B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
VIGNAN HILLS, DESHMUKHI VILLAGE, POCHAMPALLY (MANDAL)
NALGONDA (DISTRICT)  508284
(Approved by AICTE and Affiliated to JNT University, Hyderabad)
COURSE FILE
FOR
IV Year B. Tech EEE
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 1 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
ACADEMIC CALENDER
Academic Year 2011  2012  I â€“ Semester
S.No 

Event 

Date 






1/05/2011 to 

1 

Industrial Tour for II & III Years 
30/06/2011 




Faculty Orientation Program 

27/06/2011 to 

2 

02/07/2011 







3 

Association Activities 
28/06/2011 


4 

Fine tuning of the Timetable & Departmental Meeting 
29/06/2011 


5 

Faculty Development Program 
1/7/2011 




Distribution of the requirements (Stationary, attendance registers, chalks, dusters, roll list, syllabus 
2/7/2011 


6 

copy time table etc)of the department for the next semester class work 







7 

Department Staff Meeting 
2/7/2011 


8 

Commencement of I Sem Class Work 
4/7/2011 




Spell for UNIT  I to IV Instructions (for II & IV Years) 



9 











Spell for UNIT  I to IV Instructions (for III Year) 



10 









11 

Preparation for Vignite'11 (Student Committee formation, meetings, poster & web page preparation) 


4/7/2011 

12 

Department Staff Meeting 
6/7/2011 


13 

Guest Lecture on "MATLAB PROGRAMMING & SIMULINK" By Prof Mallesh, O.U C.E,Hyd 
7/7/2011 




Orinetation Session for CRT III EEE,Guest lecture on MATLAB by Dr.Mallash ,OU Proff in EEE 

7/7/2011 


14 

Dept 








15 

Orinetation Session for CRT II EEE 


8/7/2011 

16 

Class Review Committee (CRCs) Meeting for II & III EEE 


12/7/2011 








17 

Class Review Committee (CRCs) Meeting for IV EEE 


13/7/2011 

18 

JAM for III EEE 


14/07/2011 

19 

JAM for II EEE 


15/07/2011 








20 

Guest Lecture (incharge Faculty G.Raghupathi) 


20/07/2011 








21 

Edisons Inaugural Function 


21/07/2011 








22 

Department meeting and Submission of attendance register for verification to HOD 

21/07/2011 









23 

Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for III EEE 


21/07/2011 

24 

Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for II EEE 


22/07/2011 








25 

Class Review Committee (CRCs) Meeting for 


28/7/2011 








26 

Association Activities (EDISONS) Technical Essay Writing for III EEE 


28/07/2011 

27 

Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for II & III EEE 


29/07/2011 

28 

Class Review Committee (CRCs) Meeting for 


29/7/2011 








29 

Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 


30/7/2011 










Submission of attendance register to exam branch forpreparing consolidated attendance report 


30 

through HOD 







31 

Review of % of syllabus covered and necessary action 
30/7/2011 


32 

Counselling report submission to Principal , HOD 
2/8/2011 


33 

Department Staff Meeting 
3/8/2011 


34 

INTRA Department MINI PROJECT Competition 
3/8/2011 


35 

Department Monthly report submission to Office 
3/8/2011 


36 

Activity III EEE (T & P) 
4/8/2011 


37 

Activity for II EEE (T & P) 
5/8/2011 




Assignment test on 1st & 2nd units of I MID syllabus 


38 







39 

INDEPENDENCE DAY 

40 

Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for III EEE 
11/8/2011 

41 

Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for II EEE 
12/8/2011 












[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 2 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File



Industrial visit II, III & IV years 

42 










43 


Department Staff Meeting 
16/8/2011 


44 


Guest Lecture (incharge Faculty G.Raghupathi) 
17/8/2011 


45 


Association Activities 
18/08/2011 


46 


Association Activities 
19/08/2011 





VIGNITE'11 



47 











48 


Review of % of syllabus covered and necessary action 
20/08/2011 


49 


SRI KRISHNA ASHTAMI 



50 


Association Activities 

25/08/2011 










51 


Association Activities 

26/08/2011 










52 


Class Review Committee (CR's) Meeting for 

29/8/2011 










53 


Submission of attendance register to exam branch for consolidated attendance through HOD 


54 


Class Review Committee (CR's) Meeting for 
30/8/2011 


55 


Class Review Committee (CR's) Meeting for 

31/8/2011 










56 





57 


VINAYAKA CHAVITHI 

1/9/2011 


58 


Submission of Counselling Report to Principal through HOD 
2/9/2011 





First Lab Internal Examination 

59 










60 


Department Monthly report submission 
3/9/2011 





University I  Mid  Exam  II & IV Year (B.Tech) 

61 










62 


Teachers Day Celebrations 
5/9/2011 


63 


Department Staff Meeting 
7/9/2011 





Spell for UNIT  V  VIII Instructions(for B.Tech II Years) 

64 













University 

65 










66 


Feedback collection and subsequent course of action by the Principal through HOD 
8/9/2011 





Spell for UNIT  V  VIII Instructions(for B.Tech II Years) 

67 










68 


Submission of results & weak students list and subsequent course of action to Principal by HOD 
12/9/2011 


69 


Addressing the final year students for fixing their final year project titles 
12/9/2011 


70 


Guest Lecture (incharge Faculty G.Raghupathi) 
14/9/2011 


71 


Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for III EEE 

15/09/2011 










72 


Engineers Day 


73 


Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for II EEE 

16/09/2011 


74 


Department Staff Meeting 

21/9/2011 










75 


Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for III EEE 

22/09/2011 










76 


Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for II EEE 

23/09/2011 


77 


Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 

28/9/2011 










78 


Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 

29/9/2011 


79 


Activity for III EEE 
29/09/2011 


80 


Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 
30/9/2011 


81 


Activity for II EEE 
30/09/2011 


82 


Submission of attendance register to exam branch for consolidated attendance through HOD 


83 


Counselling report submission to Principal through HOD 
1/10/2011 


84 


Review of % of syllabus covered and necessary action 
3/10/2011 


85 


DURGA ASHTAMI 

4/10/2011 



















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 3 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
86 

VIJAYA DASAMI/ DUSSEHRA 

6/10/2011 

87 

Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for II EEE 
7/10/2011 


88 

Department Monthly report submission 
8/10/2011 




Assignment test on any two units from II MID Syllabus 

89 








90 

Department Staff Meeting 
12/10/2011 


91 

Activity (conducted by Training Officer) for III EEE 
13/10/2011 


92 

Guest Lecture (incharge Faculty G.Raghupathi) 
13/10/2011 


93 

Activity (conducted by Training Officer) for II EEE 
14/10/2011 


94 

Review of % of syllabus covered and necessary action 


95 

Discipline Committee Meeting 
18/10/2011 


96 

Submission of results & weak students list and subsequent course of action to Principal 


97 

Interactive session (conducted by alumini member) for III EEE 









98 

Last Date to complete the syllabus 









99 

Finalizing the Project titles, place of work and batch 
22/10/2011 




Second Lab Internal Examination 


100 









101 

Load distribution for II Semester & planning for FDP in Semester Break 


102 

DEEPAVALI 



103 

Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for II EEE 









104 

Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 

28/10/2011 







105 

Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 

29/10/2011 







106 

Class Review Committee (CRC) Meeting for 

31/10/2011 







107 

Submission of attendance registers to exam branch for consolidated attendance through HOD 




University II  Mid  Exam  II & IV Year(B.Tech) 

108 








109 

Initiating activities of "Vignan Tarang" 
1/11/2011 


110 

Counselling report submission to Principal by HOD 
1/11/2011 


111 

Department Staff Meeting 
2/11/2011 


112 

Department Monthly report submission 
3/11/2011 




Preparation and Practical Examinations (II & IV B.Tech) 

113 










University 

114 










Preparation and Practical Examinations (III B.Tech) 

115 








116 


7/11/2011 


117 

Interactive session (conducted by Industry expert) for III EEE 

10/11/2011 

118 

Department Staff Meeting 


119 

Activity for III EEE 



120 

Activity for II EEE 





End Semester Examination (B.Tech, II,III & IV Year ) 

121 










Supplementary Examinations 

122 








123 

Load distribution & ensuring readiness of the faculty for the II semester 


124 

Lab audits & Submission of Report to principal 


125 

Time Table Preparation for II semester 


126 

Department Monthly report submission 
3/12/2011 


127 

Commencement of II Sem Class Work 
12/12/2011 








Note:: 

Unit Test are to be conducted by the individual teacher in their repective class timings. 


Result and weak student list should reach the HOD'soffice within two days after completion of Unit
Test.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] Page 4
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION &
CONTROL
BY
MRS. G. SRAVANTHI
Assistant Professor
EEE Department
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 5 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
INTRODUCTION
The main objective of this course is to study the control of voltage and frequency of a given power system by balancing the real and reactive powers in the system. We can learn how a thermal and hydroelectric plants are operated under given constraints. Modeling of turbine, generator and excitation systems are included with their steady state and dynamic responses. Also, various reactive power generation and compensation techniques will be studied.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 6 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SYLLABUS
UNIT â€“ I Economic Operation of Power
Optimal operation of Generators in Thermal Power Stations,  heat rate Curve â€“ Cost Curve â€“ Incremental fuel and Production costs,
UNIT â€“ II Economic Operation of Power
Optimum generation allocation including the effect of transmission line losses â€“ Loss Coefficients, General transmission line loss formula.
Optimal scheduling of Hydrothermal System: Hydroelectric power plant models, scheduling
UNIT
Modelling of Turbine: First order Turbine model, Block Diagram representation of Steam Turbines and Approximate Linear Models.
Modelling of Generator (Steady State and Transient Models): Description of Simplified Network Model of a Synchronous Machine (Classical Model), Description of Swing Equation (No Derivation) and
Modelling of Governor: Mathematical Modelling of Speed Governing System â€“ Derivation of small signal transfer function.
Modelling of Excitation System: Fundamental Characteristics of an Excitation system, Transfer function, Block Diagram Representation of IEEE
UNIT â€“ V Single Area Load Frequency Control
Necessity of keeping frequency constant. Definitions of Control area â€“ Single area control â€“ Block diagram representation of an isolated power system â€“ Steady state analysis â€“ Dynamic response â€“ Uncontrolled case.
UNIT â€“ VI
Load frequency control of
Proportional plus Integral control of single area and its block diagram representation, steady state response â€“ Load Frequency Control and Economic disp atch control.
UNIT â€“ VIII Reactive Power Control
Overview of Reactive Power control â€“ Reactive Power compensation in transmission systems â€“ advantages and disadvantages of different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems; load compensation â€“ Specifications of load compensator, Uncompensated and compensated transmission lines: shunt and Series Compensation.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 7 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SUGGESTED BOOKS :
TEXT BOOKS:
T1: â€˜Power Systems Operation and controlâ€™ â€“ by G.R.Chandrasekhar
T2: â€˜Modern Power system Analysisâ€™ , by D P Kothari and I J Nagrath  Tata
T3: â€˜Modelling Of Power Systemsâ€™ â€“ P S R Murthy.
REFERENCES:
R1: â€˜Operation and Control In Power Systemsâ€™  by P S R Murthy â€“ BS Publications.
R2: â€˜Power generation,Operation and Controlâ€™ â€“ Allen J Wood.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 8 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LECTURE PLAN

S. 



