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CHAPTER 8

Political Participation

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Ans:

C

1.

In U.S. presidential elections, voter turnout is typically

Page:

178

 

a.

less than 25 percent.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

less than 30 percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

less than 60 percent.

 

 

 

d.

more than 80 percent.

 

 

 

e.

nearly 100 percent.

Ans:

A

2.

The text argues that conventional data comparing U.S. and European

Page:

178

 

voter turnout rates are misleading because they

Type:

Factual

 

a.

compute turnout by two different measures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

are compiled by different agencies.

 

 

 

c.

fail to recognize different political cultures.

 

 

 

d.

disregard the levels of vote fraud.

 

 

 

e.

All of the above.

Ans:

C

3.

Compared with other Western nations, the percentage of registered

Page:

178

 

voters in the United States who actually vote is

Type:

Factual

 

a.

much lower.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

much higher.

 

 

 

c.

about the same.

 

 

 

d.

approximately the same as the number of eligible voters.

 

 

 

e.

unknown.

Ans:

D

4.

In European countries, the burden of voter registration rests on

Page:

179

 

a.

individual voters.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

political parties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

interest groups.

 

 

 

d.

the government.

 

 

 

e.

party leaders.

Ans:

B

5.

Political participation encompasses all of the following activities

Page:

179

 

except

Type:

Factual

 

a.

voting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

paying your taxes.

 

 

 

c.

writing your congressional representative.

 

 

 

d.

signing a petition.

 

 

 

e.

discussing politics.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

152

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

D

 

One unusual―but possible―explanation suggested by the text for

6.

Page:

179

 

the low rate of voter registration in the United States is that

Type:

Factual

 

a.

participation in government is denied to so many people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

many local governments do not require voters to register.

 

 

 

c.

the media discourage voter registration.

 

 

 

d.

people are happy with the way government is working.

 

 

 

e.

voters cannot actually find the places where they are supposed

 

 

 

 

to vote.

 

 

 

 

 

Ans: B

Page: 180

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 179

Type: Factual

7.Today, the largest percentage of voter registration applications comes from

a.public assistance offices.

b.motor vehicle offices.

c.state-designated sites.

d.disability services.

e.the military.

8.A 2001 study found that motor-voter registrants were

a.much more likely to vote than other new registrants.

b.slightly more likely to vote than other new registrants.

c.about as likely to vote as other new registrants.

d.less likely to vote than other new registrants.

e.None of the above.

Ans:

E

9.

Which of the following was required by the U.S. Constitution?

Page:

181

 

a.

Free adult male suffrage

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

Popularly elected presidential electors

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

Nonpartisan election commissions

 

 

 

d.

Popularly elected Senators

 

 

 

e.

Popularly elected House members

Ans:

A

10.

Which of the following statements about the right to vote in the

Page:

181

 

United States is correct?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Not every U.S. citizen of voting age is allowed to vote.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

The original U.S. Constitution ensured women the right to

 

 

 

 

vote.

 

 

 

c.

In 1880 a higher percentage of British than Americans could

 

 

 

 

vote.

 

 

 

d.

The original U.S. Constitution specifically prohibited setting

 

 

 

 

property restrictions on the right to vote.

 

 

 

e.

The states originally had little say as to who could and could

 

 

 

 

not vote.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: D

Page: 181

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 180

Type: Factual

Ans:

D

Page:

181-182

Type:

Factual

Ans: C

Page: 181

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 182

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 182

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

153

11.Which of the following statements about elections in the United States is correct?

a.The U.S. Constitution called for presidential electors to be picked by voters directly rather than by state legislatures.

b.The U.S. Constitution standardized the process by which members of the House were elected.

c.The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution allowed all blacks to vote.

d.The U.S. Constitution left entirely to the states the decision of who could vote and for what offices.

e.All of the above.

12.Suffrage was extended to include virtually all white males by the administration of

a.John Adams.

b.Thomas Jefferson.

c.Andrew Jackson.

d.James Monroe.

e.James Madison.

13.Which of the following was not a device intended to prevent blacks from voting?

a.The grandfather clause

b.The poll tax

c.The literacy test

d.The Australian ballot

e.The white primary

14.Which Amendment stated “the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”?

a.The 12th Amendment

b.The 17th Amendment

c.The 15th Amendment

d.The 25th Amendment

e.None of the above.

15.Blacks first voted in large numbers in the South

a.in the 1970s.

b.after the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

c.after World War II.

d.early in the twentieth century.

e.soon after the Civil War.

16.One way that blacks were prevented from voting prior to passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was by requiring them to

a.meet qualifications found in Article III of the Constitution.

b.register six months in advance of an election.

c.become U.S. citizens.

d.memorize the Bill of Rights.

e.pass a literacy test.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

154

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

 

Between 1915 and 1925, the size of the eligible voting population in

17.

Page:

182

 

 

the United States almost doubled. The main reason for this was that

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

a.

the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

women were given the right to vote.

 

 

 

 

c.

the grandfather clause that denied voting to blacks was ruled

 

 

 

 

 

unconstitutional.

 

 

 

 

d.

literacy tests for blacks were ruled unconstitutional.

 

 

 

 

e.

voter registration laws were abolished in seventeen states.

Ans:

E

18.

Until 1920, women were generally kept from voting by

Page:

182

 

 

a.

intimidation.

Type:

Factual

 

 

 

 

b.

social custom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

their own choice.

 

 

 

 

d.

tradition.

 

 

 

 

e.

law.

Ans:

C

19.

The first elections in which all persons between the ages of eighteen

Page:

183

 

 

and twenty-one were able to vote were held in

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

1944.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

1956.

 

 

 

 

c.

1972.

 

 

 

 

d.

1984.

 

 

 

 

e.

1985.

Ans:

C

 

20.

When Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1970 and lowered

 

Page:

183

 

 

the voting age to eighteen,

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

the president vetoed the Act.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the 14th Amendment was overturned.

 

 

 

 

c.

the Supreme Court declared the adjustment unconstitutional.

 

 

 

 

d.

thirty-five state governors protested the change.

 

 

 

 

e.

the number of eligible voters instantly doubled.

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

A

21.

Suffrage was extended in the Twenty-sixth Amendment to

Page:

183

 

 

a.

those aged eighteen to twenty.

Type:

Factual

 

 

 

 

b.

blacks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

women.

 

 

 

 

d.

residents of the District of Columbia.

 

 

 

 

e.

felons who had received presidential pardons.

Ans:

D

 

Which of the following statements about 18-24 year olds is correct?

 

22.

Page:

183

 

 

a.

They are voting at record levels.

Type:

Factual

 

 

 

 

b.

They vote about as often as senior citizens.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

They have consistently voted at about the same level for thirty

 

 

 

 

 

years.

 

 

 

 

d.

They appear to vote less but participate in civic activities more.

 

 

 

 

e.

They are voting less and participating in civic activities less.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: E

Page: 183

Type: Factual

Ans:

C

Page:

181-183

Type:

Factual

Ans: E

Page: 182

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 183

Type: Conceptual

Ans: D

Page: 183

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

155

23.In the first presidential election in which eighteen-year-olds were allowed to vote, they

a.turned out in far heavier numbers than the population as a whole.

b.voted heavily Democratic.

c.voted heavily Republican.

d.voted heavily Independent.

e.made little difference to the outcome of the election.

24.By 1972, those who had received the right to vote in all U.S. elections and who had been previously disenfranchised included

a.blacks only.

b.blacks and women only.

c.blacks, women, and eighteen-year-olds only.

d.blacks, women, eighteen-year-olds, and prison inmates.

e.blacks, women, eighteen-year-olds, and prison inmates who had been pardoned.

25.By federal law, those areas in which less than 50 percent of the population has voted in presidential elections

a.can have federal elections canceled.

b.lose a seat in the House of Representatives.

c.are placed on probation until the turnout rises to 55 percent or more.

d.cannot be treated differently from any other area of the country.

e.can be subject to federal voter registrars and poll watchers.

26.Which of the following statements applies to the voting rights of U.S. citizens who cannot speak English?

a.All U.S. citizens are guaranteed the right to a ballot written in his or her native language.

b.These citizens must pass a language test before they are allowed to vote.

c.Areas must only provide translators for Spanish-speaking persons under the age of twenty-one.

d.Areas must provide a translator to all non-English-speaking citizens wishing to vote.

e.Areas with many such citizens must provide ballots written in the citizens' languages.

27.The _____ Amendment gave voters in the District of Columbia the right to vote in presidential elections.

a.Fifteenth

b.Twentieth

c.Twenty-second

d.Twenty-third

e.Twenty-sixth

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

156

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

States may not have residency requirements for voters of more than

28.

Page:

183

 

____ days.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

30

 

 

 

c.

60

 

 

 

d.

90

 

 

 

e.

100

 

 

 

 

Ans:

C

29.

Which of the following statements about U.S. voter participation in

Page:

184

 

presidential elections is correct?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

It increased sharply after women, blacks, and youths were

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

given the right to vote.

 

 

 

b.

It has remained steady since at least the mid-nineteenth

 

 

 

 

century.

 

 

 

c.

It has declined since the latter part of the nineteenth century.

 

 

 

d.

It rose steadily throughout the first half of the twentieth century

 

 

 

 

but has recently declined.

 

 

 

e.

It has risen steadily since the campaign of Ross Perot.

 

 

 

 

Ans:

E

30.

In the late 1800s, voter turnout in a typical presidential election

Page:

184

 

might be as high as ______ percent.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

55

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

60

 

 

 

c.

