Share PDF

Search documents:
  Report this document  
    Download as PDF   
      Share on Facebook

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1.PROJECT SCOPE

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising technology for monitoring large regions at high spatial and temporal resolution. In fact, node failure is expected to be quite common due to the typically limited energy budget of the nodes that are powered by small batteries. Failure of a set of nodes will reduce the number of multi- hop paths in the network. Such failures can cause a subset of nodes – that have not failed – to become disconnected from the rest, resulting in a “cut”. Two nodes are said to be disconnected if there is no path between them.

We consider the problem of detecting cuts by the nodes of a wireless network. We assume that there is a specially designated node in the network, which we call the source node. The source node may be a base station that serves as an interface between the network and its users. Since a cut may or may not separate a node from the source node, we distinguish between two distinct outcomes of a cut for a particular node. When a node u is disconnected from the source, we say that a DOS (Disconnected from Source) event has occurred for u. When a cut occurs in the network that does not separate a node u from the source node, we say that CCOS (Connected, but a Cut Occurred Somewhere) event has occurred for u. By cut detection we mean (i) detection by each node of a DOS event when it occurs, and (ii) detection of CCOS events by the nodes close to a cut, and the approximate location of the cut. By “approximate location” of a cut we mean the location

of one or more active nodes that lie at the boundary of the cut and that are connected to the source. Nodes that detect the occurrence and approximate locations of the cuts can then alert the source node or the base station.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

1

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

1.2. ABOUT THE PROJECT

To see the benefits of a cut detection capability, imagine that a sensor that wants to send data to the source node has been disconnected from the source node. Without the knowledge of the network’s disconnected state, it may simply forward the data to the next node in the routing tree, which will do the same to its next node, and so on. However, this message passing merely wastes precious energy of the nodes; the cut prevents the data from reaching the destination. Therefore, on one hand, if a node were able to detect the occurrence of a cut, it could simply wait for the network to be repaired and eventually reconnected, which saves onboard energy of multiple nodes and prolongs their lives. On the other hand, the ability of the source node to detect the occurrence and location of a cut will allow it to undertake network repair. Thus, the ability to detect cuts by both the disconnected nodes and the source node will lead to the increase in the operational lifetime of the network as a whole. A method of repairing a disconnected network by using mobile nodes has been proposed in [1]. Algorithms for detecting cuts, as the one proposed here, can serve as useful tools for such network repairing methods. A review of prior work on cut detection in sensor networks, e.g. [2], [3], [4] and others, is included in the Supplementary Material.

In this article we propose a distributed algorithm to detect cuts, named the Distributed Cut Detection (DCD) algorithm. The algorithm allows each node to detect DOS events and a subset of nodes to detect CCOS events. The algorithm we propose is distributed and asynchronous: it involves only local communication between neighboring nodes, and is robust to temporary

communication failure between node pairs. A key component of the DCD algorithm is a distributed iterative computational step through which the nodes compute their (fictitious) electrical potentials. The convergence rate of the computation is independent of the size and structure of the network.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

2

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 CUT DETECTION

Literature survey is the most important step in software development process. Before developing the tool it is necessary to determine the time factor, economy n company strength. Once these things r satisfied, ten next steps are to determine which operating system and language can be used for developing the tool. Once the programmers start building the tool the programmers need lot of external support. This support can be obtained from senior programmers, from book or from websites. Before building the system the above consideration r taken into account for developing the proposed system.

Although many randomized asynchronous protocols have been designed throughout the years , only recently one implementation of a stack of randomized multicast and agreement protocols has been reported, SINTRA. These protocols are built on top of a binary consensus protocol that follows a Rabin-style approach, and in practice terminates in one or two communication steps. The protocols, however, depend heavily on public-key cryptography primitives like digital and threshold signatures. The implementation of the stack is in Java and uses several threads. RITAS uses a different approach, Ben-Or-style, and resorts only to fast cryptographic operations such as hash functions.

Randomization is only one of the techniques that can be used to circumvent the FLP impossibility result. Other techniques include failure detectors, partial synchrony and distributed wormholes. Some of these techniques have been employed in the past to build other intrusion-tolerant protocol suites

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

3

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

2.2 SURVEYS

The author’s present communication architecture for sensor networks and proceed to survey the current research pertaining to all layers of the protocol stack: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport and Appli- cation layers.

A sensor network is defined as being composed of a large number of nodes which are deployed densely in close proximity to the phenomenon to be monitored. Each of these nodes collects data and its purpose is to route this information back to a sink. The network must possess self-organizing capabilities since the positions of individual nodes are not predetermined. Cooperation among nodes is the dominant feature of this type of network, where groups of nodes cooperate to disseminate the information gathered in their vicinity to the user.

2.3DETECTION PROCESS

In this article we propose a distributed algorithm to detect cuts, named the Distributed Cut Detection (DCD) algorithm. The algorithm allows each node to detect DOS events and a subset of nodes to detect CCOS events. The algorithm we propose is distributed and asynchronous: it involves only local communication between neighboring nodes, and is robust to temporary Communication failure between node pairs. A key component of the DCD algorithm is a distributed iterative computational step through which the nodes compute their (fictitious) electrical potentials. The convergence rate of the computation is independent of the size and structure of the network.