No of 
Mode of 
Text Books/ 



Name of the topic 


periods 
teaching 



NO 


Reference Books 






required 
























1 
Introduction 


1 
Black Board 






1.3 














2 
System constraints 


2 
Black Board 
T1:1.3 



3 
Heat rate Curve and Cost Curve 

1 
Black Board 
T1:1.6, R1:3.3 



4 
Incremental fuel and Production 

1 
Black Board 
T1:1.4.2, 



costs 
















5 


1 
Black Board 
T1:1.4, R1:3.2 



6 
Optimum generation allocation 

2 
Black Board 
T1:1.4.3,1.7, R2:1.6 



with line losses neglected 
















7 
Unit commitment problem 


1 
Black Board 
T2:7.3, 



8 
Problems 


3 
Black Board 
R1:4.7 




Total Number of Classes 
12 
















9 
Effect of transmission losses 


1 
Black Board 




Optimum generation allocation 


Black Board 





10 
including the effect of transmission 

2 

T1:1.9, R1:3.16 




line losses 









Loss Coefficients, Penalty 
factor 


Black Board 




11 
General transmission line 
loss 

2 

T1:1.8.1, R1:3.16 




formula 








12 
Problems 


3 
Black Board 
T1:1.11, R1:4.7 




Total Number of Classes 


8 














13 
Optimal scheduling of 


1 
Black Board 



Hydrothermal System 
















14 
Hydroelectric power plant models 

1 
Black Board 
R1:3.20, T1:2.4 



15 
Short term hydrothermal scheduling 

2 
Black Board 
T1:2.5.1, R1:3.24 



problem 
















16. 
Mathematical modeling of hydro 

2 
Black Board 
T1:2.5.2, R1:3.24.3 



thermal system 
















17 
Scheduling problems 


2 
Black Board 
T1:2.6 




Total Number of Classes 


8 














18 
Turbine control need and need of 

1 
Black Board 
T2:8.1, 



AGC 
















19 
Modelling of Turbine: First order 

1 
Black Board 



Turbine model 



T2:8.2 











20 
Steam Turbine Transfer function 

2 
Black Board 
R1:6.11, T2:8.2 



and first order models 
















21 
Modelling of Generator 


1 
Black Board 
T1:3.5.3 



22 
Swing equation 


1 
Black Board 
T2:8.8 



23 
Second order Synchronous machine 

1 
Black Board 
R1:8.3 



model 















24 
Modelling of Governor 


1 
Black Board 























[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 


Page 9 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File

25 

AVR and Modelling of Excitation 

2 

Black Board 
R1:8.17 




System 

















26 

Block Diagram Representation of 

1 

Black Board 
R1:6.12 




IEEE 

















27 

Problems 

3 

Black Board 







Total Number of Classes 
13 


















28 

Necessity of keeping frequency 

1 

Black Board 
T2:8.1 




constant 

















29 

Definitions of Control area, single 

1 

Black Board 
T1:3.3 




area control 

















30 

Block diagram representation of an 

2 

Black Board 
T2:8.2 




isolated power system 



R2:6.26 












31 

Steady state analysis, Dynamic 

2 

Black Board 




response of uncontrolled case 

















32 

Problems 

2 

Black Board 
T1:3.12 





Total Number of Classes 
8 

















33 
Load frequency control of 

4 

Black Board 
T1:4.1, R1:7.7 



system with block diagram 

















34 
uncontrolled case and controlled 

1 

Black Board 



case 















35 

2 

Black Board 
T1:4.2, R1:7.10 



36 
Problems 

2 

Black Board 
T1:4.5 





Total Number of Classes 
9 
















37 
Proportional plus Integral control of 

1 

Black Board 
T1:3.8 



single area 

















38 
Block diagram representation of 

2 

Black Board 
T1:4.1.1 



Single area system 

















39 
Steady state response 

1 

Black Board 
T2:8.2 



40 
Load Frequency Control and 

2 

Black Board 
T2:8.3, T1:3.9 



Economic dispatch control 




R1:6.32 













Total Number of Classes 
6 
















41 
Overview of Reactive Power 

1 

Black Board 
T1:5.1 



control 

















42 
Reactive Power compensation in 

2 

Black Board 



transmission systems 

















43 
Merits and Demerits of 

2 

Black Board 
T1:5.7 



compensation devises 

















44 
Uncompensated and compensated 

1 

Black Board 
T1:5.8 



transmission lines 

















45 
shunt and Series Compensation 


2 

Black Board 
T1:5.15 




















46 
Problems 


2 

Black Board 
T1:5.24 






R1:8.33 
















Total Number of Classes 
10 







Total Number of Classes For this Course 
74 































[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 



Page 10 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·The need of Optimal operation of Generators in Thermal Power Stations.
Â·Concept of heat rate Curve.
Â·Cost Curve and Incremental fuel and Production costs.
Â·
Â·Optimum generation allocation with line losses neglected.
Â·Unit Commitment Problem and Dynammic Programming Method.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.a) Explain the various factors that affect optimum operation to be considered in allocating generators of different power stations, neglect line losses.
b)Explain how the incremental production cost of a thermal power station can be determined.
2. a) Explain input â€“ output characteristics of th ermal power stations.
b)Define in detail cost curve of thermal stations.
3.Using dynamic programming method, how do you find the most economical combination of the units to meet a particular load demand?
4. ) 
Explain in detail about incremental heat rate curve and cost curve 
b)Write the expression for hourly loss of economy resulting from error incremental cost representation.
5. (a) Define in detail the following: 


i. Control variables 
ii. Disturbance variables 
iii. State variables. 
(b)Draw incremental fuel cost curve.
6. 
Draw the flow chart for obtaining optimal scheduling of generating units by neglecting the 

transmission losses. 
7.Explain in detail the terms production costs, total efficiency, incremental efficiency and incremental rates with respect to Thermal power plant.
8.(a) Explain how the incremental production cost of a thermal power station can be determined.
(b)Explain the various factors that effect optimum operation to be considered in allocating generation of different power stations neglect line losses.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 11 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
PROBLEMS:
1.A constant load of 300 MW is supplied by two 200 MW generators 1 and 2, for which the respective incremental fuel costs are:
dC1/dPG1= 0.10 PG1 + 20.0 dC2/dPG2= 0.12 PG2 + 15.0 With power PG in MW and costs C in Rs/hr. Determine:
(a) The most economical division of load between the generators.
(b) The saving in Rs./ day there by obtained compared to equal load sharing.
2.Incremental fuel costs in rupees per megawatt hour for two units are given by
dF1/dP1= 0.1P1 + 20 and dF2/dP2= 0.12P2 + 10 the maximum and minimum loads on each unit are to 25MW and 120MW, respectively. Determine the incremental fuel cost and the
allocation of load between units for minimum cost when the loads are: 
(a) 100MW 
(b)150MW.
3.The fuel cost functions in Rs./hr. for three thermal plants are given by
C1 = 400+8.4P1+0.006P12, 100 =P1 =600 C2 = 600+8.93P2+0.006P22, 60= P2 =300 Where P1, P2, are in MW. Neglecting line losses and including generator limits, determine the optimal generation scheduling where PD = 820MW.
4.A power System consists of two, 125 MW units whose input cost data are represented by the equations :
C1 = 0.04 P12+ 22 P1 + 800 Rupees/hour C2 = 0.045 P22+ 15 P2 + 1000 Rupees/hour If the total received power PR = 200 MW. Determine the load sharing between units for most economic operation.
5.The fuel cost functions in Rs./hr. for three thermal plants are given by
C1 = 400+8.4P1+0.006 P12, 100 = P1 =600 C2 = 650+6.78P2+0.004 P22, 300= P2=650 Where P1, P2, are in MW. Neglecting line losses and including generator limits, determine the optimal generation scheduling where PD = 1550MW.
6.150 MW, 220 MW and 220 MW are the ratings of three units located in a thermal power station. Their respective incremental costs are given by the following equations
dc1/dp1 = Rs(0.11p1 + 12); dc3/dp3 = Rs(0.1p3 + 13) dc2/dp2 = Rs(0.095p2 + 14) Where P1, P2 and P3 are the loads in MW. Determine the economical load allocation
between the three units, when the total load on the station is(a) 350 MW (b) 500 MW.
7.A simple
dC1 / dPG1 = 0.01 PG1 + 2.0 dC2 / dPG2 = 0.01 PG2 + 1.5 determine PG1 and PG2 when the load on the system is 1000MW.
8.A power system consists of two 100 MWunits whose input cost data are represented by equations below:
C1 = 0.04 P12 + 22 P1 + 800 Rupees/hour C2 = 0.045 P22+ 15 P2 + 1000 Rupees/hour If total received power PR = 150 Mw. Determine the load sharing between units for most economic operation.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 12 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS: 




1. 
The main economic factor in power system operation is 
[ 
] 


(a) The cost of reactive power compensation 
(b) The cost of power generation 



(c) The cost of operation and Maintenance 
(d) The cost of power transmission 


2. 
The optimum allocation of generation at each generating station is called 
[ 
] 


(a) Unit commitment 
(b) load scheduling 



(c) load dispatching 
(d) load consuming 


3.The optimum allocation of generation to each station for various system load level is called

