worked as the managing director of the company.

Sindhu Resettlement Corporation (SRC) was started with contribution of common public and shares were issued to the people. All the administrators and workers of SRC were Sindhis. SRC started the development of town near Kandla Port and named it as Gandhidham. The town was developed as twin city Gandhidham and Adipur. Bhai Pratap made efforts to appoint engineers, workmen and labours from all over India.

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The land on which the town was to be developed was barren and covered with babul trees. There were lot of snakes, Scorpios and rats. To reduce the nuisance of snakes and Scorpios he made a novel offer that if anybody brings dead rat he will be given one Anna, if he brings Scorpio he will be given four annas, if he brings dead snake he will be given one rupee.

Bhai Pratap wished to developed the new town as per the norms of ancient civilization of Sindh “ Mohan-Jo-dharo”. He also planned that his dream town shall be such that if Sindhis are around the country or world for business or jobs, then also they will wish that their families shall live in this township.

In this township house for each category from richest to poorest were made, so that all types of people could live in this town consisting of beautiful and permanent houses.

These houses were given on installment and possession of the house was given prior to full payment also. The town also consisted of other important facilities also.

Initially shopping center was constructed with 56 shops so that things of day to day need could be made available to the people.

Rail and road transport between Kandla Port to Gandhidham and Adipur for conveyance of persons going on job and business in Kandla. The town was also connected to State highway of Gujarat.

School and colleges, broad roads with in town, beautiful pond, gardens, hospital and health center, cultural centers, Banks and post offices were also established.

Tolani group of college which established Polytechnic College and principal of the college was Hari Daryani “Dilgeer”

Maitri Maha Vidhyala also established schools in this area.

Bevas Vani Mandir was established in the memory of famous freedom fighter and poet Shri Kishianchand “ Bevas” this was presided by Dada Dukhayal.

Gandhi Samadhi was also constructed, this is the place where ashes of Mahatma Gandhi are laid, and this is the only place other than Delhi where ashes of Mahatma Gandhi are laid.

The work of township was completed by 1955. Now at present it is the largest town in Kachchh.

In this township a small colony named “ Maleer” is established which is the residence place of singers, poets, writers and any other personality which is engaged in cultural activity. In Maleer many famous writers, poets, singers came and settled.

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Photos of some Freedom fighrers

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