The DOS detection part of the algorithm is applicable to arbitrary networks; a node only needs to communicate a scalar variable to its eighbors. The CCOS detection part of the algorithm is limited to networks that are

deployed in 2D Euclidean spaces, and nodes need to know their own positions. The position information need not be highly accurate. The proposed algorithm is an extension of our previous work [5], which partially examined the DOS detection problem.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

4

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

3.PROBLEM ANALYSIS

3.1.EXISTING SYSTEM

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) has many challenges such as nature of wireless media and multimedia information transmission. Consequently traditional mechanisms for network layers are no longer acceptable or applicable for these networks. Wireless sensor network can get separated into multiple connected components due to the failure of some of its nodes, which is called a “cut”. Existing cut detection system deployed only for wired networks.

Disadvantages

1.Unsuitable for dynamic network reconfiguration.

2.Single path routing approach.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

5

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising technology for monitoring large regions at high spatial and temporal resolution .Failure of a set of nodes will reduce the number of multi-hop paths in the network. Such failures can cause a subset of nodes – that have not failed – to become disconnected from the rest, resulting in a “cut”. Two nodes are said to be disconnected if there is no path between them.

We consider the problem of detecting cuts by the nodes of a wireless network. We assume that there is a specially designated node in the network, which we call the source node Since a cut may or may not separate a node from the source node, we distinguish between two distinct outcomes of a cut for a particular node. When a node u is disconnected from the source, we say that a DOS (Disconnected frOm Source) event has occurred for u. When a cut occurs in the network that does not separate a node u from the source node, we say that CCOS (Connected, but a Cut Occurred Somewhere) event has occurred for u. By cut detection we mean (i) detection by each node of a DOS event when it occurs, and (ii) detection of CCOS events by the nodes close to a cut, and the approximate location of the cut. In this article we propose a distributed algorithm to detect cuts, named the Distributed Cut Detection (DCD) algorithm. The algorithm allows each node to detect DOS events and a subset of nodes to detect CCOS events. The algorithm we propose is distributed and asynchronous: it involves only local communication between neighboring nodes, and is robust to temporary communication failure between node pairs The convergence rate of the computation is independent of the size and structure of the network.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

6

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

3.3.FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Descriptions of data to be entered into the system

Descriptions of operations performed by each screen

Descriptions of work-flows performed by the system

Descriptions of system reports or other outputs

Who can enter the data into the system?

How the system meets applicable regulatory requirements

The functional specification is designed to be read by a general audience. Readers should understand the system, but no particular technical knowledge should be required to understand the document.

Examples Of Functional Requirements:

Functional requirements should include functions performed by specific screens, outlines of work-flows performed by the system and other business or compliance requirements the system must meet.

Interface requirements

Field accepts numeric data entry

Field only accepts dates before the current date

Screen can print on-screen data to the printer Business Requirements

Data must be entered before a request can approved

Clicking the Approve Button moves the request to the Approval Workflow

All personnel using the system will be trained according to internal training strategies

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

7

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Regulatory/Compliance Requirements

The database will have a functional audit trail

The system will limit access to authorized users

The spreadsheet can secure data with electronic signatures Security Requirements

Member of the Data Entry group can enter requests but not approve or delete requests

Members of the Managers group can enter or approve a request, but not delete requests

Members of the Administrators group cannot enter or approve requests, but can delete requests

3.4.NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

All the other requirements which do not form a part of the above specification are categorized as Non-Functional Requirements. A system may be required to present the user with a display of the number of records in a database. This is a functional requirement. How up-to-date this number needs to be is a non-functional requirement. If the number needs to be updated in real time, the system architects must ensure that the system is capable of updating the displayed record count within an acceptably short interval of the number of records changing. Sufficient network bandwidth may also be a non-functional requirement of a system.

Other examples:

Accessibility

Availability

Backup

Certification

Compliance

Configuration Management and etc

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

8

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

3.5.SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

Operating system : Windows XP Professional

 

Front End

:

JAVA,RMI, Swing(JFC)

 

Language

:

JDK 1.5

3.6. HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

 

System

:

Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.

 

Hard Disk

:

40 GB.

Floppy Drive : 1.44 Mb.

 

Monitor

: 15 VGA Colour.

 

Mouse

: Logitech.

 

Ram

: 256 Mb.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

9

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

4.FEASIBILITY STUDY

4.1FEASIBILITY STUDY

The feasibility of the project is analyzed in this phase and business proposal is put forth with a very general plan for the project and some cost estimates. During system analysis the feasibility study of the proposed system is to be carried out. This is to ensure that the proposed system is not a burden to the company. For feasibility analysis, some understanding of the major requirements for the system is essential.

Three key considerations involved in the feasibility analysis are

ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

SOCIAL FEASIBILITY

4.1.1 Economical Feasibility

This study is carried out to check the economic impact that the system will have on the organization. The amount of fund that the company can pour into the research and development of the system is limited. The expenditures must be justified. Thus the developed system as well within the budget and this was achieved because most of the technologies used are freely available. Only the customized products had to be purchased.

4.1.2 Technical Feasibility

This study is carried out to check the technical feasibility, that is, the technical requirements of the system. Any system developed must not have a high demand on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands on the available technical resources. This will lead to high demands being placed on the client. The developed system must have a modest requirement, as only minimal or null changes are required for implementing this system.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

10

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

4.1.3 Social Feasibility

The aspect of study is to check the level of acceptance of the system by the user. This includes the process of training the user to use the system efficiently. The user must not feel threatened by the system, instead must accept it as a necessity. The level of acceptance by the users solely depends on the methods that are employed to educate the user about the system and to make him familiar with it. His level of confidence must be raised so that he is also able to make some constructive criticism, which is welcomed, as he is the final user of the system.

