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MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Server Administration

(Exam #70-646)

Chapter 1

Introduction to Windows Server 2008

Learning Objectives

•Identify the key features of each Windows Server 2008 edition

•Understand client systems that can be used with Windows Server 2008

•Identify important general features of Windows

Server 2008

•Plan a Windows Server 2008 networking model

•Understand and implement networking protocols used by Windows Server 2008

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008

Platforms

Windows Server 2008 Platforms

•Different styles of operating systems

–For different business needs (Small/Medium/Large Organizations

•Eight versions:

–Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition

–Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition

–Windows Web Server 2008

–Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition

–Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-Based Systems

–Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition without

Hyper-V

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008 Platforms

(cont’d.)

–Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition without Hyper-V

–Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition without Hyper-V

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition

•Most basic server version (Good for Small Companies)

•Basis for other versions

•Everyday needs of small to large businesses

•Used on x86 and x64 computers

•Supports:

–File and print sharing

–Essential network services

–Application and other sharing

–Multiprocessor computers

• Symmetric multiprocessor (SMP). Applications use

multiple CPUs to execute jobs

6

 

Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition

(cont’d.)

•Compatible with Microsoft .NET Framework and Microsoft Visual Studio .NET

•Hyper-V

–Virtualization environment

–Cuts cost by using fewer computers (in addition to Cooling and Power savings)

–Only runs on x64 computers

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008 Enterprise

Edition

•Intended for midsized and large organizations with scaling needs

•Supports x86 and x64

•Enables clustering

–Links two or more computers systems to provide fail- safe services

–Applications needs to be cluster aware

•Supports hot-add memory

–Can add RAM without shutting down

•Fault tolerant memory sync

• Provides Microsoft Metadirectory Services

8

Windows Web Server 2008

•Designed for hosting and deploying Web services and applications

•Supports x86 and x64 computers

•Cannot be used to manage directory resources via hosting Active Directory

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008 Datacenter

Edition

•Designed for:

–Environments with mission-critical applications

–Very large databases

–Information access requiring high availability

•Support for clustering with up to 16 computers

•RAM capabilities identical to Enterprise Edition

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008 for Itanium- Based Systems

•Itanium processor

–64-bit processor that allows more instructions per processor cycle than typical x86 and x64 processors

•2TB maximum RAM

•Supports:

–Hot-add memory, processor

–Hot-replace processor

–SMP

•Intended for resource-intensive applications

•Itanium CPUs process more instructions per cycle

• Can support up to 512 CPUs & 1024 TB RAM

11

Windows Server 2008 Versions

Without Hyper-V

•Non-Hyper-V versions:

–Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition without Hyper-V

–Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition without

Hyper-V

–Windows Server 2008 Datacenter Edition without Hyper-V

•Small cost savings

•Steps to access virtual server in Microsoft Hyper-V

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Windows Server 2008 Versions

Without Hyper-V (cont’d.)

•Activity 1-1: Determining the Windows Server 2008 Edition

Figure 1-2 Viewing information about the Windows

Server 2008 system

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Using Windows Server 2008 with Client Systems

•Client

–Accesses resources on another computer via a network or direct cable connection

•Workstation

–Has its own central processing unit (CPU)

–Can be used as a stand-alone or network computer

•Total cost of ownership (TCO)

–Full cost of owning a network

–Using Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista or Windows 7 reduces TCO

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Using Windows Server 2008 with Client Systems (cont’d.)

•Domain

–Grouping of network objects, such as computers, servers, and user accounts

•Windows 7

–Ideal for networking

–Advantages and new features

•Active Directory

–Database of computers, users, groups of users, shared printers, shared folders, and other network resources

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Using Windows Server 2008 with Client Systems (cont’d.)

