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WIRELESS CHARGING OF MOBILE PHONES

USING MICROWAVES

1A.Saritha,2Devaraj

ECE,Assistant professor

1reddy.sari5@gmail.com , 2withdevaraj@gmail.com

Abstract: With mobile phones becoming a basic part of life, the recharging of mobile phone batteries has always been a problem. The mobile phones vary in their talk time and battery stand by according to their manufacturer and batteries. All these phones irrespective of their manufacturer and batteries have to be put to recharge after the battery has drained out. The main objective of this current proposal is to make the recharging of the mobile phones independent of their manufacturer and battery make. In this paper a new proposal has been made so as to make the recharging of the mobile phones is done automatically as you talk in your mobile phone! This is done by use of microwaves. The microwave signal is transmitted from the transmitter along with the message signal using special kind of antennas called slotted wave guide antenna at a frequency is 2.45 GHz. There are minimal additions, which have to be made in the mobile handsets, which are the addition of a sensor, a Rectenna.

Keywords: sensor, rectenna,mobile phone, mobile handsets.

I.INTRODUCTION

The microwave region: Microwave wavelengths range from approximately one millimeter (the thickness of a pencil lead) to thirty centimeters (about twelve inches). In a microwave oven, the radio waves generated are tuned to frequencies that can be absorbed by the food . The food absorbs the energy and gets warmer. The dish holding the food doesn't absorb a significant amount of energy and stays much cooler. Microwaves are emitted from the Earth, from objects such as cars and planes, and from the atmosphere. These microwaves can be detected to give information, such as the temperature of the object that emitted the microwaves. Microwaves have wavelengths that can be measured in centimeters! The longer microwaves, those closer to a foot in length, are the waves which heat our food in a

microwave oven. Microwaves are good for transmitting energy information from one place to another because microwave can penetrate haze, light rain and snow, clouds, and smoke. Shorter microwaves are used in remote sensing. These microwaves are used for clouds and smoke, these waves are good for viewing the Earth from space Microwave waves are used in the communication industry and in the kitchen as a way to cook foods. Microwave radiation is still associated with energy levels that are usually considered harmless except for people with pace makers.

Fig 1.Microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum

Here we are going to use the S band of the Microwave Spectrum.

The frequency selection is another important aspect in transmission. Here we have selected the license free 2.45 GHz ISM band for our purpose. The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands were originally reserved internationally for non-commercial use of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. The ISM bands are defined by the ITU-T in S5.138 and S5.150 of the Radio Due to variations in national radio regulations. In recent years they have also been used for license-free error-tolerant

communications applications such as wireless LANs and Bluetooth:900 MHz band (33.3 cm) (also GSM communication in India) 2.45 GHz band (12.2 cm) IEEE 802.11b wireless Ethernet also operates on the 2.45 GHz band.

Table 1.Microwave frequency ranges

Designation

Frequency range

 

 

L Band

1 to 2 GHz

 

 

S Band

2 to 4 GHz

 

 

C Band

4 to 8 GHz

 

 

X Band

8 to 12 GHz

 

 

Ku Band

12 to 18 GHz

 

 

K Band

18 to 26 GHz

 

 

Ka Band

26 to 40 GHz

 

 

Q Band

30 to 50 GHz

 

 

U Band

40 to 60 GHz

 

 

II.TRANSMITTER DESIGN

1) Magnetron: The magnetron is called a "crossed-field" device in the industry because both magnetic and electric fields are employed in its operation, and they are produced in perpendicular directions so that they cross. The applied magnetic field is constant and applied along the axis of the circular device illustrated. The power to the device is applied to the center cathode which is heated to supply energetic electrons which would, in the absence of the magnetic field, tend to move radially outward to the ring anode which surrounds it.

of thermionic emission and have an accelerating field which moves them outward toward the anode. The axial magnetic field exerts a magnetic force on these charges which is perpendicular to their initially radial motion, and they tend to be swept around the circle. In this way, work is done on the charges and therefore energy from the power supply is given to them. As these electrons sweep toward a point where there is excess negative charge, that charge tends to be pushed back around the cavity, imparting energy to the oscillation at the natural frequency of the cavity. This driven oscillation of the charges around the cavities leads to radiation of electromagnetic waves, the output of the magnetron.