4.2 INPUT DESIGN

The input design is the link between the information system and the user. It comprises the developing specification and procedures for data preparation and those steps are necessary to put transaction data in to a usable form for processing can be achieved by inspecting the computer to read data from a written or printed document or it can occur by having people keying the data directly into the system. The design of input focuses on controlling the amount of input required, controlling the errors, avoiding delay, avoiding extra steps and keeping the process simple. The input is designed in such a way so that it provides security and ease of use with retaining the privacy.

Input Design considered the following things:

What data should be given as input?

How the data should be arranged or coded?

The dialog to guide the operating personnel in providing input.

Methods for preparing input validations and steps to follow when error occur.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

11

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

OBJECTIVES

1.Input Design is the process of converting a user-oriented description of the input into a computer-based system. This design is important to avoid errors in the data input process and show the correct direction to the management for getting correct information from the computerized system.

2.It is achieved by creating user-friendly screens for the data entry to handle large volume of data. The goal of designing input is to make data entry easier and to be free from errors. The data entry screen is designed in such a way that all the data manipulates can be performed. It also provides record viewing facilities.

3.When the data is entered it will check for its validity. Data can be entered with the help of screens. Appropriate messages are provided as when needed so that the user will not be in maize of instant. Thus the objective of input design is to create an input layout that is easy to follow.

4.3 OUTPUT DESIGN

A quality output is one, which meets the requirements of the end user and presents the information clearly. In any system results of processing are communicated to the users and to other system through outputs. In output design it is determined how the information is to be displaced for immediate need and also the hard copy output. It is the most important and direct source information to the user. Efficient and intelligent output design improves the system’s relationship to help user decision-making.

1.Designing computer output should proceed in an organized, well thought out manner; the right output must be developed while ensuring that each output element is designed so that people will find the system can use easily and effectively. When analysis design computer output, they should Identify the specific output that is needed to meet the requirements.

2.Select methods for presenting information.

3.Create document, report, or other formats that contain information produced by the system.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

12

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

The output form of an information system should accomplish one or more of the following objectives.

Convey information about past activities, current status or projections of the

Future.

Signal important events, opportunities, problems, or warnings.

Trigger an action.

Confirm an action.

4.4Spiral Model:

The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows:

The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system.

A preliminary design is created for the new system.

A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is usually a scaled-down system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product.

A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure:

Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths, weakness, and risks.

Defining the requirements of the second prototype.

Planning an designing the second prototype.

Constructing and testing the second prototype.

At the customer option, the entire project can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. Risk factors might involve development cost overruns, operating- cost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer’s judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

13

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above.

The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired.

The final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype.

The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale failures and to minimize down time.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

14

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

The following diagram shows how a spiral model acts like:

Fig 1-Spiral Model

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

15

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

ADVANTAGES:

Estimates (i.e. budget, schedule etc .) become more relistic as work progresses, because important issues discovered earlier.

It is more able to cope with the changes that are software development generally entails.

Software engineers can get their hands in and start woring on the core of a project earlier.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

16

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

5.APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

5.1.MODULES DESIGN

5.1.1 Distributed Cut Detection

The algorithm allows each node to detect DOS events and a subset of nodes to detect CCOS events. The algorithm we propose is distributed and asynchronous: it involves only local communication between neighboring nodes, and is robust to temporary communication failure between node pairs. A key component of the DCD algorithm is a distributed iterative computational step through which the nodes compute their (fictitious) electrical potentials. The convergence rate of the computation is independent of the size and structure of the network.

5.1.2 Cut

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising technology for monitoring large regions at high spatial and temporal resolution. In fact, node failure is expected to be quite common due to the typically limited energy budget of the nodes that are powered by small batteries. Failure of a set of nodes will reduce the number of multi- hop paths in the network. Such failures can cause a subset of nodes – that have not failed – to become disconnected from the rest, resulting in a “cut”. Two nodes are said to be disconnected if there is no path between them.

5.1.3 Source Node

We consider the problem of detecting cuts by the nodes of a wireless network. We assume that there is a specially designated node in the network, which we call the source node. The source node may be a base station that serves as an interface between the network and its users. Since a cut may or may not separate a node from the source node, we distinguish between two distinct outcomes of a cut for a particular node.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

17

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

5.1.4 CCOS And DOS

When a node u is disconnected from the source, we say that a DOS (Disconnected from Source) event has occurred for u. When a cut occurs in the network that does not separate a node u from the source node, we say that CCOS (Connected, but a Cut Occurred Somewhere) event has occurred for u. By cut detection we mean (i) detection by each node of a DOS event when it occurs, and (ii) detection of CCOS events by the nodes close to a cut, and the approximate location of the cut.

5.1.5 Network Separation

Failure of a set of nodes will reduce the number of multi-hop paths in the network. Such failures can cause a subset of nodes – that have not failed – to become disconnected from the rest, resulting in a “cut”. Because of cut, some nodes may separated from the network, that results the separated nodes can’t receive the data from the source node.

5.2. N-TIER APPLICATIONS

N-Tier Applications can easily implement the concepts of Distributed Application Design and Architecture. The N-Tier Applications provide strategic benefits to Enterprise Solutions. While 2-tier, client-server can help us create quick and easy solutions and may be used for Rapid Prototyping, they can easily become maintenance and security night mare The N-tier Applications provide specific advantages that are vital to the business continuity of the enterprise. Typical features of a real life n-tier may include the following, The below mentioned points are some of the key design goals of a successful n-tier application that intends to provide a good Business Solution.

