Share PDF

Search documents:
  Report this document  
    Download as PDF   
      Share on Facebook

Grammar: So, such, too, enough

Too

Use:

Too means there is a lot of something. It shows a negative opinion. It’s too hot = It is very hot and I don’t like it.

Form:

You can use too before an adjective.

It’s too cold. My trousers are too small.

You can also use it before an adverb,

You walk too fast. James speaks too quietly.

Before a noun, use too much (uncountable nouns) or many (countable nouns).

I ate too much food.

I ate too many sandwiches.

You can also use too much after a verb.

I ate too much.

Paul drinks too much.

Enough Use:

Enough means you have what you need.

We have enough food for everyone = everyone has some food.

We don’t have enough food for everyone = some people don’t have chairs.

Form:

Write enough before a noun.

We have enough chairs.

But write it after an adjective or verb.

Are you warm enough? He’s qualified enough. She isn’t tall enough to be a model.

You don’t work hard enough. Are you sleeping enough?

Sentences with enough are sometimes followed by to + verb infinitive.

I’m not tall enough to reach the book.

I haven’t got enough money to buy that coat.

So

Use:

So means very.

It’s so hot!

Form:

So is generally used before an adjective or an adverb.

He’s so funny! He plays the piano so well!

However, in modern English, it is increasingly being used before nouns and verbs. That dress is so last year! (= That dress is last year’s fashion)

I’m so going to shout at him when I see him! (so = really)

So can be used with a that clause, to show a result of the first clause.

I was so hot that I couldn’t sleep.

Such

Use:

Such also means very. Such is used before an adjective and noun.

They are such nice children.

Form:

A / an, if necessary, go after such, not before.

That’s a such pretty dress. => That’s such a pretty dress!

Like So, Such can be used with a that clause, to show a result of the first clause.

I was such a nice day that we decided to go to the park.

Common mistakes

1)Some students use too with a positive meaning. But use so or very here

It’s too hot! I love the summer! => It’s so hot! I love the summer!

2)Some students write enough in the wrong place.

Do we have sugar enough? => Do we have enough sugar?

3) Some students use so / such…that incorrectly.

It was so hot that the sun was shining.

This sentence is not correct because ‘the sun was shining’ is not a direct result of ‘It was so hot’. The hot day did not cause the sun to shine.

Prepositions of Time

Use:

Use prepositions of time before days, months, years and other time words.

AT:

Use before:

Times: We’re leaving at 3 o’clock

Lunchtime / bedtime: He’s arriving at lunchtime.

Night: I can’t sleep at night.

The weekend: See you at the weekend!

Festivals: We went away at Easter.

IN:

the morning / afternoon / evening: See you in the morning!

Months: My birthday’s in June.

Seasons: We always go on holiday in summer. Years: He was born in 1996.

ON:

Dates: We arrived here on 4th August.

Days of the week: Let’s go to the zoo on Saturday.

Single day events: We always eat out on Christmas Day.

Use ON before a day + morning/ afternoon/ evening/ night. See you on Tuesday night!

Don’t use a preposition before: today, tonight, tomorrow, yesterday.

Using Modals for Recommendations

Use:

The following modals can be used to give recommendations.

must Must can be used to give a strong recommendation.

You must see the Empire State Building while you are in New York.

have to You can also use have to for recommendations, but must is more common. Have to is generally used to talk about rules and things beyond your control.

You have to see the Empire State Building while you are in New York.

should Should and ought to are used to give a suggestion.

You should try haggis while you are in Scotland.

could Could is used to give an option.

You could stay in a hotel, or you could stay at a guest house.

don’t have to Don’t have to is used to say that something isn’t necessary.

You don’t have to get a taxi; the metro is really fast and efficient.

shouldn’t Should is used to warn someone gently against doing something.

You shouldn’t walk home alone after dark.

mustn’t Mustn’t is used to warn someone strongly against doing something.

You mustn’t go to that part of the city – it’s dangerous.

Form:

Must, should and could are modals. Modals follow the following rules.

1)Do not add ‘s’ to the third person singular.

He must. NOT He musts

2)To form a negative, add not after the verb. I shouldn’t. NOT I don’t should

3)To form questions, invert themodal verb and the subject. Must you? NOT Do you must?

4)Modalsare always followed by a verb in the infinitive form. I should go. NOT I should to go. / I should coming.

Have to is a regular verb.

1)Use Do / Does / Did to form questions.

Do you have to go? NOT Have you to go?

2)Have to is followed by a verb in the infinitive form.

I have to go.

3)Use don’t / doesn’t / didn’t to form negative sentences. I don’t have to go. NOT I haven’t to go.

Common Mistakes:

1. Many students use to after modal verbs.

You must to visit the museum. → You must visitthe museum.

2. Some students write the question and negative form of have to incorrectly.

You haven’t to take the bus → You don’t haveto take the bus. Have you to go now? → Do you haveto go now?

Modals for Deduction

Use and Form:

The following modals can be used to make guesses about a present situation.

must + infinitive

Use this when you make a guess and you are almost certain that your guess is correct.

‘Where’s John?’

‘He’s not here. He must be in the bathroom.’

may + infinitive might + infinitive could + infinitive

Use this when you make a guess but you are only suggesting one possibility. You are not certain you are correct.

‘Where’s John?’

‘He’s not here. He may be in the bathroom, or he might be in the kitchen, or he could be outside.’

may not + infinitive might not + infinitive

Use this when you make a guess about what is not true, but you are only suggesting one possibility. You are not certain you are correct.

‘Where’s John?’

‘He’s not here. He may not be at work today.’

NOTE: Do not use could not here.

can’t + infinitive

Use this when you make a guess about what is not true, and you are almost certain that your guess is correct.

‘Where’s John? Is he in the kitchen?’

‘No, he can’t be. I was in there a minute ago.’

NOTE: you cannot use: mustn’t + infinitive to make deductions about what is not true.

Common Mistakes:

1. Many students do not take the opportunity to use these structures when they can. Maybe your bag is in the classroom. => Your bag might be in the classroom

http://www.examenglish.com/cambridge_esol.php