65

 

 

 

d.

70

 

 

 

e.

75

 

 

 

 

Ans:

D

31.

One explanation given by the text for the decline in U.S. voter

Page:

185

 

participation in presidential elections after 1900 is that

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

parties began functioning to mobilize mass voter turnout.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

fewer citizens were directly affected by the outcome of

 

 

 

 

presidential elections.

 

 

 

c.

other forms of political participation became less accessible to

 

 

 

 

citizens.

 

 

 

d.

election fraud was rampant in the nineteenth century.

 

 

 

e.

the Republican party began to attempt to mobilize individuals

 

 

 

 

who were least likely to vote.

Ans:

A

32.

The steady decline in U.S. voter turnout appears to be the

Page:

185-186

 

unintentional result of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

strict voter registration procedures.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the poll tax.

 

 

 

c.

the fraudulent reporting of election results.

 

 

 

d.

literacy testing.

 

 

 

e.

media campaigns.

 

 

 

 

Ans:

E

33.

In the nineteenth century, voting ballots were printed by

Page:

185

 

a.

the government.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

Congress.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

the courts.

 

 

 

d.

state legislatures.

 

 

 

e.

political parties.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: E

Page: 185

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 185

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 186

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 186

Type: Factual

Ans: C

Page: 186

Type: Factual

Ans: A

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Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

157

34.Which of the following statements regarding the Australian ballot is incorrect?

a.It is printed by the government.

b.It appeared first in the states.

c.It appeared in the late 1800s.

d.It is cast in secret.

e.It eliminated vote fraud.

35.In the 19th century, the term “floaters” refer to

a.individuals who were undecided as election day approached.

b.individuals who voted more than once.

c.members of political parties who defected to the other side.

d.voters who refused to support incumbents.

e.voters who always supported incumbents.

36.The Voting Age Population (VAP) is calculated from

a.state voter registration lists.

b.census reports.

c.public opinion polls.

d.legislative surveys.

e.party membership lists.

37.If a researcher insists on using VEP statistics in a study of vote turnout, as opposed to VAP statistics, he/she is probably concerned about

a.creating a balance between males and females in the data.

b.removing political party bias.

c.generating a more accurate estimate of the number of female voters.

d.having a more reliable estimate of the number of voters across time.

e.removing individuals from the data who are actually ineligible to vote.

38.When Voting Eligible Population (VEP) statistics are examined,

a.the decline in voter turnout is even more apparent.

b.the apparent decline in voter turnout vanishes completely.

c.it is apparent that voter turnout has not declined since the early 1970s.

d.mid-term congressional elections routinely feature turnout rates of above 55 percent.

e.None of the above.

39.The texts suggests that, if the “party of nonvoters” had participated at

ahigher rate in the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections,

a.Bill Clinton would probably have won by a wider margin.

b.Bill Clinton would probably have won by a smaller margin.

c.George Bush would probably have won by a narrow margin.

d.Ross Perot would probably have won by a large margin.

e.Ross Perot would probably have won by a narrow margin.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

158

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

C

 

In a typical survey, one might expect ________ percent of

40.

Page:

187

 

respondents to claim to have voted when, in fact, they did not.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

2 to 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

6 to 8

 

 

 

c.

8 to 10

 

 

 

d.

15 to 20

 

 

 

e.

30 to 40

 

 

 

 

Ans:

B

41.

Verba and Nie found that about ________ of the population was

Page:

188

 

never active in politics in any way.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

one-tenth

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

one-fifth

 

 

 

c.

one-half

 

 

 

d.

two-thirds

 

 

 

e.

one-half

Ans:

D

42.

Compared to the rest of the population, voting specialists tend to be

Page:

188

 

a.

younger and more educated.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

younger and less educated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

older and more educated.

 

 

 

d.

older and less educated.

 

 

 

e.

middle-aged and highly educated.

Ans:

A

43.

Youth, low income, and minority status are associated with which of

Page:

188

 

the following participation groups?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Inactives

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Parochial participants

 

 

 

c.

Communalists

 

 

 

d.

Campaigners

 

 

 

e.

Voting-specialists

Ans:

E

44.

The willingness to engage in partisan competition separates which

Page:

188

 

two of the participation groups described by Verba and Nie?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Campaigners from complete activists

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Inactives from campaigners

 

 

 

c.

Parochial participants from communalists

 

 

 

d.

Inactives from parochial participants

 

 

 

e.

Communalists from campaigners

Ans:

A

45.

Campaigners are distinguished from the general population by their

Page:

188

 

a.

higher education levels and stronger opinions.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

lower education levels and stronger opinions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

higher education levels and weaker opinions.

 

 

 

d.

lower education levels and weaker opinions.

 

 

 

e.

lack of party identification and distaste for conflict.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Political Participation

159

Ans:

A

 

46. Two of the participation groups Verba and Nie describe, campaigners

 

Page:

188

 

and communalists, differ primarily in their

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

taste for conflict.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

political ideology.

 

 

 

 

c.

socioeconomic status.

 

 

 

 

d.

general level of participation.

 

 

 

 

e.

intensity of religious sentiment.

 

Ans:

B

 

47. Which of the following participation groups is distinguished from the

Page:

188

 

others by its higher education and willingness to take strong stands

 

Type:

Factual

 

on issues?

 

 

 

 

a.

Voting specialists

 

 

 

 

b.

Campaigners

 

 

 

 

c.

Communalists

 

 

 

 

d.

Parochial participants

 

 

 

 

e.

Inactives

 

Ans:

C

 

48. Which of the following participation groups appears to want to avoid

Page:

188

 

conflict and tension more than the others?

 

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Voting specialists

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Campaigners

 

 

 

 

c.

Communalists

 

 

 

 

d.

Parochial participants

 

 

 

 

e.

Inactives

 

Ans:

D

 

49. Which of the following participation groups avoids both elections

 

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188

 

and community groups in its political activity?

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

Voting specialists

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Campaigners

 

 

 

 

c.

Communalists

 

 

 

 

d.

Parochial participants

 

 

 

 

e.

Inactives

 

Ans:

A

 

50. Which of the following factors are highly correlated with a high rate

Page:

188

 

of political participation?

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

More education, older than thirty-five years old

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

More education, age younger than thirty-five years old

 

 

 

 

c.

Immigrant background, higher income

 

 

 

 

d.

Nonimmigrant background, more education

 

 

 

 

e.

High income, younger than twenty-five

 

Ans:

C

 

51. Which of the following statements about the voting habits of men

 

 

 

Page:

188

 

and women is correct?

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

Men vote at much higher rates than women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Men vote at a slightly higher rate than women.

 

 

 

 

c.

Men and women vote at about the same rate.

 

 

 

 

d.

Women vote at a much higher rate than men.

 

 

 

 

e.

Women vote at a much higher rate than men in midterm

 

 

 

 

 

elections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

160

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

E

 

 

The text suggests that one reason religious involvement increases

52.

Page:

188

 

 

political participation is because

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

politics is a more simplistic form of theology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

a belief in God helps people make political decisions.

 

 

 

 

c.

the church provides a forum for differing viewpoints.

 

 

 

 

d.

it leads to inwardness and thus more political insight.

 

 

 

 

e.

it leads to social connectedness and increases awareness of

 

 

 

 

 

larger issues.

Ans:

B

53.

Which of the following statements about political participation by

Page:

188

 

 

blacks is correct?

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

Blacks participate less than whites across the board.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Blacks participate more than whites of the same socioeconomic

 

 

 

 

 

status.

 

 

 

 

c.

Blacks participate only at certain times, such as during the civil

 

 

 

 

 

rights movement of the 1960s.

 

 

 

 

d.

Blacks participate more heavily than whites in protest

 

 

 

 

 

movements, riots, and demonstrations.

 

 

 

 

e.

Blacks participate more than whites across the board.

Ans:

E

54.

According to studies, what effect does cynicism have on voter

Page:

189

 

 

turnout?

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

It decreases turnout.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

It increases turnout across the board.

 

 

 

 

c.

It increases turnout for minor parties only.

 

 

 

 

d.

It decreases turnout when third parties are also a factor.

 

 

 

 

e.

It has no effect on turnout at all.

Ans:

E

55.

Which of the following statements is true of voter registration in

Page:

189

 

 

recent years?

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

It has increased dramatically.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

It has decreased dramatically.

 

 

 

 

c.

It has become more difficult for eligible voters.

 

 

 

 

d.

It has changed little.

 

 

 

 

e.

It has become easier for eligible voters.

Ans:

C

 

56.

Since 1970, federal law has prohibited states from having residency

 

Page:

189

 

 

requirements longer than ___ days for presidential elections.

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

15

 

 

 

 

c.

30

 

 

 

 

d.

60

 

 

 

 

e.

100

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

B

57.

Maine, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin have each legislated voter

Page:

189

 

 

registration

Type:

Factual

 

 

a.

according to stricter standards than the federal ones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

on the same day as the elections.

 

 

 

 

c.

by postcard up to one month before the election.

 

 

 

 

d.

by using door-to-door registrars.

 

 

 

 

e.

on the Internet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: E

Page: 189

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 189

Type: Conceptual

Ans: A

Page: 189

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 190

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 190

Type: Conceptual

Ans: A

Page: 191

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

161

58.Most of the states that initiated same-day voter registration (on election day) have experienced

a.a continuing voter turnout decline.

b.a major increase in voter turnout.

c.no change at all in voter turnout.

d.a major increase in turnout of Democratic voters.

e.slight improvements in voter turnout.