(a) load dispatching 

(b) load scheduling 
[ 
] 


(c) unit commitment 

(d) power generating 



4. 
The major component of generator operating cost is 

[ 
] 


(a) The fuel I/P hour 


(b) The maintains cost 



(c) The operating cost of supporting Equipment 
(d)None 



5. 
The fuel cost of meaningful only is case of 


[ 
] 


(a) Hydro station 

(b)Diesel station 




(c) Thermal station 

(d) Thermal and Nuclear stations 


6. 
The slop of the cost curve is 


[ 
] 


(a) dCi/dPG 
(b) dPG/dCI 
(c) dcI/dt 
(d)dPG/dt 

7.The Optional loading of generator corresponding to the Equal Incremental cost point of all
the generators equation is called 
[ 
] 
(a) The differential Equation 
(b) The 

(c) The algebraic Equation 
(d) The quadric Equation 

8.To determine the units of a plant that should operate for a particular load is the problem of

(a) The load scheduling 
(b) The unit commitment 
[ 
] 


(c) The dynamic programming 
(d) Both a and b 




9. 
The unit of lagrangian multiplier Î» is 



[ 
] 


(a ) Rs/MW hr 
(b) Rs/MW/hr 
(c) MWhr/Rs 
(d) Whr/Rs 



10. 
The unit for Incremental cost is 



[ 
] 


(a) Rs per Mwh 
(b) Rs per Mw 
(c) Rs per hour 
(d) Rs 


11.The power plant feed a load center through a transmission network for economical loading
(a) The incremental fuel cost should be the same for the two plants 
[ 
] 
(b)The two plants should share the load in the ratio of their installed capacities
(c)The more efficient plant should supply more load
(d)The incremental cost of power delivered at the load center should be the same for both the plants
12. 
The principle of Incremental cost is used 
[ 
] 
(a)to decide the load allocation between units in operation
(b)to decide the total plant capacity to be operated
(c)to decide the sequence of adding units
(d)all the above
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 13 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
13. 
The unit of heat rate 


[ 
] 

(a) kwhr/kcal 
(b) kcal/kwhr 
(c) kw 
(d)kcal/hour 

14.The generating plants feed a load center through a transmission network for maximum economy
(a) the Incremental fuel cost should be the same for the two station 
[ 
] 
(b)the two stations should share the load in the ratio of their Installed capacities
(c)the more efficient plant should supply more load
(d)the Incremental cost of power delivered at the load center should be the same for both the plants
15. 
The principal of Incremental costs is used 
[ 
] 
(a)to decide the total plant capacity to be operated
(b)to decide the load allocation between units in operation.
(c)to decide the sequence of adding units
(d)all the above
16. 
The largest size of thermal generating unit in India is 
[ 
] 


(a) 500MW 
(b) 310MW 
(c) 210MW 
(d) 165MW 

17. 
The 

[ 
] 


( a) fuel Input and power output 
(b) fuel Input and time 



(c) fuel rate and power and output 
(d) fuel rate and energy output. 


18. 
Unit commitment is 


[ 
] 
(a)optimal combination of units for operation at any one time
(b)economic schedule among different units
(c)Planning of generating units for future load increase
(d)to choose proper units from thermal ,hydro and nuclear plants.
19. 
Constraints are classified into _____________ types 
[ 
] 


(a) 1 
(b) 2 
(c) 3 
(d) 4 


20. 
Tap settings range of an 
[ 
] 


(a) 0= t = 1 
(b) 
(c) 0=t=1 
(d) 0=t=1 


Key: 






1.b 
2.a 3.b 
4.a 
5.d 
6.a 7. bs 8.b 
9.a 10.a 11.d 12.a 13.b 

14.d 
15.b 
16.a 
17.a 
18.a 
19.b 
20.a 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 14 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Effect of transmission line losses.
Â·Optimum generation allocation including the effect of transmission line losses â€“ Loss Coefficients.
Â·General transmission line loss formula.
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.a)Assume any relevant data and notation, derive the transmission loss formula.
b)Discuss about the optimum generator allocation without line losses.
2.a) Explain with neat diagram the physical interpretation of
b)Explain various uses of general loss formula and state the assumptions made for the
Calculations of B coefficients.
mn
3.Obtain the condition for optimum operation of a power system with â€˜nâ€™ plants when losses considered.
4.(a) Derive equation for penalty factor.
(b) Derive equation for optimal operation of thermal power plants including losses.
5.Give algorithm for economic allocation of generation among generators of a thermal system taking into account transmission losses. Give steps for implementing this algorithm and also derive necessary equations.
6.What are
PROBLEMS:
1.A simple
dC2 / dPG2 = 0.01 PG2 + 1.5
and the total load on the system is distributed optimally between two stations as PG1 = 60MW and PG2 = 110MW, corresponding l= 2.6 and the loss coefficients of the system are
given as 



P 
Q 
Bpq 

1 
1 
0.0015 

1 
2 


2 
2 
0.0025 
Determine the transmission loss. 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 15 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
2.A power system is operating an economic load dispatch with a system Î» of 60 Rs./MWh. If raising the output of
3.A system consisting of two generating plants with fuel costs of dc1/dp1=0.03P12 +15P1+ 1.0 and
dc2/dp2=0.04P22+21P2+ 1.4
The system is operating on economical dispatch with 120 MW of power generation by each plant. The incremental transmission loss of
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.Expression for transmission loss formula was given by ____________.
2.In the derivation of transmission loss formula __________ transformation was used.
3.The expression for transmission loss formula, PL=______________.
4.Loss coefficients are also called as ___________.
5.Bmn coefficients is an _______________ matrix.
6.In deriving loss formula coefficients the ratio of real to reactive power is
7.Units for Bmn coefficients is _______________.
8.General transmission loss formula is used for exact calculation of ___________.
9.____________ are used in power system designing.
10.The condition for optimum allocation of load including losses is given by ___________.
11.ITL stands for _________________.
12.dPloss/dPi is called ______________ .
13.The expression for penalty factor is _______.
14.Power factors remain of all the plants remain _____________ in deriving loss coefficients.
15.The transmission losses in a line are _____________ to V2.
16. 
For slack bus the penalty factor is 


[ 
] 



(a) unity 
(b) zero 
(c) infinity 
(d) none 




17. 
Incremental transmission loss of a grid will be 
[ 
] 



(a) unity 
(b) zero 
(c) infinity 
(d) none 




18. 
The penalty factor is always 


[ 
] 



(a) less than 1 (b) more than 1 (c) a or b 
(d) equal to 1 

















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 



Page 16 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
19.If a generating unit is situated near to the load center the penalty factor for that unit is

(a) about 1 (b) infinity (c) zero (d) negative 
[ 
] 
20. 
The incremental transmission loss of a plant is 
[ 
] 

(a) always positive (b) always negative (c) can be positive 
(d) negative 

Key: 







1. 
3.âˆ‘ 
âˆ‘ 
4. 


5. nÃ—n symmetric 
6. constant 
7. (MW) 
8. transmission losses 


9. 
10. (dCi/dPGi)Ã—L i=Î» 
11. incremental transmission loss 
12. ITL 

13.1/(1 dPL/dPGi ) 
14.fixed 
15.b 
16.a 
17. b 
18. b 19. a 
20. c 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 17 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Hydroelectric power plant models.
Â·The concept of Optimal scheduling of Hydrothermal System.
Â·scheduling
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1. a) Explain about spinning reserve in hydro power plants.
b)Explain about
2.Derive the
3.Write the advantages of operation of hydro thermal combinations.
4.Discuss the combined hydro electric and steam station operation.
5.Derive the
6.Derive Mathematical Formulation for Hydro thermal scheduling.
7.Explain different constraints to be considered for mathematical modeling of hydro thermal scheduling.
PROBLEMS:
1.Determine the daily water used by hydro plant and daily operating cost of thermal plant with the load connected for total 24 hrs from the given data.
The load connected, PD = 400MW Generation of thermal plant, PGT = 200MW Generation of hydro plant, PGH = 300MW.
2.In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operation for 10 hrs, during each day and the steam plant is to operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro
plants are
CT = 0.04 PGT2+30 PGT + 10 Rs/hr Wh =0.12 PGH2+30 PGHm3/ sec
When both plants are running, the power ow from steam plant to load is 150 MW and the total quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during 10 hrs is 150Ã—10 6 m3. Determine the generation of hydro plant and cost of water used. Neglect the transmission losses.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 18 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
3.In a two plant operation system, the hydro plant is operate for 8 hrs. During each day and the steam plant is operate all over the day. The characteristics of the steam and hydro plants
are CT = 0.04 PGT2+30 PGT + 20 Rs/hr WH =0.0012 PGH2+7.5 PGH m3/ sec When both plants are running, the power flow from steam plant to load is 190 MW and the total quantity of water is used for the hydro plant operation during 8 hrs is 220 Ã—10 6m3. Determine the generation of hydro plant and cost of water used. Neglect the transmission losses.
4.A
location. The load is 500MW for 16 
hrs a day and 350 MW, for 8 hrs a day. The 

characteristics of the units are 
C1 = 120 + 45 PGT + 0.075 PGT2 Rs./hr w2 = 0.6 

PGH + 0.00283 PGH2 m3/sec 


Loss 
Find the generation schedule, daily water used by 

hydro plant and daily operating cost of 
thermal plant for is 80 Rs./ 
5.A two plant system having a thermal station near the load center and a hydro power station at remote location.The characteristics of both stations are
C1 = (26 + 0.045 PGT)PGT Rs/hr w2 = (7 + 0.004 PGH) PGH m3/sec
and The transmission loss
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.In case of hydro electric power plants the running costs are very ____________.
2.The load on the power station which do not vary throughout the whole day is called _____.
3.Hydro stations acts as ___________ stations during rainy season.
4.Hydroelectric plant models are divided into ___________ and ________________.
5.Peak load station is one whose peak demand is above __________.
6. 
Gas stations and hydroelectric stations fall under the category of __________ stations. 
7.Long term hydro thermal
8.To keep the hydro generation constant the water head is maintained ___________.
9.In maximum hydro efficiency method, the hydro power plants are operated at maximum efficiency during ____________ periods.
10.
11.Water discharge is expressed in terms of _____________.
12.The expression for Î» in a hydro thermal system is ________.
13.For optimality the gradient vector should be__________.
14.In a hydro thermal system ,the power balance equation is given by _______________.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 19 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
15.Jm represents __________ in the mth interval .
16.Hydro generation in the mth interval is represented as ______________.
17.Thermal and nuclear stations come under the category of _____________.
18.In kirchmayerâ€™s method the
19. 
The largest size of hydro electric generating unit in India is 