Security

Availability and Scalability

Manageability

Easy Maintenance

Data Abstraction

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

18

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

6.SYSTEM DESIGN

6.1.INTRODUCTION

A source point that is the origin of the traffic forwards a packet to a special overlay node called a SOAP that receives and verifies that the source point has a legitimate communication for the target. At first step in our solution is to have the target select a subset of nodes, Ns , that participate in the SOS overlay to act as forwarding proxies. Then later only allows packets whose source address matches the address of some overlay node n Ns . Since n is a willing overlay participant, it is allowed to perform more complex verification procedures than simple address ltering and use more sophisticated (and expensive) techniques to verify whether or not a packet sent to it originated from a legitimate user of a particular target.

The SOAP routes the packet to a special node in the SOS architecture that is easily reached, called the beacon. The beacon forwards the packet to a “secret” node, called the secret servlet, whose identity is known to only a small subset of participants in the SOS architecture. The secret servlet forwards the packet to the target. The lter around the target stops all traffic from reaching the target except for traf c that is forwarded from a point whose IP address is the secret servlet. The littering function that is applied to a packet or ow can have various levels of complexity. It is, however, sufficient to later on the source address: the router only needs to let through packets from one of the few forwarding proxies. All other traffic can be dropped, or rate- limited. Because of the small number of such a later rules and their simple nature (source IP address ltering), router performance will not be impaired .even if we do not utilize specialized hardware.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

19

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

6.2. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

Figure-2: System Architecture for Active & Inactive nodes

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

20

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

6.3. DFD Diagram

NODEA

 

NODE D

 

if node A&CFailure

if node Afailure

NODE C

SOURCE NODE

if node Dfailure or nod if node Bfailure

if node A failure

NODEF

A &node Cfailure

NODEB

 

 

NODEE

 

 

 

 

 

 

if node B&C failure

Figure-3 Data Flow Diagram

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

21

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

6.4. UML DIAGRAMS

The unified modeling language allows the software engineer to express an analysis model using the modeling notation that is governed by a set of syntactic semantic and pragmatic rules.

A UML system is represented using five different views that describe the system from distinctly different perspective.

Each view is defined by a set of diagram, which is as follows.

User Model View

This view represents the system from the users perspective.

The analysis representation describes a usage scenario from the end-users perspective.

Structural model view

In this model the data and functionality are arrived from inside the system.

This model view models the static structures.

Behavioral Model View

It represents the dynamic of behavioral as parts of the system, depicting the interactions of collection between various structural elements described in the user model and structural model view.

Implementation Model View

In this the structural and behavioral as parts of the system are represented as they are to be built.

Environmental Model View

In this the structural and behavioral aspects of the environment in which the system is to be implemented are represented.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

22

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Use case Diagram for Nodes Representation

SOURCENODE

NODEA

NODE B

if AFailure

NODE C

if Afailure if B failure

NODE D

NODE E

 

 

if A&Cfailure

 

orA&Cfailure

 

if B&Cfailure

 

NODEF

Figure-4: Use case diagram

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

23

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Activity Diagram for starting and ending Nodes

S ta rt

S O U R C E N O D E

N O D E A N O D E B

if n o d e A fa ilu re

N O D E C

if o d e A f a ilure

if n o d e B fa ilu re

N O D E D

N O D E E

if n o d e D fa ilu re /A & C fa ilu re

N O D E F

E N D

Figure-5: Activity Diagram

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

24

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Sequence Diagram for Different Nodes

SOURCENODE

NODEA

NODEB

NODEC

NODED

NODEE

NODEF

 

 

 

datasendtoA

 

 

 

DataSendtoF

 

 

DatsendtpB

 

 

 

IfDfailureorA&CFailura

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Datasendtoc

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ifA&CFailure

 

 

 

 

DatasendtoD

 

 

IIfB&CFailure

ifAfailure

DatasendtoD

Figure-6: Sequence Diagram

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

25

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Class Diagram for sending Files

SOURCENODE

StringBuffer :sb srvint: in

static sourcenodewin: nw

sourcenode()

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

NODE A

 

 

 

 

NODE B

StringBuffer :sb

 

 

srvint:in

 

StringBuffer :sb

static nodeAwin: nw

 

srvint: in

 

 

static nodeBwin: nw

nodeA()

 

 

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

 

nodeB()

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

 

 

 

 

 

NODE C

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

StringBuffer :sb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

srvint: in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

static nodeCwin:nw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nodeC()

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NODE D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NODE E

 

 

StringBuffer :sb

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

StringBuffer:sb

 

 

srvint: in

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

srvint: in

 

 

static nodeDwin: nw

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

staticnodeEwin: nw

 

 

nodeD()

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

nodeE()

 

 

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NODE F

StringBuffer:sb srvint: in

static nodeFwin: nw

nodeF()

sendfile(String,String,String,StringBuffer)

Figure-7: Class Diagram

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

26

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

7.JAVA

7.1The Java Programming Language

Java was developed at Sun Microsystems. Work on Java initially began with the goal of creating a platform-independent language and OS for consumer electronics. The original intent was to use C++, but as work progressed in this direction, developers identified that creating their own language would serve them better. The effort towards consumer electronics led the Java team, then known as First Person Inc., towards developing h/w and s/w for the delivery of video-on-demand with Time Warner.

7.2. FEATURES OF JAVA

The Java programming language is a high-level language that can be characterized by all of the following buzzwords:

Simple

Architecture neutral

Object oriented

Portable

Distributed

High performance

Interpreted

Multithreaded

Robust

Dynamic

Secure

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

27

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

With most programming languages, you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is both compiled and interpreted. With the compiler, first you translate a program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes —the platform-independent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform. The interpreter parses and runs each Java byte code instruction on the computer. Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The following figure illustrates how this works.