59.One cause of the decline in voter turnout may be the increasingly distant and bureaucratic image of

a.most candidates for office.

b.most interest groups.

c.state officeholders.

d.local office holders.

e.the major political parties.

60.All of the following have probably contributed to the recent declines in voter turnout except:

a.increasing difficulties with respect to registration.

b.greater youthfulness of the population.

c.the growing number of African Americans.

d.the declining strength of political parties.

e.a decrease in the number of people who think elections matter.

61.Two multinational studies of voter turnout concluded that party strength, automatic registration, and compulsory voting laws accounted for how much of the variance in turnout?

a.Almost none

b.About one-third

c.About two-thirds

d.Almost all

e.It could not be determined from the data.

62.One argument against compulsory voting in this country is

a.the expense involved.

b.the variation in enforcement from state to state.

c.its vulnerability to vote fraud.

d.the impossibility of implementing it.

e.voter objections to identification papers.

63.Which of the following forms of participation has been decreasing in recent years?

a.Voting

b.Writing to public officials

c.Making demands on government officials

d.Public demonstrations and protest marches

e.Contributing money to a party

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162

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

D

 

If measures were taken to improve voter turnout, it is safest to say

64.

Page:

191

 

that

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

such measures would be more likely to benefit the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republicans.

 

 

 

b.

such measures would be more likely to benefit the Democrats.

 

 

 

c.

such measures would help both major parties about equally.

 

 

 

d.

such measures would hurt both parties and help independent

 

 

 

 

candidates.

 

 

 

e.

we do not know which major party, if either, would benefit.

Ans:

B

65.

When Jesse Jackson ran for president in 1984, which of the following

Page:

191

 

happened to black voter registration in the South?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

It remained low.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

It increased but was more than offset by an increase in voter

 

 

 

 

registration by southern whites.

 

 

 

c.

It actually declined.

 

 

 

d.

It increased and played a major role in winning several states

 

 

 

 

for Jackson.

 

 

 

e.

It had no impact on registration.

Ans:

B

66.

Between 1967 and 1987, a considerable increase was noted in the

Page:

191 (Table 8.5)

 

proportion of Americans who

Type:

Factual

 

a.

always vote in local elections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

contacted public officials.

 

 

 

c.

attend political rallies or meetings.

 

 

 

d.

participate in a political club.

 

 

 

e.

actively worked for candidates.

Ans:

C

67.

Since 1960, the percentage of nonvoters with some college education

Page:

191

 

or who held white-collar jobs has

Type:

Factual

 

a.

decreased.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

stayed about the same.

 

 

 

c.

increased.

 

 

 

d.

decreased for blacks only.

 

 

 

e.

remained about the same for blacks only.

Ans:

C

68.

Compared to voters in the United States, most European voters have

Page:

192

 

the opportunity to cast ballots

Type:

Factual

 

a.

more frequently, for as many offices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

less frequently, for as many offices.

 

 

 

c.

less frequently, for fewer offices.

 

 

 

d.

more frequently, for fewer offices.

 

 

 

e.

more frequently, for more offices.

Ans:

A

69.

Compared to the profile of voters in the United States, the social

Page:

192

 

composition of voters in most European countries is

Type:

Factual

 

a.

closer to the general population.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

more skewed toward the upper classes.

 

 

 

c.

more skewed toward the middle classes.

 

 

 

d.

more skewed toward the working classes.

 

 

 

e.

more skewed toward government employees.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: E

Page: 193

Type: Conceptual

Ans: E

Page: 189

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 192

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 193

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

163

70.The text suggests that the profile of voters in the United States may make the government more responsive to

a.conservative ideology.

b.liberal ideology.

c.the voices of the so-called silent majority.

d.non-partisan elites who work in government.

e.confronting ideologies of higher-status people.

71.The most powerful determinant of political participation, other than education and information, is

a.race.

b.gender.

c.employment.

d.region.

e.age.

72.The authors of the text believe that U.S. elections affect the conduct of government officials

a.hardly at all.

b.considerably, but slightly less than in other nations.

c.considerably, but much less than in other nations.

d.about as much as in other nations.

e.more than in other nations.

73.One excellent study explains the difference in the participation rates of blacks and Latinos as the result of the fact that blacks

a.are more likely to be college educated.

b.are more likely to have higher incomes.

c.are more likely to be members of churches that stimulate political interest, activity and mobilization.

d.are less likely to be affiliated with a political party.

e.are less likely to live in rural areas.

TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS

Ans:

False

74.

T

F

In this country, ninety percent of the voting-age

Page:

178

 

 

 

population is registered to vote.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

75.

T

F

Measured against the total adult population, voter turnout

Page:

178

 

 

 

rates in the United States are on a par with those in

 

 

 

 

 

Europe.

Ans:

True

76.

T

F

Measured against the total registered electorate, voter

Page:

178

 

 

 

turnout rates in the United States are on a par with those

 

 

 

 

 

in Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

77.

T

F

In this country, the entire burden of registering falls on

Page:

179

 

 

 

the individual voter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

164

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

 

Ans:

False

 

T

F

The motor-voter law was passed in 1983.

78.

Page:

179

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

79.

T

F

In any given year, the percentage of new registrants

Page:

179

 

 

 

obtained via motor-voter registration is quite small.

Ans:

True

80.

T

F

The findings of a 2001 study suggest that those who

Page:

179

 

 

 

register in a process that is “costless” are less likely to

 

 

 

 

 

vote.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

81.

T

F

Registration procedures rather than voter apathy are the

Page:

179

 

 

 

major cause of low voter turnout in the United States.

Ans:

False

82.

T

F

The text identifies voting as the sole measure of citizen

Page:

179

 

 

 

participation in politics.

Ans:

True

83.

T

F

The United States is the only Western democracy to

Page:

179

 

 

 

place the full burden of voter registration on the

 

 

 

 

 

individual.

Ans:

True

84.

T

F

The text argues that get-out-the-vote campaigns are

Page:

178-179

 

 

 

unlikely to improve voter turnout.

Ans:

True

85.

T

F

The motor-voter law has allowed a lot of people to

Page:

179

 

 

 

register that way but without much impact on election

 

 

 

 

 

results.

Ans:

True

86.

T

F

Very high levels of registration and voting, suggests the

Page:

179

 

 

 

text, could be a measure of citizen dissatisfaction.

Ans:

True

87.

T

F

Other and perhaps more significant measures of political

Page:

179

 

 

 

participation exist besides voter turnout.

Ans:

True

88.

T

F

Women did not receive the right to vote in all U.S.

Page:

182

 

 

 

elections until the twentieth century.

Ans:

True

89.

T

F

Prisoners in the United States cannot vote.

Page:

181

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

90.

T

F

Initially, the U.S. Constitution, not the states, decided

Page:

181

 

 

 

who could vote and for what offices.

Ans:

False

91.

T

F

The Fifteenth Amendment conferred the right to vote on

Page:

181

 

 

 

any U.S. citizen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Political Participation

165

Ans:

True

 

T

F

In the 1800s, Chinese Americans were widely denied the

92.

Page:

181

 

 

 

right to vote.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

93.

T

F

Poll taxes and literacy tests were methods used to keep

 

Page:

181

 

 

 

blacks from voting.

 

Ans:

True

94.

T

F

Blacks did not begin to vote in large numbers until

 

Page:

182

 

 

 

passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

95.

T

F

The Voting Rights Act of 1965 suspended the use of

 

Page:

182

 

 

 

literacy tests.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

96.

T

F

For decades after receiving suffrage, women voted in

 

Page:

182

 

 

 

smaller proportions than men.

 

Ans:

False

97.

T

F

Women were first allowed to vote in the South.

 

Page:

182

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

98.

T

F

The number of eligible voters doubled when women were

Page:

182

 

 

 

allowed to vote in 1920.

 

Ans:

True

99.

T

F

Several states permitted women to vote prior to the

 

Page:

182

 

 

 

ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

 

Ans:

True

100.

T

F

The Twenty-sixth Amendment gave eighteen-year-olds

 

Page:

183

 

 

 

the right to vote in state elections.

 

Ans:

False

101.

T

F

Most aspects of voter eligibility are controlled by the

 

Page:

183

 

 

 

states rather than the federal government.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

102.

T

F

In areas with a significant number of non-English

 

Page:

183

 

 

 

speaking persons, ballots must be written in the language

 

 

 

 

 

of those people.

 

Ans:

False

103.

T

F

States may not have residency requirements for voters

 

Page:

183

 

 

 

that are longer than 25 days.

 

Ans:

True

104.

T

F

Residents of the District of Columbia could not vote in

 

Page:

183

 

 

 

presidential elections until 1961.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

105.

T

F

The diminishing role of parties in voter registration and

 

Page:

184-185

 

 

 

turnout is one probable reason for the decline in voting.

 

Ans:

False

106.

T

F

Voter fraud today is more prevalent than in the

 

Page:

185

 

 

 

nineteenth century and helps explain some of the reasons

 

 

 

 

 

for declining voter turnout.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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166

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

 

Ans:

True

 

 

T

F

States first began adopting the Australian ballot around

107.

Page:

185

 

 

 

 

1890.

Ans:

True

 

108.

T

F

The Australian ballot was cast in secret.

 

Page:

185

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

 

109.

T

F

The Australian ballot eliminated vote buying and

Page:

185

 

 

 

 

fraudulent vote counts.

Ans:

True

 

110.