[ 
] 


(a) 165 MW 
(b) 500 MW 
(c) 310MW (d) 210MW 



20. 
Which of the following generating plant has the minimum operating cost 
[ 
] 


(a) thermal 
(b) nuclear (c) diesel 
(d) 




Key: 









1.high 
2. Base load 
3.base load 
4.base load and peak load 
5. Base load 
6. Peak load 


7.1 year 
8.constant 
10.24 hrs 
11.m3/sec 



12. Î»=dCi /dPTi=Î»j dWj /dPHj 
13.zero 
14. 15 water inflow rate 
m 


16. PGH 


17. base load 
18. Î»=dCi /dPTi=Î»j (dWj /dPHj) 
19. a 20. d 



[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 20 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
CONTROLLERS
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·How to model turbine, governor, Excitation systems.
Â·concept of AVR and AGC
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.a) Derive the transfer function of speed governing system?
b)Explain turbine model with block diagram?
2.Explain the necessity of maintaining a constant frequency in power system operation.
3.Explain the
4.Briefly explain swing equation with simplified diagram.
5.Discus in detail the following components of excitation system.
(a) Error Amplifier (b) SCR Power Amplifier 
(c) Main Exciter and (d) Alternator 
6.(a) Develop the linearized modeling of a hydraulic turbine.
(b)Explain the effect of varying excitation of a synchronous generator.
7.Discuss the ill effects of change in voltage and frequency of a power system. Mention the acceptable ranges of these changes
8.(a) Explain the simplified model of a synchronous machine.
(b)Derive the transfer function of an overall excitation system.
9.(a) Describe the effect of saliency in synchronous machine modeling
(b)Draw the block diagram representation of steam turbine and obtain the approximate linear model.
10.(a) Derive state space second order mathematical model of synchronous machine.
(b)Draw the block diagram of IEEE
PROBLEMS:
1.A 80 MVA synchronous generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The load is suddenly reduced to 40 MW. Due to time lag in the governor system, the steam valve begins to close after 0.3 secs. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. H=4
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 21 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
2.A
3.Two turbo alternators rated for 110MW and 210MW have a governor droop characteristics of 5% from no load to full load. They are connected in parallel to share the load of 250MW. Determine the load shared by each machine assuming free governor action.
4.A system consists of 4 identical 250 MVA generators feeding a load of 510 MW The inertia constant H of each unit is 2.5 on the machine base. The load varies by 1.4% for a 1 % change in frequency. If there is a drop in load of 10 MW, determine the system block diagram expressing H and B on the base of 1000 MVA. Give the expression for speed deviation, assuming there is no speed governor.
5.Two generators rated 200 MW and 400 MW are operating in parallel. The droop characteristics of their governors are 4% and 5% respectively from no load to full load. Assuming that the generators are operating at 50 Hz at no load, how would a load of 600 MW be shared between them? If the load reduces to 400MW how it will be shared among the generators and what will be the system frequency. Assume free governor operation the speed changes of a governor are reset so that the load of 400MW is shared among the generators at 50Hz in the ratio of their ratings. What are the no load frequencies of the generators.
6.A power system has load of 1250 MW at 50 Hz. If 50 MW load is tripped, find the steady state frequency deviation when
(a)there is no speed control
(b)the system has a reserve of 200 MW spread over 500 MW of generation capacity with 5% regulation on this capacity. All the generators are operating with valves wide open. Due to dead band only 80 % of governors respond to load change. Assume load damping constant B=1.5.
7.Two synchronous generators operate in parallel and supply a total load of 400MW, the capacities of machines are 200MW and 500MW and both have generator drooping characteristics of 4% from no load to full load. Calculate the load taken by the each machine. Assuming free governor action also find system frequency at this load.
8.A 80 MVA synchronous generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The load is suddenly reduced to 40 MW. Due to time lag in the governor system, the steam valve begins to close after 0.3 secs. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. H=4
9.A system consists of 4 identical 250 MVA generators feeding a load of 510 MW. The inertia constant H of each unit is 2.5 on the machine base. The load varies by 1.4% for a 1 % change in frequency. If there is a drop in load of 10 MW, determine the system block diagram expressing H and B on the base of 1000 MVA. Give the expression for speed deviation, assuming there is no speed governor.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 22 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
10.A 250MVA synchronous generator is operating at 3000 rpm, 50Hz. A load of 50MW is suddenly applied to the machine and the station valve to the turbine opens only after 0.5 sec due to the time lag in the generator action. Calculate the frequency to which the generated voltage drops before the steam flow commences to increase to meet the new load. Given that the valve of H of the generator is 6
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS :
1.Fly ball speed governor is the ____________ of the turbine speed governing system.
2.As the speed increases the fly balls moves __________.
3.If the pilot valve moves upwards then ________ pressure steam is moved into the hydraulic amplifier.
4.____________ provides the steady state power output for the turbine in a speed governing system .
5.The expression for speed regulation of a governor is given by ___________.
6.1/K4.K5 is the ___________ of speed governor.
7.The transfer function of a turbine model is written as _________.
8.In a generator load model ,the expression for time constant is given by __________.
9.1/B represents ___________ of the power sytem.
10.H is called the ___________ constant in the power system time constant.
11.AVR stands for ___________.
12. 
The exciters are classified into ____________ types. 
[ 
] 



(a) 1 
(b) 3 
(c) 
4 
(d) 
2 







13. 
nomally the time constant of a speed governor 
is less than _______ ms. 
[ 
] 



(a) 1000 
(b) 10 
(c) 
100 
(d) 
0.1 







14. 
Units for speed regulation of governor is 



[ 
] 



(a) HZ 
(b) HZ per MVA 
(c) HZ per MW 
(d) none 




15. 
For a synchronous phase modifier the load angle is 

[ 
] 



(a) 0 deg 
(b) 30 deg 
(c) 
25 deg 
(d) 
none 




16. 
An under excited synchronous generator operates at 

[ 
] 



(a) lagging pf 
(b) leading pf (c) 
unity pf 
(d) leading unity pf 




17. 
An unexcited synchronous motor is 




[ 
] 



(a) reluctance motor 
(b) universal motor 

(c) 
repulsion motor (d) 
AC series motor 

18. 
Modern alternators of 500MW generate power at 

[ 
] 



(a) 11.8 kv 
(b) 13.8 kv 
(c) 22 kv 
(d) 400 kv 





















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 





Page 23 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
19. 
If the excitation of the synchronous generator fails, it acts as 
[ 
] 


(a)synchronous generator 

(b)synchronous motor 




(c)induction motor 

(d)inductive generator 



20. 
As the speed of an alternator increases 

[ 
] 


(a)the frequency increases 


(b)the frequencies decreases 



(c)the frequency remains constant but power factor decreases 
(d) none 


Key: 








1. Heart 
2. outwards 3. High 
4. Speed changer 5. K1/K 
6. Time constant 


7. Kt/(1+S.Tt) 

8. 2H/Bf 
9. gain 10. Inertia 
11. Automatic voltage regulator 


12. d 
13. C 
15. A 
16. A 
17. A 18. C 
19. D 
20.A 

[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 24 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Need of keeping frequency constant.
Â·Definitions of Control area â€“ Single area control.
Â·Block diagram representation of an isolated power system â€“ Steady state analysis â€“ Dynamic response â€“ Uncontrolled case.
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Explain in detail the importance of load frequency problem.
2.Draw the block diagram of a power system showing the governor, turbine and synchronous
generator, indicating their transfer functions. For a step disturbance of PD, obtain the response of â€œincrement in frequencyâ€ making suitabl e assumptions.
a)Without proportional plus integral controller and
b)With proportional plus integral control .
3.Explain about control area and control area error.
4.Discuss in detail the dynamic response of load frequency control of an isolated power system with a neat block diagram.
5.Explain the dynamic response in load frequency control of an isolated power system under controlled case.
6.Explain what do you understand by control area and control area error.
7.Explain the dynamic response in load frequency control of an isolated power system under uncontrolled case without making any approximations in the analysis.
8.Explain how modern control theory can be applied to load frequency control problem.
9.(a) Explain the concept of control area in a load control problem.
(b) Derive the expression for the frequency deviation, when a step load disturbance occurs in a single control area.
10.(a) What are the various specifications that are to be considered in load frequency control?
(b)Explain briefly the control area concept and control area error
11.Obtain an expression for steady state response of a load frequency controller with integral control. How it is different from without integral control.
12.For a single area system show that the static error in frequency can be reduced to zero using frequency control and comment on the dynamic response of an controlled system with necessary equations.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 25 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
PROBLEMS:
1.A 100MVA synchronous generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The load is suddenly reduced to 50 MW. Due to time log in governor system, the steam value begins to close after 0.4 seconds. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. Given the initial constant H = 5 KW â€“ Sec/KVA of generato r rating.
2.Two generators of rating 100MW and 200MW are operating with drop characteristic of 6% from
3.A generator in single area load frequency control has the following parameters:
Total generator capacity = 2500MW Normal operating load = 1500MW Inertia constant = 5KW â€“ Seconds per KVA; load damp ing constant,
B = 1%; frequency, f = 50Hz; and speed regulation, R = 2.5Hz/PU MW. If there is a 1.5% increase in the load, find the frequency drop a) Without governor control b) With governor control
4.Two generators of rating 100 MW and 200 MW are operating with droop characteristic of 6% from no load to full load. Determine the load shared by each generator, if a load of 270 MW is connected across the parallel combination of those generators.
5.A single area consists of two generators with the following parameters: Generator 1 = 1200 MVA; R=6 % (on machine base)
Generator 2 = 1000 MVA; R=4 % (on machine base)
The units are sharing 1800 MW at normal frequency 50 Hz. Unit supplies 1000 MW and unit 2 supplies 800 MW. The load now increased by 200 MW.
(a)Find steady state frequency and generation of each unit if B=0.
(b)Find steady state frequency and generation of each unit if B=1.5
6.Two generators of rating 150 MW and 300 MW are operated with droop characteristic of 5% from no load to full load. Determine the load shared by each generator, if a load of 250 MW is connected across the parallel combination of those generators
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.The signal fed into the integrator is referred as _________
2.ACE stands for ________
3.Under steady state conditions ,the ACE is ______
4.The integral of ACE (âˆ«ACE.dt) is the __________ of a synchronous clock and cannot be eliminated
5.The frequency control is obtained by using ______ control loopwhich is a closed control loop.
6.The integral control is used to control the _______ error.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 26 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
7.The main objective of an automatic load frequency control is to maintain __________
constant inspite of variation in loads.
8.When the frequency error becomes zero,the speed changes attains a _______ value.
9.The steady state change in frequency due to change in load due to change in load is given by __________
10.When âˆ†Pc=0 and the load demand changes,the operation of the system is known as________
11.The droop of load frequency curve is mainly determined by________
12.If âˆ†Pc=âˆ†Pd then âˆ†f=____ under steady state conditions.
13.The area where all the generators respond in unison to changes in load or speed changer is called ________.
14._________ is nothing but a problem of selecting inputs of a given system to obtain the necessary output when the constraints are present.
15.The load frequency characteristic of a power system has_________ characteristics.
16.In load frequency control area ,the change in frequency is known as ___________
17. 
In a single uncontrolled area,area control error is defined by ______ 
[ 
] 