Java Compilation Process

You can think of Java bytecodes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether it’s a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. Java bytecodes help make “write once, run anywhere” possible. You can compile your program into bytecodes on any platform that has a Java compiler. The bytecodes can then be run on any implementation of the Java VM. That means that as long as a computer has a Java VM, the same program written in the Java programming language can run on Windows 2000, a Solaris workstation, or on an iMac.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

28

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Different Operating Systems

7.3. JAVA PLATFORM

A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. We’ve already mentioned some of the most popular platforms like Windows 2000, Linux, Solaris, and MacOS. Most platforms can be described as a combination of the operating system and hardware. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in that it’s a software-only platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms.

The Java platform has two components:

The Java Virtual Machine (Java VM)

The Java Application Programming Interface (Java API)

You’ve already been introduced to the Java VM. It’s the base for the Java platform and is ported onto various hardware-based platforms.

The Java API is a large collection of ready-made software components that provide many useful capabilities, such as graphical user interface (GUI) widgets. The Java API is grouped into libraries of related classes and

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

29

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

interfaces; these libraries are known as packages. The next section, What Can Java Technology Do? Highlights what functionality some of the packages in the Java API provide.

The following figure depicts a program that’s running on the Java platform. As the figure shows, the Java API and the virtual machine insulate the program from the hardware.

Java platform

Native code is code that after you compile it, the compiled code runs on a specific hardware platform. As a platform-independent environment, the Java platform can be a bit slower than native code. However, smart compilers, well-tuned interpreters, and just-in-time byte code compilers can bring performance close to that of native code without threatening portability.

What Can Java Technology Do?

The most common types of programs written in the Java programming language are applets and applications. If you’ve surfed the Web, you’re probably already familiar with applets. An applet is a program that adheres to certain conventions that allow it to run within a Java-enabled browser.

However, the Java programming language is not just for writing cute, entertaining applets for the Web. The general-purpose, high-level Java programming language is also a powerful software platform. Using the generous API, you can write many types of programs.

An application is a standalone program that runs directly on the Java platform. A special kind of application known as a server serves and supports clients on a network. Examples of servers are Web servers, proxy servers, mail servers, and print servers. Another specialized program is a servlet. A servlet can almost be thought of as an applet that runs on the server side. Java Servlets are a popular choice for building interactive web applications, replacing the use of CGI scripts. Servlets are similar to applets in that they are runtime extensions of applications.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

30

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

How does the API support all these kinds of programs? It does so with packages of software components that provides a wide range of functionality. Every full implementation of the Java platform gives you the following features:

The essentials: Objects, strings, threads, numbers, input and output, data structures, system properties, date and time, and so on.

Applets: The set of conventions used by applets.

Networking: URLs, TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Data gram Protocol) sockets, and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses.

Internationalization: Help for writing programs that can be localized for users worldwide. Programs can automatically adapt to specific locales and be displayed in the appropriate language.

Security: Both low level and high level, including electronic signatures, public and private key management, access control, and certificates.

Software components: Known as JavaBeansTM, can plug into existing component architectures.

Object serialization: Allows lightweight persistence and communication via Remote Method Invocation (RMI).

Java Database Connectivity (JDBCTM): Provides uniform access to a wide range of relational databases.

The Java platform also has APIs for 2D and 3D graphics, accessibility, servers, collaboration, telephony, speech, animation, and more. The following figure depicts what is included in the Java 2 SDK.

Java is also unusual in that each Java program is both compiled and interpreted. With a compile you translate a Java program into an intermediate language called Java byte codes the platform-independent code instruction is passed and run on the computer.

Compilation happens just once; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. The figure illustrates how this works.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

31

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Java

Interpreter

Compilers

My Program

Java Compilers

You can think of Java byte codes as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM). Every Java interpreter, whether it’s a Java development tool or a Web browser that can run Java applets, is an implementation of the Java VM. The Java VM can also be implemented in hardware.

Java byte codes help make “write once, run anywhere” possible. You can compile your Java program into byte codes on my platform that has a Java compiler. The byte codes can then be run any implementation of the Java VM. For example, the same Java program can run Windows NT, Solaris, and Macintosh.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

32

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

8.IMPLEMENTATION

8.1.SAMPLE CODE

import java.io.*; import java.net.*; import java.util.*;

public class clientA1 extends Thread

{

Thread t1; clientA1()

{

try

{

for(int i=0;i<=3;i++)

{

t1.sleep(500);

}}

catch(Exception et) {System.out.println(et);

}

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

33

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

import javax.swing.*; import java.awt.*;

public class MSG1 extends JPanel

{

static JTextArea message; MSG1()

{

message=new JTextArea(20,35);

JScrollPane jsp=new JScrollPane(message,ScrollPaneConstants.VERTICAL_SCROLLBAR_ALWAYS,Sc rollPaneConstants.HORIZONTAL_SCROLLBAR_ALWAYS);

message.setLocation(10,10);

add(jsp);

setSize(200,200);

setBackground(new Color(255,175,225));

}

public static void setMessage(String msg)

{

message.append(msg+"\n");

}

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

34

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

import javax.swing.*;

 

import java.awt.*;

 

import java.awt.event.*;

 

import java.io.*;

 

import java.net.*;

 

import java.util.*;

 

import javax.swing.event.*;

 

import java.sql.*;