T

F

Conventional wisdom suggests that, if those who did not

Page:

187

 

 

 

 

vote voted, the Democrats would benefit the most.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

111.

T

F

Strict voter registration requirements accomplished two

Page:

185

 

 

 

 

things: they reduced fraud and they reduced voter

 

 

 

 

 

 

turnout.

Ans:

True

112.

T

F

Relatively few Americans have ever contributed to a

Page:

187

 

 

 

 

political campaign.

Ans:

True

113.

T

F

For Americans, voting is the most common form of

Page:

187

 

 

 

 

political participation.

Ans:

True

114.

T

F

Survey figures on political participation tend to

Page:

187

 

 

 

 

exaggerate the frequency of actual participation.

Ans:

False

115.

T

F

Inactives and complete activists each comprise about 20

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

percent of the U.S. population.

Ans:

True

116.

T

F

Voting specialists do little else politically than vote.

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

False

117.

T

F

Communalists are like campaigners, but with a keener

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

interest in the tension and conflict of campaigns.

Ans:

True

118.

T

F

Parochial participants will contact local officials about

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

specific, often personal problems.

Ans:

True

119.

T

F

The text suggests that the key variable in political

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

participation may be political information rather than

 

 

 

 

 

 

schooling.

Ans:

True

120.

T

F

Voting rates for men and women are approximately

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

equal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Political Participation

167

Ans:

False

 

 

T

F

Recent declines in voter turnout for presidential elections

121.

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

can be adequately explained by the increasing numbers of

 

 

 

 

 

 

young people and blacks.

 

Ans:

True

122.

T

F

Evidence exists to support the claim that people who are

Page:

189

 

 

 

 

cynical about our leaders are just as likely to vote as

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

people who are not.

 

Ans:

True

123.

T

F

Voter residency requirements in excess of thirty days

 

Page:

189

 

 

 

 

have been prohibited by federal law since 1970.

 

Ans:

False

124.

T

F

Religious involvement appears to have no effect on

 

Page:

188

 

 

 

 

political participation.

 

Ans:

False

125.

T

F

The evidence suggests that, if all states had same-day

 

Page:

189

 

 

 

 

voter registration, voter turnout would probably increase

 

 

 

 

 

 

dramatically.

 

Ans:

False

126.

T

F

Over the past twenty years, registering to vote has

 

Page:

189

 

 

 

 

become more difficult.

 

Ans:

True

127.

T

F

In some countries voting is compulsory.

 

Page:

190

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

128.

T

F

We simply do not know whether currently proposed voter

Page:

190-191

 

 

 

 

registration law reforms would help one political party or

 

 

 

 

 

 

the other.

 

Ans:

True

129.

T

F

The text argues that Americans vote less than Europeans

Page:

191-192

 

 

 

 

but participate more in politics in other ways.

 

Ans:

True

130.

T

F

Unlike voting, most other forms of political participation

Page:

191

 

 

 

 

have been on the rise in recent years.

 

Ans:

False

 

131.

T

F

Public demonstrations such as sit-ins and protest marches

 

Page:

192

 

 

 

 

are less common than they were a decade ago.

 

Ans:

True

 

132.

T

F

In many European nations, voters get to vote just once

 

Page:

192

 

 

 

 

every four or five years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ans:

True

133.

T

F

Compared to other countries, Americans vote in more

 

Page:

192

 

 

 

 

elections and for more offices.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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168

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

 

Ans:

True

134.

T

F

In the United States, voter turnout is heavily skewed

Page:

192

 

 

 

toward higher-status persons: those in managerial,

 

 

 

 

 

professional or other white-collar occupations.

Ans:

True

135.

T

F

Nonwhites and Latinos tend to be underrepresented

Page:

192

 

 

 

among American voters.

Ans:

True

136.

T

F

Currently, little is known about the relationship between

Page:

192

 

 

 

political participation and variables such as command of

 

 

 

 

 

the language.

CHAPTER 10

Elections and Campaigns

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Ans:

A

1.

Which of the following statements about the nomination process in

Page:

231

 

the United States is correct?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Parties play a minor role compared to Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Parties play a larger role today than at the turn of the century.

 

 

 

c.

In the United States, nomination is usually tantamount to

 

 

 

 

election.

 

 

 

d.

The nomination process in the United States is more of an

 

 

 

 

organizational effort than in Europe.

 

 

 

e.

The nomination is less influenced by organized interests than

 

 

 

 

in Europe.

Ans:

E

2.

Until the early nineteenth century, parties chose their presidential

Page:

231

 

nominees by

Type:

Factual

 

a.

secret ballot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

secret primaries.

 

 

 

c.

party conventions.

 

 

 

d.

closed primaries.

 

 

 

e.

congressional caucuses.

Ans:

E

3.

The elections that produce the largest voter turnout are the

Page:

232

 

a.

local elections.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

judicial elections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

senatorial elections.

 

 

 

d.

House elections.

 

 

 

e.

presidential elections.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: D

Page: 232

Type: Conceptual

Ans: E

Page: 232

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 232

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 233

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 234

Type: Factual

Ans: A

Page: 234

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 234

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

169

4.A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns is that

a.fewer people vote in presidential elections.

b.presidential incumbents can better serve their constituents.

c.presidential incumbents can more easily avoid responsibility.

d.presidential races are generally more competitive.

e.congressional incumbents are more likely to be defeated.

5.Which of the following statements best summarizes the value of presidential coattails to congressional candidates of the same party?

a.It has never been a significant factor.

b.It remains a significant factor today.

c.It is increasingly significant for the Republicans.

d.It is becoming more significant today.

e.It is becoming much less significant today.

6.The first goal of an individual planning to run for office is to

a.hire a paid staff of advisers.

b.get mentioned as a possible candidate.

c.develop a strategy for the campaign.

d.raise money from individuals and political action committees (PACs).

e.replace party leaders with avid supporters.

7.Ronald Reagan made a dozen speeches a day to audiences all over the country while

a.his acting career was in full swing.

b.working for General Electric.

c.running for president in 1980.

d.running for president in 1984.

e.campaigning for George Bush.

8.Most “position papers” are rarely used, or not at all, but are still important because

a.they show important interest groups a candidate’s positions.

b.prepare candidates to answer tough questions.

c.they allow journalists to look up a candidate’s views.

d.they sway voters in key states.

e.a, b, and c.

9.Incumbents have run in ____ of the last 12 presidential elections.

a.8

b.4

c.3

d.2

e.all

10.In 1980, Ronald Reagan chose ________ as a theme for his campaign.

a.the need for change

b.trust

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170

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

 

 

 

c.

compassionate conservatism

 

 

 

 

 

 

d.

competence

 

 

 

e.

strength

Ans:

C

11.

In 2000, George Bush chose __________ as a theme for his

Page:

234

 

campaign.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

the need for change

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

trust

 

 

 

c.

compassionate conservatism

 

 

 

d.

competence

 

 

 

e.

strength

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans:

E

Page:

234-235

Type:

Factual

Ans: B

Page: 235

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 235

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 236

Type: Factual

Ans: C

Page: 236

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 236

Type: Factual

Ans: E

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Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

171

12.Since 1962, over ____ percent of House incumbents who sought reelection won it.

a.60

b.65

c.75

d.80

e.90

13.The Constitution calls for reapportionment

a.every five years.

b.every ten years.

c.every twenty years.

d.every fifty years.

e.every one hundred years.

14.In 1911, Congress decided that the House had become large enough and voted to fix its size at

a.100.

b.435.

c.535.

d.537.

e.600.

15.All of the following states gained seats in the House after the 2000 census except

a.California.

b.North Carolina.

c.Georgia.

d.Illinois.

e.Arizona.

16.Which state has benefited the most, by gaining the highest number of seats in the House, after the last two census adjustments?

a.California

b.New York

c.Florida

d.Texas

e.Illinois

17.Most newly elected members of the House can expect an increase of

_________ percent more votes when they run for reelection.

a.1 to 2

b.3 to 4

c.5 to 7

d.8 to 10

e.15 to 20

18.The increase in voter support that a member of the House receives in his / her first bid for reelection is referred to as the

a.no-brainer march.

b.post-office bounce.

c.two-time round-up.

d.second-wind surprise.

e.sophomore surge.

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172

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

A

 

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

19.

Page:

238

 

a.

Representatives must be 20 years of age.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

Senators must be 30 years of age.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

Representatives-be citizens of the U.S. for 7 years.

 

 

 

d.

Senators must be citizens of the U.S. for 9 years.

 

 

 

e.

Representatives and senators must live in the state in which

 

 

 

 

they are elected.

Ans:

E

20.

Who said “all politics is local?”

Page:

237

 

a.

Will Rodgers

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

Groucho Marx

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

Karl Marx

 

 

 

d.

Huey Long

 

 

 

e.

“Tip” O’Neill

Ans:

B

21.

Legislators who think of themselves as trustees are most likely to

Page:

237

 

a.

follow their constituent’s wishes closely.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

do what they perceive is best.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

influence committees to vote the delegate’s positions.

 

 

 

d.

gather support from interest group representatives.

 

 

 

e.

follow the lead of the party caucuses.

Ans:

C

22.

One reason why the approach used by a candidate in a general

Page:

237

 

election may not work in a primary is that a primary candidate must

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

take a more mainstream view of key issues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

be more aware of the “clothespin” vote.

 

 

 

c.

play to the ideology of political activists.

 

 

 

d.

take greater caution to avoid slips of the tongue.

 

 

 

e.

avoid media scrutiny at all costs.

Ans:

D

23.