(a)âˆ« âˆ†f. dt 
(b)d/dt(âˆ†f) 
(c) âˆ†f 
(d) 


18. 
Steady state frequency error in a single control area can be eliminated by__________ 


19. 
Area frequency response characteristic is 

[ 
] 


(a) D+1/R 
(b) R+1/D 
(c) D/R (d) 


20. In a power system, during load flow studies, the power losses are assigned to _______ bus.
KEY: 








1. 
ACE 
2. area control error 3. zero 
4. time error 
5. Integral 

6. 
Frequency 7. frequency 
8. Constant 9. 
PD 
10. free governor 

11. load demand 
12. zero 
13. control area 
14. control problem 15. Linear 

16. area control error 
17. C 
18. integral control 
19. A 
20. swing 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 27 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Load frequency control of
Â·
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1 a) Explain how the
b)What are the features of the dynamic response of a two area system for step load disturbances.
2.What are the advantages of inter connected operation of power system? Explain.
3.Given a block diagram of two interconnected areas shown in figure 6 (consider the prime
mover output to be constant i.e., a blocked governor
(a) Derive the transfer functions that relate Ï‰1(s) and Ï‰2(s) to a load change âˆ†PL(s).
4.Explain how the
5.In the actual block diagram of a two area interconnected system, the system 2 represents a system so large that it is effectively an infinite bus". The inertia constant M2 is much greater than inertia constant M1 and the frequency deviation in system 2 is zero. Draw a block diagram including
6.Obtain the block diagram of two area system.
7.a) Deduce the expression for static error frequency and tie line power in an identical two area system.
b)What is meant by tie line bias control?
8.Obtain the mathematical modeling of the line powers in an interconnected system and draw its block diagram.
PROBLEMS:
1.Two power stations A and B operate in parallel. They are inter connected by a short Transmission line. The station capacities are 100MW and 200MW respectively. The Generators â€˜Aâ€™ and â€˜Bâ€™ have speed regulations of 3% and 2% respectively. Calculate the output of each station and load on the interconnection, if
a)The load on each station is 125MW.
b)The load on respective bus bars is 60MW and 190MW
c)The load is 150MW at station a bus bar only.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 28 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
2.Two areas of a power system network are inter connected by a
3.Two areas are connected via an inter tie line. The load at 50 Hz, is 15000 MW in area 1 and 35000 in area 2. Area 1 is importing 1500 MW from area 2. The load damping constant in each area is B=1.0 and the regulation R=6 % for all units. Area 1 has a spinning reserve of 800 MW spread over 4000 MW of generation capacity and area 2 has a spinning reserve of 1000 MW spread over 10000 MW generation. Determine the steady state frequency, generation and load of each area and
(a)Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with no supplementary control.
(b)Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with supplementary controls provided on generators with reserve.
4.The two area system has the following data: Capacity of area 1, Pr1 =1000 MW, Capacity of area 2, Pr2 =2000 MW, Nominal load of area 1, PD1=500 MW Nominal load of area 1, PD1=1500 MW Speed regulation of area 1=4%
Speed regulation of area 2=3%
Find the new steady state frequency and change in the line flow for a load change of area 2 by 125 MW. For both the areas each percent change in frequency causes 1 percent change in load. Find also the amount of additional frequency drop if the interconnection is lost due to certain reasons.
5.Find the new steady state frequency and change in the line flow for a load change of area 2 by 125 MW. For both the areas each percent change in frequency causes 1 percent change in load. Find also the amount of additional frequency drop if the interconnection is lost due to certain reasons.
6.Given a block diagram of two interconnected areas shown in figure 6 (consider the prime mover output to be constant i.e., a blocked governor
(a)Derive the transfer functions that relate Ï‰1(s) and Ï‰2(s) to a load change _PL(s).
(b)For the following data (all quantities refer to a 100 MVA base),
M1=2.5 pu B1=1.00 M2=4.0 pu B2=0.75 T=377Ã—0.02 pu = 7.54 pu
Calculate the final frequency for a load step change in area 1 of 0.2 pu (i.e.,200 MW). Assume the frequency was nominal and tie flow was 0 pu
7.Two areas are connected via an inter tie line. The load at 50 Hz, is 15000 MW in area 1 and 35000 in area 2. Area 1 is importing 1500 MW from area 2. The load damping constant in each area is B=1.0 and the regulation R=6 % for all units. Area 1 has a spinning reserve of 800 MW spread over 4000 MW of generation capacity and area 2 has a spinning reserve of 1000 MW spread over 10000 MW generations. Determine the steady state frequency, generation and load of each area
and
(a)Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with no supplementary control.
(b)Loss of 1000 MW in area 1, with supplementary controls provided on generators with reserve.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 29 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
8.Two areas of a power system network are interconnected by a
9.In the actual block diagram of a two area interconnected system, the system 2 represents a system so large that it is effectively an infinite bus". The inertia constant M2 is much greater than inertia constant M1 and the frequency deviation in system 2 is zero. Draw a block diagram including
10.Two generating stations A and B have full load capacities of 200 MW and 75 MW respectively. The inter connector connecting the two stations has an induction motor/synchronous generator (plant C) of full load capacity of 25 MW. Percentage changes in speeds of A, B and C are 5, 4 and 3 respectively. The loads on the bus bars of A and B are 75 MW and 30 MW respectively. Determine the load taken by the set C and indicate the direction in which the energy is flowing.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.The flat
2.For successful operation, the characteristic of each
___________as that of the governor characteristic.
3.A
4.In
5.A
6.Synchronizing
7.Synchronizing
8.Power flow in P120 from area 1 to area 2 is given by the expression _____________.
9.If a frequency controller is placed at station B, then it will shift the governor characteristic at B ____________ to itself.
10.In
11.In
12.The time t2 is the instant at which the governor action __________ in a
13.If there is a load increment in B, then the
than the normal.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 30 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
14.In
15.The characteristic of a
16.A smooth,
17.A
_____________ controller.
18.If several systems are interconnected, then steady state frequency error would be _______.
19.In dynamic response, we assume the two areas to be ________.
20.If the regulation is high in dynamic response, then there is a ______ damping.
Key: 








1. Biased 
2.Slope 
3.Larger 
4.Same 
5. 

6.Stiffness 
7.T2 
8.(IV1IIV2I/X) sin( 
1 2) 
9.Parallel 
10.B 

11.T3 
12.Ceases 
13.Less 
14.Simultaneously 
15.Linear 


17.Fiat 
18.Reduced 19.Equal 

20.High 








[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 31 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Proportional plus Integral control of single area.
Â·Block diagram representation of Proportional plus Integral control of single area
Â·Load Frequency Control and Economic dispatch control
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.a) Explain economic dispatch control problem in detail.
b)Explain how the frequency error in the load frequency control problem is reduced to zero.
2.a) Obtain the dynamic response of lead frequency controller with integral control action in
single area 
frequency control. 
b)Distinguish between load frequency control and economic dispatch control.
3.Explain the optional design of load frequency control problem. What are limitations of
optional control theory in designing the load frequency control problem?
4.Discuss the importance of combined load frequency control and economic dispatch control with a neat block diagram.
5.Derive the transfer function (âˆ†F(s)/âˆ†PD(s)for proportional and integral control of a single area system.
6.Explain economic dispatch control problem in detail.
7.What are the requirements of control strategy in integral control? Explain the role played by the controller gain setting in the frequency control.
8.Find the expression for dynamic response of change in frequency for a step change in load for a single area control system with integral control action. Assume that Tg= 0; Tt = 0 and damping constant.
9.Show that steady state frequency error can be reduced to zero if the proportional and integral controller is used in single area load frequency control.
10.Explain the effect of integral gain on the performance of load frequency control in two area load frequency control.
11.Show that steady state frequency error can be reduced to zero if the proportional and integral controller is used in single area load frequency control.
12.Discuss the merits of proportional plus integral load frequency control of a system with a neat block diagram.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 32 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.The steady state droop in frequency can be in the range of ________ and _______ HZ from
2.Maximum permissible change in frequency is ________.
3.To achieve a steady state frequency, frequency control method called ____________
control is used.
4.The error or change in frequency is known as ____________.
5.Modern power system uses synchronous clocks which measure the ________ of frequency.
6.The command signal (âˆ†Pc) and step disturbance (âˆ†Pd) is equal to _______ if âˆ†x=0.
7.Due to the addition of integral controller in the system, the characteristic equation changes from _________ order to _______ order.
8.Overloading of generating units can be controlled by including _________ factors in the feedback signal.
9.The load frequency controllerâ€™s response is ________ whereas the economic dispatch controllerâ€™s response is _________.
10.Economic dispatch error is the difference of ________ and ________.
11.CEDC stands for ______________.
12.The signal PG(desired) is calculated by ___________.
13.The two problems of economic load dispatch are ___________ and _________.
14.In
15.____________ control strategy is required to minimize the variation in the frequency using an integral controller.
16.The integral control strategy must be able to maintain the stability using the _________
loop integral control.
17.A _______ polarity must be taken for an integral controller to cause a positive frequency error.
18.When integral control is applied, if the control gain Kr is greater than the critical gain, the
response is 
[ 
] 
(a) over damped 
(b) damped oscillatory (c) undamped oscillatory (d) unstable operation. 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 33 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
Key: 