 

import java.rmi.*;

 

import java.rmi.server.*;

 

class networkwin extends JFrame implements ActionListener

 

{

 

private JLabel title,title1;

 

private JTabbedPane Tab;

 

private JButton exit;

 

private JPanel contentPane;

 

//-----

 

static JTextArea node1_Text;

 

private JScrollPane jScrollPane3;

 

private JPanel Node1;

 

//-----

 

static JTextArea node2_Text;

 

// End of variables declaration

 

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

35

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

// Components declaration

 

JLabel l2;

 

JButton fnodes,cnodes;

 

JTextArea fnodes1,cnodes1;

 

JTextField file;

 

public networkwin()

 

{

 

super();

 

initializeComponent();

 

this.setVisible(true);

 

}

 

private void initializeComponent()

 

{

 

title = new JLabel();

 

title1 = new JLabel();

 

Tab = new JTabbedPane();

 

exit = new JButton();

 

contentPane = (JPanel)this.getContentPane();

 

setDefaultCloseOperation(EXIT_ON_CLOSE);

 

//-----

 

node1_Text = new JTextArea();

 

jScrollPane3 = new JScrollPane();

 

Node1 = new JPanel();

 

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

36

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

//-----

 

node2_Text = new JTextArea();

 

node1_Text.setText(" File Tranformation");

 

node1_Text.append("\n"+"------------------------------------------------------------

");

// title

 

title.setText("<html><font color=#FFFFFF size=+1><strong>Cut Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks</strong></font></html>");

title1.setText("<html><font color=#FFFFFF size=+1><strong>Network Monitor</strong></font></html>");

// Tab

Tab.addTab("Network Monitor", Node1); Tab.setBackground(new Color(204, 204, 255)); Tab.setMinimumSize(new Dimension(0, 17)); Tab.setPreferredSize(new Dimension(0, 17)); // exit

exit.setText("EXIT"); exit.addActionListener(new ActionListener()

{

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)

{

exit_actionPerformed(e);

}

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

37

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

// components initialization

fnodes=new JButton("<html><strong>Failure Nodes</strong></html>"); fnodes.addActionListener(this);

cnodes=new JButton("<html><strong>Cut Area</strong></html>"); cnodes.addActionListener(this);

fnodes1=new JTextArea(); cnodes1=new JTextArea();

fnodes.setBounds(85,35,150,25);

cnodes.setBounds(85,225,150,25);

fnodes1.setBounds(85,70,150,125);

cnodes1.setBounds(85,260,150,125); // Add components in Node1 panel

Node1.setBackground(new Color(204, 204, 255));

Node1.add(fnodes);

Node1.add(cnodes);

Node1.add(fnodes1);

Node1.add(cnodes1); // contentPane

contentPane.setLayout(null); contentPane.setBackground(new Color(255,75,185)); addComponent(contentPane, title, 103,25,500,20); addComponent(contentPane, title1, 245,50,500,20);

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

38

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS addComponent(contentPane, Tab, 9,57,600,450);

addComponent(contentPane, exit, 250,525,83,28); // jScrollPane3

//

jScrollPane3.setViewportView(node1_Text);

/// Node1 Node1.setLayout(null);

Node1.setBorder(BorderFactory.createEtchedBorder()); addComponent(Node1, jScrollPane3, 306,39,234,260); Node1.setBackground(new Color(255,175,225)); node2_Text.setMaximumSize(new Dimension(32767, 32767));

this.setTitle("Cut Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks-Network Monitor");

//this.setLocation(new Point(50, 50)); this.setSize(new Dimension(650, 600));

}

public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent ae)

{

if(ae.getSource()==fnodes)

{

String ft=fnodes1.getText();

String ft1="";

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

39

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS if(ft.equals(ft1))

{

}

else

{

fnodes1.setText("");

//failure nodes try

{

String act="Node Deactive";

String urla = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeA"; srvint ina = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urla); String a=ina.active();

String urlb = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeB"; srvint inb = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlb); String b=inb.active();

String urlc = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeC"; srvint inc = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlc); String c=inc.active();

String urld = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeD"; srvint ind = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urld); String d=ind.active();

String urle = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeE";

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

40

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS srvint ine = ( srvint) Naming.lookup(urle);

String e=ine.active();

String urlf = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeF"; srvint inf = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlf);

String f=inf.active(); if(act.equals(a))

{

 

fnodes1.append("\n Node”)

}

if(act.equals(b))

 

{

 

fnodes1.append("\n Node B");

}

if(act.equals(c))

{

fnodes1.append("\n Node C");

}

if(act.equals(d))

{

fnodes1.append("\n Node D");

}

if(act.equals(e))

{

fnodes1.append("\n Node E");

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

41

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

}

if(act.equals(f))

{

fnodes1.append("\n Node F");

}

}

catch(Exception e2)

{

System.out.println(e2);

} }

//Cut Area if(ae.getSource()==cnodes)

{

String ct=cnodes1.getText(); String ct1=""; if(ct.equals(ct1))

{

//

}

else

{

cnodes1.setText("");

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

42

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

try

{

String act="Node Deactive";

String na="Node Active";

String urla = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeA"; srvint ina = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urla); String a=ina.active();

String urlb = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeB"; srvint inb = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlb); String b=inb.active();

String urlc = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeC"; srvint inc = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlc); String c=inc.active();

String urld = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeD"; srvint ind = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urld); String d=ind.active();

String urle = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeE"; srvint ine = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urle); String e=ine.active();