To win the presidential nomination, as opposed to the general

Page:

238-239

 

election, candidates generally present themselves as

Type:

Factual

 

a.

more conservative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

more liberal.

 

 

 

c.

more liberal if Republican, more conservative if Democrat.

 

 

 

d.

more liberal if Democrat, more conservative if Republican.

 

 

 

e.

moderate.

Ans:

B

24.

In the 1980 presidential election, many voters voted for Ronald

Page:

239

 

Reagan over Jimmy Carter as a vote against Carter, not out of loyalty

Type:

Conceptual

 

to Reagan. Such a vote is referred to as a(n)

 

 

 

a.

spin vote.

 

 

 

b.

clothespin vote.

 

 

 

c.

prospective vote.

 

 

 

d.

informed vote.

 

 

 

e.

inclined vote.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Political Participation

173

Ans:

E

 

25. A _________ issue is one in which the rival candidates have

 

 

 

Page:

239

 

opposing views on a question that also divides the voters.

 

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

valence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

primary

 

 

 

 

c.

secondary

 

 

 

 

d.

residual

 

 

 

 

e.

position

 

Ans:

D

 

26. In the 2000 election, George W. Bush wanted to let people put some

Page:

239

 

of their Social Security money into private savings accounts; Al Gore

Type:

Factual

 

opposed this. This is an example of a ________ issue.

 

 

 

 

a.

valence

 

 

 

 

b.

primary

 

 

 

 

c.

secondary

 

 

 

 

d.

position

 

 

 

 

e.

residual

 

Ans:

A

 

27. A _________ issue is one in which a candidate fully supports the

Page:

239

 

public’s view on a matter about which nearly everybody is in

 

Type:

Factual

 

agreement.

 

 

 

 

a.

valence

 

 

 

 

b.

primary

 

 

 

 

c.

secondary

 

 

 

 

d.

position

 

 

 

 

e.

residual

 

Ans:

E

 

28. An example of a ________ issue was when Jimmy Carter seemed

Page:

239

 

more likely to favor honesty in government than did his opponent in

Type:

Factual

 

1976.

 

 

 

 

 

a.

residual

 

 

 

 

b.

primary

 

 

 

 

c.

secondary

 

 

 

 

d.

position

 

 

 

 

e.

valence

 

Ans:

A

 

29. _________ issues have increased in importance in campaigns in

 

Page:

240

 

recent years.

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

Valence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Primary

 

 

 

 

c.

Secondary

 

 

 

 

d.

Position

 

 

 

 

e.

Residual

 

Ans:

E

 

30. The kind of campaign activity most notably on the increase in recent

Page:

240

 

elections is

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

appearances at malls.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

large parades and rallies.

 

 

 

 

c.

whistle-stop train tours.

 

 

 

 

d.

appearances at factories.

 

 

 

 

e.

broadcasting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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174

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

Which of the following statements about television spot ads in

31.

Page:

240

 

general elections is true?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

They manipulate voters very effectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

They have almost no effect, as far as can be determined.

 

 

 

c.

They usually help the Republican candidate.

 

 

 

d.

They are being used less and less frequently.

 

 

 

e.

They usually help Democratic candidates.

Ans:

C

32.

Which of the following statements about the impact of television

Page:

240

 

advertising is probably true?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

It is greater for clarifying issues than for projecting an image.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

It is more pronounced in congressional than in presidential

 

 

 

 

races.

 

 

 

c.

It is greater on primary elections than on general elections.

 

 

 

d.

It is greater on general elections than on primary elections.

 

 

 

e.

It is greater on strong partisans.

Ans:

B

33.

The drawback to candidates of television visuals and debates is

Page:

242

 

a.

their time limitations.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

the risk of verbal slips.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

their expense.

 

 

 

d.

audience passivity.

 

 

 

e.

the inability to control background images.

Ans:

E

34.

Compared with paid television advertising, television visuals such as

Page:

242

 

an appearance by a candidate on the nightly news are probably

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

more expensive.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

less credible with voters.

 

 

 

c.

more informative.

 

 

 

d.

less influential on election outcomes.

 

 

 

e.

less informative.

Ans:

E

35.

One way for a candidate to avoid embarrassing slips of the tongue

Page:

242

 

during campaigning is to

Type:

Factual

 

a.

engage in televised debates.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

avoid paid advertising.

 

 

 

c.

participate in town meetings.

 

 

 

d.

control the timing of visuals.

 

 

 

e.

rely on stock speeches.

Ans:

B

36.

One effect of candidates’ fear of a slip during campaigning is that,

Page:

243

 

increasingly, candidates are

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

relying on television debates to clarify their views.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

selling an image rather than their ideas.

 

 

 

c.

avoiding stock speeches in favor of impromptu briefings.

 

 

 

d.

avoiding television exposure altogether.

 

 

 

e.

concentrating heavily on substance and ideas.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: C

Page: 243

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 243

Type: Factual

Ans: C

Page: 244

Type: Factual

Ans: A

Page: 245

Type: Conceptual

Ans:

B

Page:

244-245

Type:

Factual

Ans: C

Page: 246

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

175

37.The positive effect of television is best illustrated by the 1992 campaign of

a.Bill Clinton.

b.George Bush.

c.Ross Perot.

d.all of the candidates.

e.none of the candidates.

38.An advantage of direct-mail appeals is that they

a.cost very little.

b.can be directed at specific subgroups of the populations.

c.can blanket the entire electorate.

d.reach only the literate.

e.can convince strong partisans to change their perspectives.

39.Unlike congressional campaigns, presidential campaigns are funded by

a.private sources only.

b.public sources only.

c.both private and public sources.

d.federal matching grants only.

e.private sources during the primaries and public sources after the nominations are made.

40.One effect of the way that federal matching funds are made available to candidates for presidential campaigns is to

a.give candidates an incentive to raise money from small donors.

b.encourage candidates to use more of their own financing.

c.strengthen the role that the party plays in raising campaign funds.

d.increase the chances of an ideologically-oriented candidate winning the election.

e.encourage a large number of third party candidates to run.

41.Funding of congressional elections comes from

a.public sources only.

b.private sources only.

c.party sources only.

d.a combination of public, party, and private sources.

e.the parties and public sources.

42.A PAC must have ____ members.

a.2

b.8

c.50

d.100

e.120

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176

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

Given what we know about “red” counties and “blue” counties,

43.

Page:

248

 

which of the following statements is incorrect?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

The Democrats dominate New England.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

The Republicans dominate bigger cities in the Midwest.

 

 

 

c.

The Democrats dominate the coastal areas of California,

 

 

 

 

Oregon and Washington.

 

 

 

d.

Many red states feature blue counties.

 

 

 

e.

Many blue states feature red counties.

Ans:

C

44.

Which of the following statements concerning the 2004 election is

Page:

248

 

incorrect?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

There was an increase in the number of registered voters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Voter turnout increased.

 

 

 

c.

Get-out-the vote drives probably helped Kerry more than

 

 

 

 

Bush.

 

 

 

d.

Bush increased the share of the vote that he had in 2000 in

 

 

 

 

almost every state.

 

 

 

e.

None of the above.

Ans:

E

45.

Bush generally won the votes of all of the following except

Page:

248

 

a.

Protestants.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

gun owners.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

strong critics of abortion.

 

 

 

d.

opponents of same sex marriage.

 

 

 

e.

unmarried voters.

Ans:

A

46.

Kerry generally won the votes of all of the following except

Page:

248

 

a.

people worried about moral values.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

Jews.

 

 

 

d.

secularists.

 

 

 

e.

opponents of the war in Iraq.

Ans:

D

47.

If there was a single, decisive issue in the election, it was probably

Page:

248

 

a.

the economy.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

moral values.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

same sex marriage.

 

 

 

d.

concerns about terrorism and national security.

 

 

 

e.

abortion.

Ans:

B

48.

The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 raised the

Page:

250

 

individual limit on contributions to _________ per candidate per

Type:

Factual

 

election.

 

 

 

a.

$1,000

 

 

 

b.

$2,000

 

 

 

c.

$5,000

 

 

 

d.

$10,000

 

 

 

e.

$15,000

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: C

Page: 252

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 250

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 252

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 253

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 254

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 254

Type: Conceptual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

177

49.History suggests _____ of the presidential vote will go to the candidates of the two main parties.

a.60 percent

b.70 percent

c.80 percent

d.90 percent

e.99 percent

50.In the 2000 election, Ralph Nader won ___ percent of the popular vote.

a.1

b.2

c.5

d.10

e.15

51.The experience with 527 organizations in the 2004 elections suggest campaign finance laws

a.are an effective way to minimize interest group participation.

b.are an effective way to reduce campaign spending.

c.facilitate coordination of efforts between candidates and groups.

d.are not likely to take money out of politics.

e.have restricted speech considerably.

52.One advantage that incumbents always have over challengers is

a.their larger share of federal campaign monies.

b.the political advantage of riding the president’s coattails.

c.their use of free mailings, or franks.

d.their freedom from FEC regulations.

e.b and d.

53.Many scholars argue that the foremost factor in determining how people vote is

a.debate performance.

b.perception of the best candidate.

c.campaign spending.

d.the candidate’s image.

e.party identification.

54.Democrats could be predicted to win every election if the only factor were

a.candidate appeal.

b.campaign issues.

c.debate performance.

d.money spent.

e.party identification.

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178

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

Which party tends to be more loyal to its candidate in presidential

55.

Page:

254

 

elections?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

Democrats

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Republicans

 

 

 

c.