The MAGNETRON (A), is a self-contained microwave oscillator that operates differently from the linear- beam tubes, such as the TWT and the klystronView (B) is a simplified drawing of the magnetron. CROSSED-ELECTRON and MAGNETIC fields are used in the magnetron to produce the high-power output required in radar and communications equipment.

 

Fig 3.The Magnetron

 

The magnetron is classed as a diode because it has no grid. A

 

magnetic field located in the space between the plate (anode)

 

and the cathode serves as a grid. The plate of a magnetron does

 

not have the same physical appearance as the plate of an

 

ordinary electron tube. Since conventional inductive-capacitive

Fig 2. Magnetron

resonant cavities that serve as tuned circuits. The magnetron

Electrons are released at the center hot cathode by the process

base differs considerably from the conventional tube base.

Fig 4.the klystronView (B)

The magnetron base is short in length and has large diameter leads that are carefully sealed into the tube and shielded. The cathode and filament are at the center of the tube and are supported by the filament leads. The filament leads are large and rigid enough to keep the cathode and filament structure fixed in position. The output lead is usually a probe or loops extending into one of the tuned cavities and coupled into a waveguide or coaxial line. The plate structure is a solid block of copper.

The cylindrical holes around its circumference are resonant cavities. A narrow slot runs from each cavity into the central portion of the tube dividing the inner structure into as many segments as there are cavities. Alternate segments are strapped together to put the cavities in parallel with regard to the output. The cavities control the output frequency. The straps are circular, metal bands that are placed across the top of the block at the entrance slots to the cavities. Since the cathode must operate at high power, it must be fairly large and must also be able to withstand high operating temperatures. It must also have good emission characteristics, particularly under return bombardment by the electrons. This is because most of the output power is provided by the large number of electrons that are emitted when high-velocity electrons return to strike the cathode. The cathode is indirectly heated and is constructed of a high-emission material. The open space between the plate and the cathode is called the INTERACTION SPACE. In this space the electric and magnetic fields interact to exert force upon the electrons.

Fig 5.Intersection space

2) Transmitter antenna:The slotted wave guide antenna, microstrip patch antenna, and parabolic dish antenna are the most popular type of transmitting antenna. The slotted waveguide antenna is ideal for power transmission because of its high aperture efficiency (> 95%) and high power handling capability.

III.RECEIVER DESIGN

The basic addition to the mobile phone is going to be the rectenna. A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special type of antenna that is used to directly convert microwave energy into DC electricity. Its elements are usually arranged in a mesh pattern, giving it a distinct appearance from most antennae. A simple rectenna can be constructed from a Schottky diode placed between antenna dipoles. The diode rectifies the current induced in the antenna by the microwaves. Rectennae are highly efficient at converting microwave energy to electricity. In laboratory environments, efficiencies above 90% have been observed with regularity. Some experimentation has been done with inverse rectennae, converting electricity into microwave energy, but efficiencies are much lower--only in the area of 1%. The rectenna has been a growing area of research in recent years, as the microwave integrated circuit and monolithic microwave integrated circuit technologies became more mature allowing for high level integration.The rectenna termed as rectifying antenna, is combination of an antenna and a nonlinear rectifying element (Schottky diode, IMPATT diode…etc.) where the two elements are integrated into a single circuit. The chematic of a rectenna system is United

States National Renewable energy Laboratory have so far only obtained roughly 1% efficiency while using infrared light. Another important part of our receiver circuitry is a simple sensor. This is simply used to identify when the mobile phone user is talking. As our main objective is to charge the mobile phone with the transmitted microwave after rectifying it by the rectenna, the sensor plays an important role. The whole setup looks like this.

Fig 6.Receiver design

The rectenna is a passive element consists of antenna, rectifying circuit with a low pass filter between the antenna and rectifying diode. The antenna used in rectenna may be dipole, Yagi – Uda, microstrip or parabolic dish antenna. The patch dipole antenna achieved the highest efficiency among the all. The performance of various printed rectenna is shown in Table I. Schottky barrier diodes (GaAs-W, Si, and GaAs) are usually used in the rectifying circuit due to the faster reverse recovery time and much lower forward voltage drop and good RF characteristics. The rectenna efficiency for various diodes at different frequency

IV.PROCESS OF RECTIFICATION

A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, an antenna used to convert microwaves into DC power. Being that an antenna refers to any type of device that converts electromagnetic waves into electricity or vice versa, a rectenna is simply a microwave antenna, in contrast to the ubiquitous radio and TV antennas. You've probably seen the word rectenna pop up in discussions of solar power satellites, or other power

generation schemes involving microwave power transmission or beaming. Rectennas are quite good at what they do: efficiencies above 90% are quite common. Inverse rectennas, which convert electricity into microwave beams, are only in the early stages of development, with efficiencies of only about 1%. This poses a problem for solar power satellite proposals.