String urlf = "rmi://127.0.0.1/nodeF"; srvint inf = (srvint) Naming.lookup(urlf); String f=inf.active();

if((act.equals(a)) &&(act.equals(b)))

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

43

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

{

if(na.equals(c))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node C");

}

if(na.equals(d))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node D");

}

if(na.equals(e))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node E"); } if(na.equals(f))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node F");

}

}

else if((act.equals(a)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(e)))

{

if(na.equals(d))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node D");

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

44

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

if(na.equals(f))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node F");

}

}

else if((act.equals(b)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(d)))

{

if(na.equals(e))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node E");

}

if(na.equals(f))

{ cnodes1.append("\n Node F");} }

else if((act.equals(b)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(d)))

{

if(na.equals(e))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node E");

}

if(na.equals(f))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node F");

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

45

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

}

}

else if((act.equals(a)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(f)))

{

if(na.equals(d))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node D");

}

}

else if((act.equals(b)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(f)))

{

if(na.equals(e)) {cnodes1.append("\n Node E");}}

else if((act.equals(d)) &&(act.equals(c))&&(act.equals(e)))

{

if(na.equals(f))

{

cnodes1.append("\n Node F");

}

}

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

46

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

else

{

cnodes1.append("No Cut in this \n Network");

}

}

catch(Exception e2)

{

System.out.println(e2);

}

}

}

/** Add Component Without a Layout Manager (Absolute Positioning) */

private void addComponent(Container container,Component c,int x,int y,int width,int height)

{

c.setBounds(x,y,width,height);

container.add(c);}

private void exit_actionPerformed(ActionEvent e)

{

System.exit(0);}

public class network extends UnicastRemoteObject implements srvint

{

java.util.Date d = new java.util.Date();

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

47

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS String str=d.toString();

String array[]=str.split(" "); public int day=d.getDate(); public String month=array[1]; public String year=array[5];

public String time=array[3];

String dat=new String(day+"\\"+month+"\\"+year); srvint sint;

networkwin nw=new networkwin(); StringBuffer sb1 = new StringBuffer(); String c,fn1,fs1,pat1;

public network() throws RemoteException public static void main(String args[])

{

try

{

network na=new network(); Naming.rebind("network",na); }catch(Exception e){}}

public void sendfile(String fn,String fs,String pat,StringBuffer sb)

{

this.fn1=fn;

this.fs1=fs;

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

48

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS this.pat1=pat;

this.sb1=sb;

String ct=nw.node1_Text.getText(); String ct1=""; if(ct.equals(ct1))

{

//

}

else

{

nw.node1_Text.setText("");

 

}

 

nw.node1_Text.setText(" File Tranformation");

 

nw.node1_Text.append("\n"+"------------------------------------------------------------

");

nw.node1_Text.append("\n File Name:"+fn1);

 

nw.node1_Text.append("\n\n File Size:"+fs1+"KB");

 

nw.node1_Text.append("\n\n File Transfer Date:"+dat);

 

nw.node1_Text.append("\n\n File Transfer Time:"+time);

 

}

 

public String active()

 

{

 

return c;

 

}

 

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

49

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

9.SYSTEM TESTING

9.1.INTRODUCTION:

Testing is the process of detecting errors. Testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software. The results of testing are used later on during maintenance also.

The aim of testing is often to demonstrate that a program works by showing that it has no errors. The basic purpose of testing phase is to detect the errors that may be present in the program. Hence one should not start testing with the intent of showing that a program works, but the intent should be to show that a program doesn’t work. Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors.

9.2. TESTING OBJECTIVES

The main objective of testing is to uncover a host of errors, systematically and with minimum effort and time. Stating formally, we can say,

Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.

A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.

A good test case is one that has a high probability of finding error, if it exists.

The tests are inadequate to detect possibly present errors.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

50

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

9.3. LEVELS OF TESTING

In order to uncover the errors present in different phases we have the concept of levels of testing. The basic levels of testing are as shown below…

Client Needs

Requirements

Design

Acceptance

Testing

System Testing

Integration Testing

Unit Testing

Figure 7- Levels Of Testing

9.4. TESTING STRATEGIES

A strategy for software testing integrates software test case design methods into a well-planned series of steps that result in the successful construction of software.

Unit Testing

Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software i.e. the module. Using the detailed design and the process specifications testing is done to uncover errors within the boundary of the module. All modules must be successful in the unit test before the start of the integration testing begins.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

51

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Unit Testing in this project : In this project each service can be thought of a module. There are so many modules like Login, New Registration, Change Password, Post Question, Modify Answer etc. When developing the module as well as finishing the development so that each module works without any error. The inputs are validated when accepting from the user.

Test Plan:

A number of activities must be performed for testing software. Testing starts with test plan. Test plan identifies all testing related activities that needed to be performed along with the schedule and guidelines for testing. The plan also specifies the level of testing that need to be done , by identifying the different units. For each unit specifying in the plan first the test cases and reports are produced. These reports are analyzed.

Test plan is a general document for entire project , which defines the scope, approach to be taken and the personal responsible for different activities of testing. The inputs for forming test plans are :

1.Project plan

2.Requirements document

3.System design

White Box Testing

White Box Testing mainly focuses on the internal performance of the product. Here a part will be taken at a time and tested thoroughly at a statement level to find the maximum possible errors. Also construct a loop in such a way that the part will be tested within a range. That means the part is execute at its boundary values and within bounds for the purpose of testing.