Independents

 

 

 

d.

a and c.

 

 

 

e.

No clear-cut difference exists among the parties.

Ans:

A

56.

Which party tends to do better in competing for the vote of self-

Page:

254-255

 

described independents?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

Republicans do much better than Democrats.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Republicans do slightly better than Democrats.

 

 

 

c.

Democrats do much better than Republicans.

 

 

 

d.

Democrats do slightly better than Republicans.

 

 

 

e.

Republicans and Democrats do equally well.

Ans:

B

57.

Self-described strong Republicans have voted in greater proportions

Page:

255

 

than strong Democrats in

Type:

Factual

 

a.

relatively few presidential races.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

every presidential race in the past thirty years.

 

 

 

c.

years when there was a Republican incumbent.

 

 

 

d.

years when there was a Democratic incumbent.

 

 

 

e.

elections when the economy was strong.

Ans:

A

58.

Voters are most likely to switch parties between elections when

Page:

255

 

a.

it serves their self-interest.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

the economy is relatively strong.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

the country is at war.

 

 

 

d.

it means switching to the party in power.

 

 

 

e.

b and c.

Ans:

C

59.

When a voter votes for the candidate whom he or she considers more

Page:

255

 

likely to do a better job in office, the voting is referred to as

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

clothespin voting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

ideological voting.

 

 

 

c.

prospective voting.

 

 

 

d.

retrospective voting.

 

 

 

e.

sociotropic voting.

Ans:

D

60.

When a voter votes based on how things have been going and which

Page:

255-256

 

party is in power, it is referred to as

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

issueless voting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

ideological voting.

 

 

 

c.

prospective voting.

 

 

 

d.

retrospective voting.

 

 

 

e.

sociotropic voting.

 

 

 

 

 

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Ans: B

Page: 257

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 257

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 257

Type: Conceptual

Ans: E

Page: 258

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 259

Type: Factual

Ans: A

Page: 259

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

179

61.According to the text, campaigns do make a difference because they

a.emphasize details and issues over themes and perceptions.

b.give voters a chance to see how candidates handle pressure.

c.reduce the influence of single-issue groups.

d.counteract the effects of party loyalty and national economic conditions.

e.neutralize the impact of the media on voter’s decisions.

62.Several factors have contributed to the emphasis on themes over details in recent elections. One of these factors is the

a.growing strength of political parties.

b.rise in prospective voting.

c.increase in the number of televised debates and visuals.

d.campaign finance reforms of 1974.

e.desire of voters to discern candidate character.

63.Although campaigns in the United States have historically emphasized broad themes over specific details, what has emerged in recent years is the

a.power of political parties.

b.influence of political fat cats.

c.importance of primary elections.

d.impact of major political realignments.

e.influence of lawyers in the selection of candidates.

64.The Democrats appear to have lost their once-strong hold on which of the following groups?

a.Catholics.

b.Southerners.

c.Union members.

d.Blacks.

e.a, b, and c.

65.Union leaders, in making demands on Democratic leaders and candidates, will usually emphasize

a.the loyalty of their followers to the party.

b.labor’s willingness to form a factional party if necessary.

c.the contributions of labor to the New Deal.

d.the contributions of labor to the Great Wars effort.

e.the large number of union voters.

66.The Republican party was clearly the dominant party in American politics from

a.1896 to 1932.

b.1916 to 1948.

c.1932 to 1960.

d.1948 to 1968.

e.1972 to 1996.

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180

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

Great Britain’s parliamentary system seems to produce at relatively

67.

Page:

259

 

regular intervals

Type:

Factual

 

a.

a deadlock of legislative and executive powers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

elections that effect major policy changes.

 

 

 

c.

disputed elections to be decided in court.

 

 

 

d.

a government unable to act at all.

 

 

 

e.

partisan gridlock and scandals among leadership.

Ans:

E

68.

The text argues that the U.S. constitutional system was designed to

Page:

260

 

make the adoption of radical departures in policy

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

efficient.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

easy.

 

 

 

c.

impossible.

 

 

 

d.

unnecessary.

 

 

 

e.

difficult.

Ans:

B

69.

An election that brought about wide-scale adoption of social

Page:

260

 

assistance programs was that in

Type:

Factual

 

a.

1956.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

1964.

 

 

 

c.

1972.

 

 

 

d.

1980.

 

 

 

e.

1992.

Ans:

D

70.

An election that brought about a significant reduction in taxes,

Page:

260

 

spending, and regulatory practices was that in

Type:

Factual

 

a.

1956.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

1964.

 

 

 

c.

1976.

 

 

 

d.

1980.

 

 

 

e.

1992.

Ans:

D

71.

One study of some 1,400 promises made in political parties’

Page:

262

 

platforms between 1944 and 1964 found that some ________ percent

Type:

Factual

 

of them were kept.

 

 

 

a.

12

 

 

 

b.

37

 

 

 

c.

52

 

 

 

d.

74

 

 

 

e.

93

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 11

Interest Groups

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Chapter 8: Political Participation

181

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Ans:

E

1.

James Madison believed that the latent causes of faction were rooted

Page:

265

 

in

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

the two-party system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

capitalist society.

 

 

 

c.

religious conflict.

 

 

 

d.

an improperly designed constitution.

 

 

 

e.

the nature of man.

Ans:

C

2.

Which of the following is not a reason for the proliferation of interest

Page:

266

 

groups in this country?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

Social diversity

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Governmental fragmentation

 

 

 

c.

Ideological leadership

 

 

 

d.

The weakness of political parties

 

 

 

e.

Federalism

Ans:

E

3.

In the United States, unlike Great Britain, interest groups can easily

Page:

265

 

gain access to government because

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

political parties are relatively powerful.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

power is centralized in the legislative branch.

 

 

 

c.

important decisions are made in only a few places.

 

 

 

d.

our constitutional system is so limited.

 

 

 

e.

political authority is widely dispersed.

Ans:

D

4.

In many European countries, including Austria, France, and Italy,

Page:

266

 

interest groups are less common than in the United States because

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

political authority is widely dispersed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the relationship between party and interest group is not as

 

 

 

 

close.

 

 

 

c.

political decision making is lodged in many officials.

 

 

 

d.

political parties wield greater power.

 

 

 

e.

the media enjoy more freedom.

Ans:

C

5.

The two periods in U.S. history in which the number of interest

Page:

267

 

groups expanded most rapidly were

Type:

Factual

 

a.

1790–1810 and 1970–1990.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

1860–1880 and 1950–1970.

 

 

 

c.

1900–1920 and 1960–1980.

 

 

 

d.

1920–1940 and 1950–1970.

 

 

 

e.

1800–1820 and 1940–1960.

Ans:

E

6.

It has been observed that interest groups are created more rapidly in

Page:

267

 

some periods than in others. This suggests that these groups

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

are the result of the diversity of U.S. society.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

arise when labor is strong.

 

 

 

c.

arise when labor is weak.

 

 

 

d.

arise when social conditions demand action.

 

 

 

e.

do not arise inevitably out of natural social processes.

 

 

 

 

 

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182

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

D

 

The emergence of large, mass-membership unions was an example of

7.

Page:

267

 

interest groups forming as a result of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

government policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the evolution of talented leadership.

 

 

 

c.

the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.

 

 

 

d.

broad economic developments.

 

 

 

e.

legislative capitulation.

Ans:

A

8.

The launching of the Chamber of Commerce was an example of

Page:

267

 

interest groups forming as a result of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

government policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the emergence of talented leadership.

 

 

 

c.

the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.

 

 

 

d.

broad economic developments.

 

 

 

e.

legislative capitulation.

Ans:

B

9.

The formation of antislavery organizations in the 1830s and 1840s

Page:

267

 

was an example of interest groups forming as a result of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

government policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the emergence of talented leadership.

 

 

 

c.

the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.

 

 

 

d.

broad economic developments.

 

 

 

e.

legislative capitulation.

Ans:

C

10.

The growth of numerous public-interest lobbies in the 1960s was an

Page:

268

 

example of interest groups forming as a result of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

government policy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the emergence of talented leadership.

 

 

 

c.

the enlargement of governmental responsibilities.

 

 

 

d.

broad economic developments.

 

 

 

e.

legislative capitulation.

Ans:

A

11.

An example of an interest group formed as a result of broadly felt

Page:

268

 

economic phenomena is that of

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

labor unions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

the Chamber of Commerce.

 

 

 

c.

antislavery organizations.

 

 

 

d.

public-interest lobbies.

 

 

 

e.

All of the above.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 8: Political Participation

183

Ans:

E

 

12. One type of interest group whose representation in Washington has

 

 

 

Page:

268

 

skyrocketed since 1970 is the

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

professional organization.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

trade association.

 

 

 

 

c.

corporate lobby.

 

 

 

 

d.

union lobbies.

 

 

 

 

e.

public-interest lobby.

 

Ans:

A

 

13. An organization that seeks to influence public policy is most

 

Page:

268

 

accurately referred to as a(n)

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

interest group.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

lobby.

 

 

 

 

c.

institutional interest.

 

 

 

 

d.

membership interest.

 

 

 

 

e.

referenced interest.

 

Ans:

C

 

14. The U.S. wine industry is represented in Washington by a group that

Page:

268

 

seeks to influence public policy regarding wine. This group is most

 

Type:

Conceptual

 

accurately called a(n)

 

 

 

 

a.

membership interest.

 

 

 

 

b.

solidary group.

 

 

 

 

c.

institutional interest.

 

 

 

 

d.

public-interest lobby.