•Subsystem for UNIX-based Applications (SUA)

–Windows Server 2008 support for UNIX and Linux clients

–We can run Unix/Linux scripts in a Windows Server

–A Unix/Linux Shell is virtually created within the

Windows Server

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server 2008

Features

Windows Server 2008 Features

•Server Manager

•Security

•Clustering

•Enhanced Web services

•Windows Server Core

•Windows PowerShell

•Virtualization

•Reliability

•Multitasking and multithreading

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Manager

•Manage configuration from one tool

•Uses of Server Manager:

–View computer configuration information

–Change properties of a system

–View network connections

–Configure Remote Desktop

–Configure security (Firewalls/Updates/etc)

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Server Manager

•Uses of Server Manager (cont’d.):

–Configure server roles

–Add and remove features

–Run diagnostics

–Manage storage and backup

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Security

•Network Access Protection (NAP)

–Umbrella of security protection features

–Capabilities

•Security implemented by default

•Security Configuration Wizard (SCW)

–Simplifies security configuration

•Other basic security features

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

Clustering and Clustering Tools

•Testing

•Migrate configuration settings

•Quick configuration and troubleshooting

•Storage configuration

•Performance and reliability

•Security

Enhanced Web Services

•Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)

–Enhanced security

–Easier application of patches

–Easier for programmers to write and configure Web applications

–Better management tools: IIS Manager

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows Server Core

•Minimum server configuration

•Advantages:

–No GUI overhead

–Less disk space and memory needed

–Smaller attack surface

•Interact with server via command line

•Similar to UNIX/Linux Systems

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows PowerShell

•Command-line interface that offers a shell

•Perform common administration tasks

•Use cmdlets

–130 command line-tools

•Scripting language

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Windows PowerShell (cont’d.)

Figure 1-3 Using Windows PowerShell for a directory listing

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Virtualization

•Using Hyper-V

•Capabilities:

–Compatible with clustering

–Able to handle up to a four-processor SMP computer

–Can be used with Windows and Linux operating systems

–Compatible with different types of disk storage methods

–Enables fast migration from one computer to another

–Can house 64-bit and 32-bit operating

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Reliability

•Kernel runs in privileged mode

–Core programs; computer code of operating system

–Extra level of security

•Protected processes

–Computer program or portion of program

–Protects premature interruption

•Management features:

–Server Manager

–Wizards

–Windows Reliability and Performance Monitor

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Reliability (cont’d.)

•Activity 1-2: Viewing Running Processes

–Objective: View the processes running in Windows Server 2008

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Multitasking and Multithreading

•Multitasking

–Ability to run two or more programs at the same time

•Multithreading

–Capability of programs written to run several program code blocks at the same time

–Preemptive multitasking

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Multitasking and Multithreading

(cont’d.)

Figure 1-4 Using Task Manager to view running processes

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Planning a Windows Server

2008 Networking Model

Planning a Windows Server 2008

Networking Model

•Network

–Communication system

–Enables computer users to share equipment, software, data, and transmissions

•Peer-to-peer networking

–Spreads resource administration among server and nonserver members of network

–Used by small businesses

•Server-based networking

–Centralizes network administration on servers

–Used by medium and large networks

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Planning a Windows Server 2008

Networking Model (cont’d.)

Figure 1-5 Networking across continents

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Peer-to-Peer Networking

•One of the simplest ways to configure a network

•No special computer needed

•Disadvantages:

–Network management decentralized

–Security is responsibility of each user

–Less effective as number of workstations exceeds 10

•Activity 1-3: Determining if a Computer Is in a Domain or a Workgroup

–Objective: Discover if a particular computer is in a domain or a workgroup

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Server-Based Networking

•Server

–Single server can act as file and print server, Web server, network administration server, database server, e-mail server

–Can handle many users at once

•Advantages

–Single log on

–Stronger security

–Sharing of files and resources

–E-mail server

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Server-Based Networking (cont’d.)

•Advantages (cont’d.)

–Software applications are shared

–Databases are managed and secured

–Easier backups

–Resource sharing can be customized

–Software updates quicker and easier to install

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server-Based Networking (cont’d.)

Figure 1-7 A server-based network

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Protocols for the Windows Server 2008 Networking Model

Protocols for the Windows Server 2008 Networking Model

•Protocol sets guidelines for:

–Data formatting into packets and frames

–Data transmission

–Interpretation of packets and frames

•Packets and frames

–Units of data transmitted from a sending computer to a receiving computer

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Protocols for the Windows Server 2008 Networking Model (cont’d.)

•Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)

–Suite of protocols and utilities that support communication across LANs and the Internet

•Local area network (LAN)

–Network of computers in relatively close proximity

•TCP/IP used for several reasons

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Transmission Control Protocol

•Provides for reliable end-to-end delivery of data by controlling data flow

•Connection-oriented communication

–Ensures that packets are delivered in correct sequence with accurate contents

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Internet Protocol

•Provides network addressing

–Ensures data packets quickly reach the correct destination

•Versions

–Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

•Used on most networks

–Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

•Router

–Connects networks

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Figure 1-8 A router forwarding packets to a designated network

Courtesy of Course Technology/Cengage Learning

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Internet Protocol (cont’d.)

•IP addressing

–Dotted decimal notation

–32 bits long

–Four fields

–Example: 10000001.00000101.00001010.01100100 or 129.5.10.100

•Unicast

–One packet is sent from a server to each client on request

•Multicast

–Packet is sent to all clients as a group

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Internet Protocol (cont’d.)

•Broadcast

–Sends communication to all points on network

•Subnet mask

–Used to show class of addressing and to divide network into subnets

•IP address considerations

–Network number 127.0.0.0 cannot be assigned to any network

–Private addresses reserved for Network Address

Translation (NAT)

–Cannot assign highest network number to a host

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Figure 1-9 Unicasting, broadcasting, and multicasting

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage Learning

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Internet Protocol (cont’d.)

•Activity 1-4: Testing for IP Address and Connectivity

–Objective: Practice using the Windows Server 2008 Command Prompt window with the pathping and tracert commands

•Internet Protocol version 6

–Overcomes limitations of IPv4

–128-bit address capability

–Single address associated with multiple network interfaces

–IP extension headers

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Internet Protocol (cont’d.)

•Static addressing

–Assign permanent IP address

–Gives consistency for monitoring

–Can be laborious for large networks

•Dynamic addressing

–IP address assigned during logon

–Uses the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

(DHCP)

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Internet Protocol (cont’d.)

•Default gateway

–IP address of the router that has a connection to other networks

•Name resolution

–Domain Name System (DNS) translates domain and computer names to IP addresses

•NetBIOS names

–Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) server resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses

•Host names

–Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)

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Physical Addresses and the Address

Resolution Protocol

•Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

–Acquire the physical addresses associated with a computer’s network interface card (NIC)

•Media access control (MAC) address

–Physical address of NIC

•TCP/IP relies on both IP addresses and MAC addresses

•Activity 1-5: Using Sample Utilities for IP Address and Connectivity Testing

–Objective: Practice using the Windows Server 2008

Command Prompt window and ARP command

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Figure 1-11 Using ARP to query the MAC address

Courtesy Course Technology/Cengage

Learning

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Protocols for the Windows Server 2008 Networking Model

Implementing TCP/IP in Windows

Server 2008

•Tasks

–Verify TCP/IP enabled

–Configure TCP/IP

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Enabling TCP/IP

•TCP/IP

–Only protocol installed by default when you install Windows Server 2008

•Activity 1-6: Verifying TCP/IP Is Enabled

–Objective: Ensure that TCP/IP is enabled in Windows

Server 2008

MCITP Guide to Microsoft Windows Server 2008,

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Server Administration (Exam #70-646)

 

Configuring TCP/IP

•Choose static or dynamic addressing

•Activity 1-7: Configuring TCP/IP for Static Addressing

–Objective: Learn how to manually configure TCP/IP for situations in which static addressing is used

•Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)

–Automated addressing through automatic private IP addressing

•Dynamic addressing through a DHCP server

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Summary

Summary

•Eight editions of Windows Server 2008

•Features for security, clustering, virtualization, reliability, multitasking, and multithreading

•Peer-to-peer and server-based networking models

•TCP/IP

–Default protocol for Windows Server 2008

–IP addressing and versions

–IP addresses can be statically or dynamically assigned

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