1. 
2 to 3 
2.+0.55 to 
3.Proportional plus integral 
4.ACE 

5.Integral 
6.Constant 
7.Third and fourth 8.Gain 9.Fast, slow 


10. 
Pg(desired) and Pg(actual) 
11.Control economic dispatch computer 
12.CEDC 

13. 
Unit commitment and 


16. Closed 
17.Negative 
18. B 


[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 34 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Need of reactive power control in transmission systems.
Â·Concept of shunt and series compensation.
Â·Merits and Demerits of various Compensation devices.
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.a) Write short notes on compensated and
b)Explain briefly about the shunt and series compensation of transmission systems.
2.a) Describe in detail off load and on load top changing transformers.
b)Discuss in detail about the generation and absorption of reactive power in power system components.
3.(a) Describe in detail off load and on load tap changing transformers.
(b)Discuss in detail about the generation and absorption of reactive power in power system components.
4.Explain clearly what do mean by compensation of a line and discuss briefly different methods of compensation.
5.Explain the operations of synchronous condenser and mention its applications in power systems and derive the expression for capacity of synchronous condenser.
6.(a) Compare the different types of compensating equipment for transmission systems
(b)What are the specifications of load compensation?
PROBLEMS:
1.A
85.2ohms and the total suceptance of 5.32Ã— 10  4 m ho. The transmission line is to be represented by pmodel.
2.A
3.A
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 35 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
4.Find the rating of synchronous compensator connected to the tertiary winding of a 132 kV star connected, 33 kV star connected, 11 kV delta connected three winding transformer to supply a load of 66 MW at 0.8 p.f. lagging at 33 kV across the secondary. The equivalent primary and secondary winding reactances are 32 ohms and 0.16 ohms respectively while the secondary winding reactance is negligible. Assume that the primary side voltage is essentially constant at 132 kV and maximum of nominal setting between transformer primary and secondary is 1.1
5.For an isolated power system with integral control has the following data: Rating of the generator Pr=100 MW
Nominal operating load PD=50 MW Inertia constant H=5.0 sec
Speed regulation of the governor R=2.5 Hz/ pu MW
If the load would increase 1 pu for 1 % frequency increase and area is controlled by an integral controller, estimate the critical magnitude of the gain when the load is increased by 10 MW.
6. 
A 

respectively. With no load at the receiving end a synchronous compensator there takes a 

current lagging by 900, the voltage at the sending end is 145 kV and 132 kV at the receiving 

end. Calculate the value of the current taken by the compensator. When the load at the 

receiving end is 50 MW, it is found that the line can operate with unchanged voltages at 

sending and receiving ends, provided that the compensator takes the same current as before 

but now leading by 900. Calculate the reactive power of the load. 
7.A 80 MVA synchronous generator operates on full load at a frequency of 50Hz. The load is suddenly reduced to 40 MW. Due to time lag in the governor system, the steam valve begins to close after 0.3 secs. Determine the change in frequency that occurs in this time. H=4
8.Design a static var compensator for a low voltage distribution system with the following specifications:
System voltage = 440 V System frequency = 50 Hz Coil inductance, L=5.37 mH The inductor saturates at 950 A and settles to a value of 1.8 mH at 1800 A. Compensation is required over a range of
9.(a) Explain the effects on uncompensated line under no load and load conditions
(b)A
10.(a) What are the merits and demerits of different types of compensation
(b)A 35 kW induction motor has power factor 0.85 and efficiency 0.9 at full load, power factor 0.6 and efficiency 0.7 at
and power factor 0.1. Capacitors are supplied to make the line power factor 0.8 at
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 36 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS: 


1. Line compensation 
[ 
] 
(i) increases ferrranti effect 
(ii)requires under excited operation of generators 

(iii)reduces power transfer capability 
(iv)is never used in power operation 

(a) (i) & (ii) are false 
(b) (ii) & (iii) are false 

(c) (i),(iii) & (iv) are false 
(d) all are false 

2.In VAR compensators using thyristors, filters are needed for ________ & _________
harmonic.
3. For a 400KV line, the ratio X/R is about 
[ 
] 

(a) 1.5 
(b) 6 
(c) 10 
(d) 16 

4.Static VAR compensators ________ the power factor.
5._________ compensation produces undamped oscillations.
6._________ compensators reduce voltage swings at rolling mills.
7.An
8.The natural loading limit is the _________ limit for power transfer.
9.The quadrature voltage compensator would control _________ power flow in the system.
10.________ limit is the highest limit for power transfer.
11. Per unit change in voltage magnitude is equal to 
[ 
] 

(a) âˆ†Q/Ssc (b) Ssc/âˆ†Q (c) Ssc .âˆ†Q 
(d) âˆ†Q + Ssc 


12.The reactive power compensation of the transmission system depends on the ___________
and its _________
13.Reactive power is expressed in terms of ____________.
14.__________ machines can be used in a power system network for the control of reactive power .
15.Transmission lines absorb reactive power when they are _______ loaded and generate active power when they are _________ loaded.
16. Transformers always absorb ________ power. 
[ 
] 
(a) Active (b) reactive (c) apparent (d) both a and b 


17.Cables are the generators of ________ power.
18.During peak load conditions ,the transmission line needs _______ VARS at the receiving end.
(a) Leading (b) lagging (c) unity (d) zero 
[ 
] 









[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 

Page 37 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
19. Under over excitation, the power factor of the motor is 
[ 
] 
(a) Leading (b) lagging (c) unity (d) zero 


20.When fault occurs near the synchronous condenser, it will result in _______ of short circuit currents.
(a) Decrease 
(b) fluctuation 
(c) increase 
(d) a or c 

[ 
] 

Key: 







1. D 
2. 
5th and 7th 
3.D 4.Improve 5. 


7.Reactive 
8. 
Lowest 
9. Active 
10.Thermal 
11.A 


12. Load and its power factor 
13.VAR 
14.Synchronous 


15.Fully,lightly 
16.B 
17.Reactive 
18.Lagging 
19.A 
20.C 

[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 38 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
BY
MS. R. SHARADA
Assistant Professor
EEE Department
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 39 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
INTRODUCTION
Welcome to the course on Basic Electrical Engineering Power System Analysis. This course has been introduced to serve as a complete book for students undergoing a course in transmission, distribution, stability, load flow, fault studies.
It is known that the ability to use mathematics makes the study more meaningful and less ambiguous. Hence, a balance between mathematical details and qualitative discussion has been maintained. Thus matrix analysis is used throughout the given content of syllabus for the course.
The use of per unit systems is also being added which is necessary for a power engineer to become facile in the use of per unit system. It also lays ground work for solving
Network equations, also dealing with network topology and transformation methods.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 40 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SYLLABUS
UNIT 


Graph Theory: Definitions, Bus Incidence Matrix, Y 
formation by 
Direct and Singular 
bus 


Transformation Methods, Numerical Problems. 


UNIT 


Formation of Z : Partial network, Algorithm for the Modification of Z 
Matrix for addition 

Bus 
Bus 
element for the following cases: Addition of element from a new bus to reference, Addition of element from a new bus to an old bus, Addition of element between an old bus to reference and Addition of element between two old busses (Derivations and Numerical Problems). Modification
of Z for the changes in network ( Problems )
Bus
Necessity of Power Flow Studies â€“ Data for Power Fl ow Studies â€“ Derivation of Static load flow equations â€“ Load flow solutions using Gauss Seidel Method: Acceleration Factor, Load flow solution with and without
UNIT â€“ IV :POWER FLOW
Newton Raphson Method in Rectangular and Polar
Symmetrical fault Analysis: Short Circuit Current and MVA Calculations, Fault levels, Application of Series Reactors, Numerical Problems.
UNIT
Symmetrical Component Theory: Symmetrical Component Transformation, Positive, Negative and Zero sequence components: Voltages, Currents and Impedances.
Sequence Networks: Positive, Negative and Zero sequence Networks, Numerical Problems. Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis: LG, LL, LLG faults with and without fault impedance, Numerical Problems.
UNIT
Elementary concepts of Steady State, Dynamic and Transient Stabilities. Description of: Steady State Stability Power Limit, Transfer Reactance, Synchronizing Power Coefficient, Power Angle Curve and Determination of Steady State Stability and Methods to improve steady state stability
UNIT
Derivation of Swing Equation. Determination of Transient Stability by Equal Area Criterion, Application of Equal Area Criterion, Critical Clearing Angle Calculation. Solution of Swing Equation:
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 41 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
TEXT BOOKS:
T1. Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis by M.A.Pai, TMH Publications.
T2. Modern Power system Analysis â€“ by I.J.Nagrath & D.P.Kothari: Tata
nd
Publishing company, 2 edition.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
1.Power system analysis by Grainger and Stevenson, Tata McGraw Hill
2.Power system analysis by A.R.Bergen, Prentice Hall,Inc.
3.Power system analysis by Hadi
4.Power system analysis by B.R.Gupta, Wheeler Publications.
ADDITIONAL BOOKS TO BE REFERRED
1.T3 : S.S.Vadhera, â€œ Power system Analysis & Stabilityâ€ Khanna Publishers.
2.T4: E W Stagg and
JOURNALS:
1.IEEE transactions on Power Systems
2.IEEE Power Delivery
3.Journal of electrical and electronics
4.Power Line
5.Electrical India
6.IEEE Power and Energy.
7.IEEE TR on Energy conversion
8.IEEE TR on Power Delivery
9.IEEE TR on power systems
10.Power Line
11.Indian Journal on Power and River valley development.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 42 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LECTURE PLAN
TOPIC 
No. of 
Method of 
Text 
Remark 

classes 
Teaching 
Books 
s 
UNIT â€“ I:Power System Network 



Graph Theory: Definitions 
01 
Black board and 
T4 



chalk 


Bus Incidence MatriX 
01 
Black board and 
T3 



chalk 


Y formation by Direct method 
01 
Black board and 
T3 

bus 

chalk 







Singular Transformation Method 
01 
Black board and 
T3 



chalk 


Numerical Problems 
02 
Black board and 
T3,T4 



chalk 


TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
06 


UNIT 


Formation of Z 
01 
Black board and 
T1 
Bus 

chalk 





Partial network 
02 
Black board and 
T1 


chalk 

Algorithm for the Modification of Z 
02 
Black board and 
T1 
Bus 

chalk 





Matrix for addition element as branch 
02 
Black board and 
T1 
element 

chalk 

Matrix for addition element as link 
01 
Black board and 
T1 
element 

chalk 

Derivations and Numerical Problems 
02 
Black board and 
T1 


chalk 

TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES 
10 


UNIT â€“ III Power flow 


Necessity of Power Flow Studies 
01 
board and chalk 
T2 
Derivation of Static load flow equations 
01 
board and chalk 
T2 
Load flow solutions using Gauss Seidel 
01 
Black board and 
T2 
Method 

chalk 

Acceleration Factor 
01 
Black board and 
T2 


chalk 

Load flow solution with and without 
02 
Black board and 
T2,T3 
buses 

chalk 

Algorithm and Flowchart 
01 
board and chalk 
T2 
Problems 
03 
board and chalk 
T2,T3 

TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
10 






UNIT â€“ IV Power flow 






Newton Raphson Method in Rectangular 
01 
board and chalk 
T3 











Newton Raphson Method in Polar Co 
01 
board and chalk 
T3 



Ordinates Form 







Load Flow Solution with or without PV 
01 
Black board and 
T3 




Buses 

chalk 





Decoupled Method 
01 
Black board and 
T3 






chalk 





















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 


Page 43 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File

Fast Decoupled Method 
01 
Black board and 
T2,T3 







chalk 






Comparison of Different Method 
01 
Black board and 
T2 







chalk 






Problems 
03 
Black board and 
T2,T3 







chalk 






TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
09 








UNIT 







01 
board and chalk 
T3 




Reactance diagram 
01 
board and chalk 
T3 




Numerical Problems 
01 
Black board and 
T3 







chalk 






Symmetrical fault Analysis 
01 
Black board and 
T3 







chalk 






Short Circuit Current and MVA 
01 
Black board and 
T2,T3 




Calculations 

chalk 







Fault levels 
01 
Black board and 
T3 







chalk 






Application of Series Reactors 
01 

T2 




Problems 
02 
Black board and 
T3 







chalk 






TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
09 








UNIT 







Symmetrical Component Theory and 
01 
board and chalk 
T2 




Transformation 









Positive, Negative and Zero sequence 
01 
board and chalk 
T2 




components 









Sequence Networks 
02 
board and chalk 
T2 




Unsymmetrical Fault Analysis 
02 
board and chalk 
T2 




Problems 
02 
board and chalk 
T2,T3 




TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
08 








UNIT 



Elementary concepts of Steady State, 
01 
board and chalk 
T1,T3 




Dynamic and Transient Stabilities 









Description of: Steady State Stability 
01 
board and chalk 
T3 




Power Limit 









Transfer Reactance, Synchronizing Power 
02 
board and chalk 
T3 




Coefficient 









Power Angle Curve and Determination of 
02 
board and chalk 
T2 




Steady State Stability 









Methods to improve steady state stability. 
02 
board and chalk 
T2,T3 




Problems 
03 
board and chalk 
T2,T3 




TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
09 








UNIT 



Derivation of Swing Equation 

01 
board and chalk 
T3 




Determination of Transient Stability by 

01 
board and chalk 
T3 




Equal Area Criterion 









Application of Equal Area Criterion 

01 
Black board and 
T3 








chalk 






Critical Clearing Angle Calculation 

01 
Black board and 
T3 








chalk 


























[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 



Page 44 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
Solution of Swing Equation by 
01 
Black board and 
T3 

Point Method. 

chalk 


Methods to improve Stability 
01 
Black board and 
T3,T2 



chalk 


Application of Auto Reclosing and Fast 
01 
Black board and 
T3 

Operating Circuit Breakers. 

chalk 


Problems 
03 
Black board and 
T3 



chalk 


TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES : 
10 



Total No. of classes required for this 
71 



course 




[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 45 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT â€“ I
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Basic definitions of graph, tree, oriented graph,node, branch,edge.
Â·Procedure for constructing an incidence matrix for a given power system network
Â·Procedure for forming a bus incidence matrix for a power system network .
Â·Formation of Y bus of a power system by direct method
Â·Formation of Y bus of a power system by singular transformation method
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.Define the following terms with suitable examples: tree; branches; links;
2.Write down the relations between the number of nodes, number of branches, number of links and number of elements.
3.Define the following terms: graph; node; rank of a graph; path.
4.Derive the admittance matrix by singular transformation.
5.What is primitive network matrix and represent its forms? Prove Ybus =A [y]A using singular transformation?
6.Explain how do you form
7.Derive the expression for bus admittance matrix
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.Form Ybus for the network by direct inspection method:
Element 
Positive sequence reactance 
0.04 

0.05 

0.04 

0.03 

0.02 

0.07 

0.10 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 46 


B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File 
2 . 
Form Ybus for the network by singular transformation: 


Element 
Positive sequence reactance 

j1.0 


j0.4 


j0.2 


j0.2 


j0.8 


j0.08 
3.Form YBUS by Direct Inspection method for the given power system shown with reactance value in p.u.? Select arbitrary directions.
4.A
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 47 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
5.For the power system network shown , take Bus  6 as reference bus. Define a tree with transmission lines 1  6 and 2  5 as links. Form YBUS by singular transformation method. Select arbitrary directions.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1Each network element is replaced by a __________ while constructing a graph for a network.
2.The meeting of various components in a power system is called________
3.A network has nine nodes and four independent loops, Then the number of branches in the network is _____
4.In element node incidence matrix the rank is_______
5.The dimension of basic incidence matrix is ______
6. 
The off diagonal elements in Ybus are called as________ 
[ 
] 


a)mutual admittance 
b) self admittance c) impedance 
d) none 


7. 
A graph whose branches are oriented is called 

[ 
] 


a)Oriented graph 
b)planar c) distributed 
d)tree 


8._____ gives the incidence of element to nodes of a connected graph.
9. 
Apply the KCL at every bus for developing the bus_______ matrix 
[ 
] 


a)admittance 
b)impedance 
c) resistance d) all the above 



10 . 
A graph consisting n number of nodes, the rank of tree is 
[ 
] 


a) n 
b)n+1 
c) 
d) 1 


11.If the number of branches in a network is B, the number of nodes is N and the number of dependent loops is L, then the number of independent node equations will be ______
12.The number of branches in a tree is _________ the number of branches in a graph
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 48 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
13. 
The number of independent loops for a network with N nodes and B branches is [ 
] 


a)B  N + 1 b) n+1 
d) 0 

14.The graph of an electrical network has N nodes, B branches. The number of links L with respect to the choice of tree is given by ________
15. 
Which one of the following reveals the topology of the power system network 
[ 
] 


a)Bus incidence matrix 
b) nodal equation 
c) mesh analysis 
d) none 



16. 
The diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix is called 

[ 
] 


a) mutual admittances 
b) branches 
c) 
Self admittances 
d) none 


17.The off diagonal elements of bus admittance matrix is called__________
18.The matrix consisting of the self and mutual admittances of the network of the power system is called_____
19. 
The terminal of an element is called a 
[ 
] 


a)vertex 
b ) node 
c) mesh 
d) graph 

20.In a graph, if there are 4 nodes and 7 elements, the number of links is_____
21. 
The dimension of the bus incidence matrix is 

[ 
] 


a)e* 
b)e*n 
c)n*e 

d) e*e 




KEY: 









1. 
Line segment 
2. Bus 
3.12 
4. Less than nodes 5. E*n 
6. A 


7. A 
8. Incidence matrix 
9.a 
10. C 
11. 
12. Less than 
13. A 


14. 

15. A 16. C 
17. Mutual admittance 



18. 
Bus admittance matrix 
19. B 
20. 4 
21. a 



[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 49 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·formation of Z bus of a power system by different methods
Â·formation of Z bus when new banch is added
Â·formation of Z bus when new link is added.
Â·modification approach if the network needs to be modified.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.Derive expression for a partial network adding a link to form Zbus. What are the advantages of Zbus building algorithm?
2.Describe the procedure for modification of Zbus when a line is added or removed which has no mutual impedance.
3.Describe the procedure for modification of Zbus when a line with mutual impedance is added or removed.
4.Derive the necessary expressions for the building up of Zbus when
(i)new element is added.
(ii)new element is added between existing buses. Assume mutual coupling between the added element and the elements in partial network.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.Write the algorithm for the formation of bus incidence matrix for a branch case and form
the Zbus for the given network connections.
Element 
Bus code 
Impedance 
1 
0.2 

2 
0.4 

3 
0.4 
2.
bus (other than reference bus) to new bus?
3.Using the method of building algorithm find the bus incidence matrix for the network
connection given: 



Element 
Bus code 
impedence 

1 
j0.2 

2 
j0.5 

3 
j0.15 

4 
j0.3 








[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 50 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
4.Build Zbus for the
Element 
bus code 
impedance 
1 
j0.1 

2 
j0.25 

3 
j0.1 

4 
j0.1 
5.If an impedance of j1.5 pu is connected between


1 
2 
3 

1 
j1.2 
j1.2 
j1.2 
Zbus = 
2 
j1.2 
j1.4 
j1.2 

3 
j1.2 
j1.2 
j1.56 
6. 




7.
8.The bus impedance matrix of a

impedance j0.56 is removed, Find the modified Zbus matrix. 