It rectifies received microwaves into DC current .A rectenna comprises of a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric power. Its elements are usually arranged in a mesh pattern, giving it a distinct appearance from most antennae. A simple rectenna can be constructed from a Schottky diode placed between antenna dipoles as shown in Fig.. The diode rectifies the current induced in the antenna by the microwaves. Rectenna are highly efficient at converting microwave energy to electricity. In laboratory environments, efficiencies above 90% have been observed with regularity. In future rectennas will be used to generate large-scale power from microwave beams delivered from orbiting SPS satellites.

Fig 7.schottky barrier diode

V.SCHOTTKY BARRIER DIODE

When the schottky barrier diode is forward biased current flows because of majority carriers from semiconductor into the metal minority charge carriers are virtuvally absent compared to the p-n junction diode. A Schottky diode is a special type of diode with a very low forward-voltage drop. When current flows through a diode there is a small voltage drop across the diode terminals. A normal silicon diode has a

voltage drop between 0.6–1.7 volts, while a Schottky diode voltage drop is between approximately 0.15–0.45 volts. This lower voltage drop can provide higher switching speed and better system efficiency.

VI.SENSOR CIRCUITRY

The sensor circuitry is a simple circuit, which detects if the mobile phone receives any message signal. This is required, as the phone has to be charged as long as the user is talking. Thus a simple F to V converter would serve our purpose. In India the operating frequency of the mobile phone operators is generally 900MHz or 1800MHz for the GSM system for mobile communication. Thus the usage of simple F to V converters would act as switches to trigger the rectenna circuit to on.

A simple yet powerful F to V converter is LM2907. Using LM2907 would greatly serve our purpose. It acts as a switch for triggering the rectenna circuitry. The general block diagram for the LM2907 is given below. Thus on the reception of the signal the sensor circuitry directs the rectenna circuit to ON and the mobile phone begins to charge using the microwave power.

VII.FUTURE SCOPE

With the advent of nanotechnology and MEMS the size of these devices can be brought down to molecular level. It has been theorized that similar devices, scaled down to the proportions used in nanotechnology, could be used to convert light into electricity at much greater efficiencies than what is currently possible with solar cells. This type of device is called an optical rectenna

VIII.ADVANTAGES

scale. It has more freedom of choice of both receiver and transmitters. Even mobile transmitters and receivers can be chosen for the WPT system. The cost of transmission and distribution become less and the cost of electrical energy for the consumer also would be reduced. Loss of transmissions negligible level in the Wireless Power Transmission; therefore, the efficiency of this method is very much higher than the wired transmission. Power is available at the rectenna as long as the WPT is operating. The power failure due to short circuit and fault on cables would never exist in the transmission and power theft would be not possible at all.

IX.CONCLUSION

Thus this paper successfully demonstrates a novel method of using the power of the microwave to charge the mobile phones without the use of wired chargers. Thus this method provides great advantage to the mobile phone users to carry their phones anywhere even if the place is devoid offacilities for charging.

A novel use of the rectenna and a sensor in a mobile phone could provide a new dimension in the revelation of mobile phone. In this modern generation where we prefer the most efficient gadgets to serve our purposes, not even a slightly deviated device is acceptable. The highly accomplished cell phone sensor created by the topnotch manufacturers in the industry befit your needs exactly the best way and prove to be highly effective tools to combat security breach. Depending on the features they offer, these are available in different price ranges, you can buy the one that suits you the best.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Wireless Power Transmission system would completely eliminates the existing high-tension power transmission line cables, towers and sub stations between the generating station and consumers and facilitates the interconnection of electrical generation plants on a global

We would like to thank all the staff members of Electronics and Communication Engineering branch, Netaji Institute of Engineering and Technology for co-operating with us .

REFERENCES

nMicrowave and Radar Engineering by M.Kulkarni/ 4th Edition

n2) www.wikipedia.com/ wireless mobile charging.

n3)www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/library/1987- NASACR179558

RectennaTechnologyProgram.pdf