 

 

 

 

e.

referenced interest.

 

Ans:

C

 

15. The U.S. tobacco industry is represented in Washington by a strong

Page:

268

 

lobby that seeks to influence public policy regarding the use of

 

Type:

Conceptual

 

tobacco. This lobby is most accurately referred to as a(n)

 

 

 

 

a.

membership interest.

 

 

 

 

b.

solidary group.

 

 

 

 

c.

institutional interest.

 

 

 

 

d.

public-interest lobby.

 

 

 

 

e.

referenced interest.

 

Ans:

A

 

16. An example of a typical activity that an institutional interest might

 

Page:

269

 

conduct on behalf of a client would be

 

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

lobbying for laws to protect the client from foreign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

competition.

 

 

 

 

b.

forming small local chapters to raise campaign funds.

 

 

 

 

c.

offering life insurance at reduced rates for its members.

 

 

 

 

d.

offering a cash payment to legislators in exchange for a crucial

 

 

 

 

vote.

 

 

 

 

e.

offering a cash payment to legislators to appear at a public

 

 

 

 

 

meeting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

184

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

The U.S. Chamber of Commerce represents thousands of different

17.

Page:

269

 

businesses locally and in Washington. Is it still called an institutional

Type:

Conceptual

 

interest, even though it has no single client?

 

 

 

a.

Yes, because membership is voluntary.

 

 

 

b.

Yes, because it still acts on behalf of other organizations.

 

 

 

c.

No, because membership is nonvoluntary.

 

 

 

d.

No, because institutional interests represent a single

 

 

 

 

organization.

 

 

 

e.

No, because membership is connected to one’s occupational

 

 

 

 

background.

Ans:

D

18.

Americans are more likely to join ________ than are citizens of other

Page:

269

 

countries.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

labor unions

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

business and trade associations

 

 

 

c.

charitable organizations

 

 

 

d.

religious and political associations

 

 

 

e.

professional organizations

Ans:

E

19.

The reason Americans participate in civic associations more

Page:

269

 

frequently than do citizens of other countries is

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

their greater dissatisfaction with the government.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

their more intense attachment to parties.

 

 

 

c.

their European heritage.

 

 

 

d.

the fact that they are less sensitive to the free-rider problem.

 

 

 

e.

their sense of political efficacy and civic duty.

Ans:

A

20.

Which of the following is true of most people who are sympathetic to

Page:

269

 

the aims of a mass-membership interest group?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

They do not join it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

They join it but do not pay dues.

 

 

 

c.

They join it, pay dues, but do not participate in its activities.

 

 

 

d.

They join it, pay dues, and participate in its activities.

 

 

 

e.

They join it, but participate without paying dues.

Ans:

A

21.

People who join the parent teacher associations (PTAs) are most

Page:

270

 

likely to do so as a result of ________ incentives.

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

solidary

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

material

 

 

 

c.

purposive

 

 

 

d.

party

 

 

 

e.

tangible

Ans:

E

22.

A major function of local chapters of national membership

Page:

270

 

organizations is to

Type:

Factual

 

a.

pursue political objectives at the national level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

represent individual clients to the national organization.

 

 

 

c.

lobby politicians to oppose other groups.

 

 

 

d.

lobby politicians to enact specific laws.

 

 

 

e.

lure members and raise money from them.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: C

Page: 270

Type: Conceptual

Ans: E

Page: 270

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 271

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 270

Type: Conceptual

Ans: B

Page: 271

Type: Conceptual

Ans: B

Page: 272

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

185

23.Solidary-type incentives are most likely to motivate people who join

a.a farm bureau.

b.Public Citizen.

c.the parent teacher associations (PTAs).

d.the Mafia.

e.American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

24.Members of a farm bureau are most likely to have joined as a result of ________ incentives.

a.solidary

b.concurrent

c.purposive

d.party

e.material

25.Which of the following is not an example of a material incentive?

a.The opportunity for members to market their products through cooperatives

b.Low-cost life insurance

c.The appeal of the organization’s stated goals

d.Free assistance in preparing tax returns

e.Free assistance in estate planning

26.The National Association of Science Teachers offers its members reduced rates on automobile rentals. Such benefits to members are called ________ benefits.

a.solidary

b.material

c.purposive

d.party

e.concurrent

27.Purposive incentives are most likely to motivate people who join

a.the Illinois Farm Bureau.

b.the National Organization for Women (NOW).

c.the parent teacher associations (PTAs).

d.the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP).

e.the Rotary Club.

28.To be effective, purposive membership organizations count on

a.keeping issues out of the spotlight.

b.keeping issues in the spotlight.

c.major foundation funding.

d.favorable treatment by the courts.

e.litigation which receives little public attention.

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186

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

D

 

Organizations that attract members by appealing to a coherent set of

29.

Page:

271

 

usually controversial principles are called

Type:

Factual

 

a.

political parties.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

pressure groups.

 

 

 

c.

splinter groups.

 

 

 

d.

ideological interest groups.

 

 

 

e.

out-party groups.

Ans:

A

30.

The policies of public-interest organizations are predominantly

Page:

272-273

 

shaped by

Type:

Factual

 

a.

the elites who dominate them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

concerned citizens who are not members.

 

 

 

c.

their membership.

 

 

 

d.

corporate sponsors.

 

 

 

e.

b and c.

Ans:

D

31.

Ralph Nader became famous after testifying in favor of a bill

Page:

271

 

regarding

Type:

Factual

 

a.

social security.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

air pollution.

 

 

 

c.

workman’s compensation.

 

 

 

d.

automobile safety.

 

 

 

e.

gun control.

Ans:

B

32.

Nader’s attempt to influence Congress was followed by

Page:

271

 

a.

his promotion to lead council for the AARP.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

a clumsy attempt by General Motors to discredit his

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

background.

 

 

 

c.

a series of awards from the NRA.

 

 

 

d.

his presidency of the Sierra Club.

 

 

 

e.

his election to the House of Representatives.

Ans:

E

33.

Nader founded a group called

Page:

272

 

a.

Automobile Responsibility Council.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

Senior Pride.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

Take Aim.

 

 

 

d.

American Worker.

 

 

 

e.

Public Citizen.

Ans:

C

34.

Recently, the Nader organization has evidenced some cracks with

Page:

272

 

regard to state legislation on

Type:

Factual

 

a.

waiting periods for gun licenses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

Medicare reform.

 

 

 

c.

no-fault automobile insurance.

 

 

 

d.

metropolitan transportation systems.

 

 

 

e.

urban sprawl.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: A

Page: 272

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 271

Type: Factual

Ans: C

Page: 272

Type: Factual

Ans:

A

Page:

272 (box)

Type:

Factual

Ans:

A

Page:

272 (box)

Type:

Factual

Ans:

D

Page:

272 (box)

Type:

Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

187

35.PIRG is an organization dedicated to

a.working on and studying local consumer/political issues.

b.opposing the nuclear arms race.

c.representing conservatives on environmental issues.

d.providing campaign funds to unpopular candidates.

e.supporting civil rights for gays.

36.Which consumer activist has spawned more than a dozen interest groups since the mid-1960s?

a.Michael Moore

b.Ralph Nader

c.Gloria Steinem

d.James Watt

e.Jerry Brown

37.Public-interest lobbies typically make better progress when the administration is

a.Republican.

b.Democratic.

c.hostile.

d.friendly.

e.neutral.

38.According to the text, one of the important activities of public- interest law firms is to

a.bring suits on behalf of persons harmed by some public or private policy.

b.provide members of Congress with timely information on controversial issues.

c.document lawsuits against government agencies.

d.give legal advice to public-interest organizations.

e.block litigation which opposes governmental regulations.

39.Which of the following is not a liberal public-interest law firm?

a.The Center for Individual Rights

b.American Civil Liberties Union

c.NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund

d.Women’s Legal Defense Fund

e.Natural Resources Defense Council

40.Which of the following is not a conservative public-interest law firm?

a.Atlantic Legal Foundation

b.Criminal Justice Legal Foundation

c.Landmark Legal Foundation

d.Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights

e.Washington Legal Foundation

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

188

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

A

 

Which of the following statements about a social movement is

41.

Page:

274

 

generally true?

Type:

Conceptual

 

a.

The more extreme its position, the smaller its size.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

The more liberal its position, the larger its size.

 

 

 

c.

The more moderate its position, the smaller its size.

 

 

 

d.

The more purposive its membership incentives, the smaller its

 

 

 

 

size.

 

 

 

e.

It can only take place when courts are open to the prospect of

 

 

 

 

radical change in the law.

Ans:

C

42.

The launching of the environmental movement was assisted by

Page:

273

 

a.

a hurricane in Pensacola, Florida.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

several incidents of contaminated water in Boston.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

an oil spill on the Santa Barbara beaches.

 

 

 

d.

the highly publicized death of dozens of sperm whales.

 

 

 

e.

controversies surrounding the spread of diseases in animals.

Ans:

E

43.

The League of Women Voters is an example of a feminist

Page:

274

 

organization whose membership incentives are primarily

Type:

Factual

 

a.

material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

purposive.

 

 

 

c.

concurrent.

 

 

 

d.

ideological.

 

 

 

e.

solidary.

Ans:

B

44.

The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an example of a

Page:

274

 

feminist organization whose membership incentives are primarily

Type:

Factual

 

a.

material.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

purposive.

 

 

 

c.

solidary.

 

 

 

d.

sociological.

 

 

 

e.

concurrent.

Ans:

C

45.