White Box Testing in this Project : I tested step wise every piece of code, taking care that every statement in the code is executed at least once. I have generated a list of test cases, sample data, which is used to check all possible combinations of execution paths through the code at every module level.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

52

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

Black Box Testing

This testing method considers a module as a single unit and checks the unit at interface and communication with other modules rather getting into details at statement level. Here the module will be treated as a block box that will take some input and generate output. Output for a given set of input combinations are forwarded to other modules.

Black Box Testing in this Project: I tested each and every module by considering each module as a unit. I have prepared some set of input combinations and checked the outputs for those inputs. Also I tested whether the communication between one module to other module is performing well or not.

Integration Testing

After the unit testing we have to perform integration testing. The goal here is to see if modules can be integrated properly or not. This testing activity can be considered as testing the design and hence the emphasis on testing module interactions. It also helps to uncover a set of errors associated with interfacing. Here the input to these modules will be the unit tested modules.

Integration testing is classifies in two types…

1.Top-Down Integration Testing.

2.Bottom-Up Integration Testing.

In Top-Down Integration Testing modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy, beginning with the main control module.

In Bottom-Up Integration Testing each sub module is tested separately and then the full system is tested.

Integration Testing in this project: In this project integrating all the modules forms the main system. Means I used Bottom-Up Integration Testing for this project.

When integrating all the modules I have checked whether the integration effects working of any of the services by giving different combinations of inputs with which the two services run perfectly before Integration.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

53

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

System Testing

Project testing is an important phase without which the system can’t be released to the end users. It is aimed at ensuring that all the processes are according to the specification accurately.

System Testing in this project: Here entire ‘system’ has been tested against requirements of project and it is checked whether all requirements of project have been satisfied or not.

Alpha Testing

This refers to the system testing that is carried out by the test team with the organization.

Beta Testing

This refers to the system testing that is performed by a select group of friendly customers.

Acceptance Testing

Acceptance Test is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. Testing here is focused on external behavior of the system; the internal logic of program is not emphasized.

Acceptance Testing in this project: In this project I have collected some data that was belongs to the University and tested whether project is working correctly or not.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

54

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

10. OUTPUT SCREENS

This screen is used for selecting file to send

Screen-1: Selecting file to send

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

55

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for nodes representation

Screen-2 Nodes Representation

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

56

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for sending file

Screen-3 Sending File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

57

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen shows Failure Nodes

Screen-4 Failure Nodes

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

58

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for Reset the File

Screen-5 Reset File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

59

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen shows Received File

Screen-6 Received File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

60

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for Saving File

Screen-7 saving File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

61

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for Viewing Saved File

Screen-8 Viewing Saved File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

62

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for Showing Some Failure Nodes

Screen-8 Some Failure Nodes

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

63

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is used for Correcting Failure Nodes

Screen-9 Correcting Failure Nodes

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

64

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

This screen is shows Received File

Screen-10 Received File

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

65

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

CONCLUSION

The DCD algorithm we propose here enables every node of a wireless sensor network to detect DOS (Disconnected frOm Source) events if they occur. Second, it enables a subset of nodes that experience CCOS (Connected, but Cut Occurred Somewhere) events to detect them and estimate the approximate location of the cut in the form of a list of active nodes that lie at the boundary of the cut/hole. The DOS and CCOS events are defined with respect to a specially designated source node. The algorithm is based on ideas from electrical network theory and parallel iterative solution of linear equations. Numerical simulations, as well as experimental evaluation on a real WSN system consisting of micaZ motes, show that the algorithm works effectively with a large classes of graphs of varying size and structure, without requiring changes in the parameters. For certain scenarios, the algorithm is assured to detect connection and disconnection to the source node without error. A key strength of the DCD algorithm is that the convergence rate of the underlying iterative scheme is quite fast and independent of the size and structure of the network, which makes detection using this algorithm quite fast. Application of the DCD algorithm to detect node separation and reconnection to the source in mobile networks is a topic of ongoing research.

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

66

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

REFERENCES

“Good Teachers are worth more than thousand books, we have them in Our Department “

References Made From:

[1]G. Dini, M. Pelagatti, and I. M. Savino, “An algorithm for reconnecting wireless sensor network partitions,” in European Conference

on Wireless Sensor Networks, 2008, pp. 253–267.

[2]N. Shrivastava, S. Suri, and C. D. T´oth, “Detecting cuts in sensor networks,” ACM Trans. Sen. Netw., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–25, 2008.

[3]H. Ritter, R. Winter, and J. Schiller, “A partition detection system

for mobile ad-hoc networks,” in First Annual IEEE Communications Society Conference on Sensor and Ad Hoc Communications and Networks (IEEE SECON 2004), Oct. 2004, pp. 489–497.

[4]M. Hauspie, J. Carle, and D. Simplot, “Partition detection in mobile ad-hoc networks,” in 2nd Mediterranean Workshop on Ad- Hoc Networks, 2003, pp. 25–27.

[5]P. Barooah, “Distributed cut detection in sensor networks,” in 47th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, December 2008, pp. 1097

– 1102.

[6]A. D. Wood, J. A. Stankovic, and S. H. Son, “Jam: A jammed-area mapping service for sensor networks,” in IEEE Real Time System Symposium, 2003.

[7]http://www.xbow.com/Products/Product pdf files/Wireless pdf/ MICAZ Datasheet.pdf.

Sites Referred: http://java.Oracle.com http://www.sourcefordgde.com

http://www.networkcomputing.com/ http://www.roseindia.com/ http://www.java2s.com/

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

67

CUT DETECTION IN WIRLESS SENSOR NETWORKS

KBR ENGINEERING COLLEGE

68