The peak of the union movement in the United States occurred in the

Page:

275

 

year

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

1923.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

1932.

 

 

 

c.

1945.

 

 

 

d.

1956.

 

 

 

e.

1978.

Ans:

A

46.

The proportion of the non-farm work force that is unionized today is

Page:

234

 

approximately

Type:

Factual

 

a.

11 percent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

20 percent.

 

 

 

c.

35 percent.

 

 

 

d.

50 percent.

 

 

 

e.

65 percent.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: B

Page: 275

Type: Conceptual

Ans: C

Page: 276

Type: Conceptual

Ans: B

Page: 276

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 276

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 277

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 277

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

189

47.A major cause in the decline of union membership in the United States was a(n)

a.shift in the nation’s economic life toward industrial production.

b.decline in public support for unions.

c.shift in the nation’s economic life away from service delivery.

d.increase in the number of union members with purposive incentives.

e.increase in the number of union members with concurrent incentives.

48.Which of the following interest groups will probably have the most difficult time raising money?

a.A lobbying organization representing a nonprofit organization

b.A lobbying organization representing a for-profit organization

c.A membership organization relying on appeals to purpose

d.A membership organization relying on solidary incentives

e.a and b

49.Each of the following is an important source of funds for lobbying organizations except

a.foundation grants.

b.membership dues.

c.government grants.

d.direct-mail solicitations.

e.a, b, and c.

50.Some $21 million was donated to various liberal interest groups between 1970 and 1980 by the

a.Lilly Foundation.

b.Ford Foundation.

c.Pew Memorial Trust.

d.Sloan-Kettering Fund.

e.Rockefeller Family Fund.

51.Of the three major sources of funds available to interest groups, the one that is unique to modern interest groups is

a.foundation grants.

b.federal grants and contracts.

c.low interest loans from the political parties.

d.public funding via the personal income tax return.

e.computerized direct-mail solicitations.

52.The nonprofit and other organizations that receive the lion’s share of federal grants and contracts are rarely if ever

a.influential in Congressional policy making.

b.the same organizations from year to year.

c.large organizations.

d.subject to performance audits or independent research evaluations.

e.religious organizations.

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190

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

B

 

In the 1980s, the Reagan administration attempted to cut back on

53.

Page:

277

 

federal funds for nonprofit groups that were supposedly

Type:

Factual

 

a.

religious.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

liberal.

 

 

 

c.

conservative.

 

 

 

d.

business oriented.

 

 

 

e.

foreign sponsored.

Ans:

C

54.

To say that “the pressure system has an upper-class bias” is to

Page:

278

 

a.

state an important principle of lobbying.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

state an incorrect view of lobbying.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

say much about the people who join groups, but nothing about

 

 

 

 

the positions the groups will take.

 

 

 

d.

say much about the positions groups take, but nothing about

 

 

 

 

the people who join these groups.

 

 

 

e.

say much about the people who join groups, but nothing about

 

 

 

 

their talents and skills.

Ans:

E

55.

The Americans who are most likely to join interest groups are

Page:

278

 

a.

religious people.

Type:

Factual

 

 

b.

people in small communities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

people from the lower socioeconomic classes and members of

 

 

 

 

minority groups.

 

 

 

d.

people in economic distress.

 

 

 

e.

people with better-than-average incomes.

Ans:

D

56.

Although knowing that the oil industry, for example, is represented

Page:

278

 

by more than 170 interest groups may be useful, this fact is important

Type:

Conceptual

 

only if these groups

 

 

 

a.

represent different interests.

 

 

 

b.

are all membership groups.

 

 

 

c.

are all lobbying organizations.

 

 

 

d.

always protect the oil industry.

 

 

 

e.

are representative of the population of oil interests.

Ans:

C

57.

Of the nearly 7,000 groups represented in Washington,

Page:

278

 

approximately what percentage are corporations?

Type:

Factual

 

a.

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

10

 

 

 

c.

50

 

 

 

d.

70

 

 

 

e.

98

Ans:

B

58.

The example of farmers illustrates that interest groups from the same

Page:

278

 

sector are often

Type:

Factual

 

a.

an unbeatable combination.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

divided among themselves.

 

 

 

c.

unrepresentative of their numbers.

 

 

 

d.

unsure of their own best interests.

 

 

 

e.

unified, but incapable of action.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: C

Page: 279

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 279

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 279

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 279

Type: Factual

Ans: A

Page: 280

Type: Factual

Ans: D

Page: 280

Type: Factual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

191

59.Probably the best measure of an interest group’s influence is its

a.size.

b.wealth.

c.organizational skill.

d.contacts.

e.issue dexterity.

60.Probably the most effective commodity at the command of interest groups is

a.money.

b.allegiance.

c.persuasiveness.

d.media access.

e.information.

61.The value of information, the power of the lobbyists, and thus the success of interest groups are greatest when the issue

a.involves other interest groups also.

b.is fairly narrow.

c.is broad enough to gather mass support.

d.is a highly visible national policy.

e.is both broad and visible.

62.Lobbyists are restrained from misrepresenting facts or misleading legislators by

a.the 1984 Truth-in-Lobbying Law.

b.the open nature of the lobbying process.

c.governmental regulatory agencies such as the FTA.

d.the fear of losing legislators’ trust and confidence.

e.supervision of the federal courts.

63.When the Civil Aeronautics Board was setting airline rates and conferring air routes on various cities, most of those appearing before it at its hearings were

a.airline companies.

b.passenger representatives.

c.government officials.

d.lawyers.

e.airport employees.

64.In addition to seeking technical information from lobbyists, public officials often look to them for

a.help in persuading uncommitted voters.

b.assistance in their personal lives.

c.legal expertise.

d.political cues on particular issues.

e.inside tips on campaigning slogans.

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

192

Chapter 8: Political Participation

 

 

Ans:

D

 

The primary purpose of legislative ratings used by various interest

65.

Page:

280

 

groups is to

Type:

Factual

 

a.

inform the general electorate of major issues.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

compare the performances of different legislators.

 

 

 

c.

provide a cover for illegal influence peddling.

 

 

 

d.

influence the behavior of legislators.

 

 

 

e.

guide administrative officers in the interpretation of federal

 

 

 

 

regulations and statutes.

Ans:

E

66.

Republican activist William Kristol used __________ to guide

Page:

280

 

members of Congress in opposition to Clinton’s health care plan.

Type:

Factual

 

a.

automated phone calls

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

postal surveys

 

 

 

c.

Washington-based bill boards

 

 

 

d.

e-mail talking points

 

 

 

e.

computer-operated fax machines

Ans:

E

67.

The outsider strategy is increasingly used by lobbyist because

Page:

280

 

a.

Congress is less individualistic.

Type:

Conceptual

 

 

b.

modern technology has made it possible.

 

 

 

 

 

 

c.

there are few visible issues before Congress.

 

 

 

d.

there are more lobbyists than there once were.

 

 

 

e.

there are more regulations focusing on insider strategies.

Ans:

A

68.

One method used by lobbyists to convince undecided legislators that

Page:

281

 

public opinion on an issue is inclined toward their direction is to

Type:

Factual

 

a.

encourage local citizens to send telegrams.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

supply the legislators with recent ratings.

 

 

 

c.

supply the legislators with technical information.

 

 

 

d.

cultivate the goodwill of government officials.

 

 

 

e.

threaten a lawsuit.

Ans:

B

69.

Of the exertion of public pressure on legislators, the text concludes

Page:

281

 

that it

 

Type:

Factual

 

a.

generally works.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

is not clear how often it works.

 

 

 

c.

rarely works.

 

 

 

d.

works best with new legislators.

 

 

 

e.

works best with senior legislators.

Ans:

A

70.

In recent years, interest groups frequently use a grassroots lobbying

Page:

281

 

strategy referred to as

Type:

Factual

 

a.

insider.

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.

wholesale.

 

 

 

c.

collective.

 

 

 

d.

outsider.

 

 

 

e.

end-run.

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Ans: A

Page: 282

Type: Factual

Ans: E

Page: 282

Type: Factual

Ans: C

Page: 282

Type: Factual

Ans: B

Page: 282

Type: Factual

Ans: A

Page: 283

Type: Conceptual

Chapter 8: Political Participation

193

71.An example cited by the text of how grassroots opposition to a governmental action can influence Congress is the example of

a.the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) banning of saccharin.

b.the Forest Service’s banning of campfires in national parks.

c.the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) approval of acid rain.

d.the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA) approval of strategic assassination.

e.the Internal Revenue Service’s approval of electronic filing.

72.The Dirty Dozen consisted of the

a.least ethical interest groups in Washington.

b.Midwestern states most responsible for acid rain.

c.most deeply bureaucratized federal agencies.

d.most anti-industry legislators in the Senate.

e.most anti-environment legislators in the House.

73.The significance of being categorized as one of the Dirty Dozen was found in the fact that many of them

a.were convicted for ethical violations and sent to federal prison.

b.had stock in major corporations.

c.did not survive in office.

d.were supported by Ralph Nader’s organizations.

e.generated record levels of financial backing.

74.The 1993 Brady Bill was opposed by which of the following interest groups?

a.The National Organization for Women (NOW)

b.The National Rifle Organization (NRA)

c.The Sierra Club

d.The NAACP

e.The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

75.The scholarly evidence that political action committee (PAC) money buys votes in Congress

a.is sketchy at best.

b.is fairly strong but still inconclusive.

c.is substantial.

d.is conclusive.

e.clearly documents there is absolutely no relationship between contributions and votes.

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