1 
2 
3 

1 
j0.183 
j0.078 
j0.141 
Zbus = 
2 
j0.078 
j0.148 
j0.106 

3 
j0.141 
j0.106 
j0.267 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 51 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.Normally Zbus matrix is a ______________
2.The diagonal elements of bus impedance matrix is called___________________
3.The off diagonal elements of bus impedance matrix is called________________
4.The matrix consisting of driving point impedances and transfer impedances of the network of the power system is called______________
5.When a branch of impedance Zb is added from a new bus to the reference bus, the order of the bus impedance matrix is_______________
6.When a branch of impedance Zb is added from a new bus to existing bus, the order of the bus impedance matrix is__________________
7.If
8.If an element is removed which is not mutually coupled to any other element, the modified bus impedance matrix can be obtained by_________ With the element
9. 
Identify the incorrect relations 
[ 
] 

a)ZBUS =kt ZBR k b)ZBR =Ab ZBUS Abt 
c)ZBUS = kt [Z] k 

10.With the addition of a branch to a partial network with usual notation, the mutual
impedance is given by 
[ 
] 
a)Zbi = Zai 
b) Zbi = Zai 

c) Zbi = Zai 
d) none 

11.The self impedance Zbb of a branch ab added to an existing partial network is given by

a) Zbb = Zab + 
b) 
Zbb = Zab + 


c) Zbb = Zab + 
d)none 
[ 
] 

12. 
In the above question, if there is no mutual coupling 

[ 
] 


a) Zbb=Zab 
b) Zbb=Zab 
d) none 


13.In the above question, if there is no mutual coupling and if â€˜aâ€™ is the reference node
a) 
[ 
] 
14.Modified impedances are computed when the fictious node introduced for the addition of a
link is eliminated. Then Zij(modified) a)Zij(before elimination) â€“ (Z ilZlj)/Zll b) Zij(before elimination) â€“ (Z ll)/ZilZlj
[ ]
c)Zij(before elimination) â€“ (Zil Zlj)/Zll
d)none
15.If all the elements of a bus impedance matrix are diagonal, then bus admittance matrix will be_______
16.If all the elements of a bus impedance matrix are not diagonal, then bus admittance matrix will Be _______ of bus impedance matrix
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
17.The meeting of various components in a power system is called________
18.A set of unconnected elements of a network is called _______
KEY:
1.full matrx 2.driving point impedances 3.transfer impedances 4.bus impedances matrix
5.increases by one 
6.increases by one 7.unchanged 8.adding in parallel 
9 .c 10. A 11. B 

12. B 13.a 14.a 
15. reciprocal of bus impedance matrix 
16. Inverse 
17. Bus 
18. Primitive network 


[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 53 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT â€“ III POWER FLOW
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·the purpose for Power flow studies.
Â·calculation of voltage, power relating to Load flow studies by gauss seidal method with and without PV buses.
Â·Use of acceleration factor .
ESSAY QUESTONS:
1. a) Give classification of buses in load flow studies.
b)What is slack bus? How do you select a slack bus in a given system?
2.How do you improve the rate of convergence of
3.What is the difference between Gauss iterative method and
4.What is the use of YBUS in power ow analysis by
5.What is load flow solution? Explain its objectives and significance in power system analysis.
6.Derive the basic equations for load flow studies and also write the assumptions and approximations to get the simple equations.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.In a
2.A
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 54 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
3.For the system shown ., the bus admittance matrix is
With P2 = 0.5 p.u., Q2 =
4.For the network shown in figure1, obtain complex bus bar voltage at bus3 at the end of the second iteration. Use G.S method. Line impedances shown in figure are in p.u.
Bus 1 is a slack bus V1=1.0 6 00 ; V2 =1.02 P2= 5.96 0_Q2 _1.5;
Load at Bus 3: Real Power = 2.0p.u. Reactive Power = 0.8 p.u
5.The data for
SG2=0.25+jQG2 p.u.; SD2=1+j 0.5 p.u. The two buses are connected by a transmission line of p.u. reactance of 0.5 p.u. Find Q2 and 6 V2. Neglect shunt susceptance of the tie line. Assume V2 =1.0. Perform two iterations using G.S. method.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.Buses for load flow studies are classified as_________________________
2.The bus admittance matrix of the power system is not__________________
3.In Gauss  seidel method of power flow problem, the number of iterations may be required of the correction in voltage at each bus is multiplied by________________________
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
4. 
Load flow studies are carried out for 
[ 
] 


a)fault calculations b) 
stability studies c) system planning d) load frequency control 

5. 
The solution of 
[ 
] 


a) all system constraints 
b) all operational constraints c) both a,b d) none 


6.In Ybus formation total self admittances is also called as___________________
7.When use of acceleration factor, the total number of iterations required______________
8.Nodal admittance matrix is a _______ matrix
9.A power system consists of several buses which are inter connected by means of _____
lines
10.In load flow analysis the load at abus is represented as __________________________
11. 
In load flow studies the load at a bus is represented by 
[ 
] 


a) constant current drawn from the bus 
b)constant impedance connected at the bus 



c)constant real and reactive powers drawn from the bus 


d) voltage dependent impedance at the bus
12.In load flow studies a PV bus is treated as a PQ bus when______________________
13. 
In a power system ,maximum number of buses are 

[ 
] 



a) PQ 
B) PV 
C) SLACK 
D) all the above 





14. 
at a load bus, quantities specified are 


[ 
] 



a) P,V 
b) 
P, delta 

c) v,0 
d) P,V 






15. 
An acceleration factor is used in load flow studies by 

[ 
] 



a) 
b) NR method 
c) decoupled method 
d) all the above 



16. 
An acceleration factor 
for load flow studies is 

[ 
] 



a) 2.2 b)1.6 

c)1.1 
d)3.1 








17. 
A voltage controlled bus is treated as a load bus in subsequent iteration when its [ 
] 



a) voltage limit is violated 

b)active power limit is violated 
c) reactive power limit is 


violated d)phase angle 
limit is violated 






18. 
A voltage controlled bus is characterized by specified 

[ 
] 



a) 
real and reactive powers 
b) 
real power and phase angle c)real power and voltage 


magnitude 
d)reactive power and voltage magnitude. 





19. 
The diagonal element of a nodal admittance matrix can be strengthened by adding [ 
] 



a)shunt inductance 
b) shunt capacitance 
c) load d) generators 




KEY: 















1.a)the load bus b)the generator bus c)the slack bus 2.a full matrix 
3.acceleration constant 

4.b 
5.c 
6.diagonal elements 
7.decreases 
8.symmetric 
9.transmission 10. constant real 

and reactive power drawn from the bus 11.c 
12.reactive power goes beyond limit 
13.a 

14.d 
15.a 
16.b 

17.c 
18.c 
19.a 




















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 



Page 56 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT â€“ IV Power flow
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·Calculation of voltage across the buses by Newton Raphson method
Â·Calculation of voltage across the buses by decoupled method
Â·Calculation of voltage across the buses by fast decoupled method.
Â·Comparison of all the power flow methods.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.Explain significance of slack bus? How voltage controlled bus is handled in
2.Derive the expression for diagonal and
3.Compare
(a) Number of iterations (b) Convergence characteristic (c) Initial values.
4.What are the advantages and disadvantages of polar and Rectangular form of NR method?
5.What are the assumptions made in reducing
6.What are the limitations of decoupled method compared to FDLF method?
7.Explain FDLF method with importance of [B0] and [B00] matrices.
8.Explain
9.What is decoupled load flow? What are the advantages of such load flow solution?
10.Distinguish between decoupled load flow solution and fast decoupled load flow solution.
11.Draw the flow chart of decoupled method and explain.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.For the power system shown, compute [B0] and [B00] matrices.
Bus code 
Impedances (P.u) 
Half line charging admittance (P.u) 
(0.06+j0.18) 
j0.005 

(0.02+j0.06) 
j0.006 

(0.04+j0.12) 
j0.005 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
2.The magnitude of voltage at
2.Perform one iteration of FDLF method for the system in figure Slack
P  V Bus
4.A sample power system is shown in diagram. Determine V2 and V3 by N.R method after one iteration. The p.u. values of line impedances are shown in figure
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
5.Using data given below, obtain V3 using N.R. method after first iteration as shown in the figure

Bus 

Impedance zpq 




0.08+j0.24 p.u 




0.02+j0.06 





0.06+j0.18 



Bus code 
Assumed bus 
Megawatts 
Megavars 
Megawatts 
Megawars 
voltage 





1 
1.05+j0 p.u 
0 
0 
0 
0 
2 
1.0+j0 2 
0 
0 
50 
20 
3 
1.0+j0 
0 
0 
60 
25 
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1. 
In load flow studies, a PV bus is treated as a PQ bus when 
[ 
] 


a) voltage at bus becomes high 
b) reactive power goes beyond limit 



c) phase angle becomes high 



2. 
For accurate load flow calculations,the best method is 
[ 
] 


a) 
c) decoupled method 
d) all the above 

3.For a load flow solution , the quantities normally sspecified at a voltage controlled bus are
a) P,Q 
b) P,l vl 
c) Q,lVl 
d) P,delta 
[ 
] 
4.The voltage of a particular bus can be controlled by controlling the ________________
5.For a 15 bus power system with 3 voltage controlled bus size of Jacobian matrix is
a)11*11 
b)24*24 
c) 12*12 
d) 28*28 
[ 
] 
6.The convergence characteristics of the
7.In
8.In load flow analysis,load connected at a bus is represented as______________________
9.Compared to 25 iterations regarding by
10.Advantages of
11. 
Polar form of 

a)more b)lesser c)equal d)zero 
12.Size of Jacobian matrix is__________smaller in case of
13.Sparsity of a nxn matrix is given as______________________
14.Modern load flow studies take advantage of_________to reduce computer memory requirements.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
15.The number of iterations required for an
16.In load flow studies, the calculated reactive power is within the specified limits, the bus will be treated as _________________
17.For n bus power system, the total number of equations in
18.In ______ method polar coordinates are preferred for developing program
19.Computer storage requirement for FDLF method when compared
20.The equation for real and reactive power injected to the bus is used in_________________
21.As the number of buses one increased, the number of iterations for
KEY: 



1.b 
2.b 3.b 4.reactive power of the bus 5.d 
6.quadratic 7.Taylors series expansion 

8.constant real and reactive drawn from the bus 
9.3 
10.more accuracy and convergence 

11.b 
12.smaller 13.total no. of zero elements /n2 *100 
14.sparsity 15.3 

16.voltage controlled bus 
20.load flow studies 21.constant 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 60 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·the purpose of per unit representations of power system components,
Â·concept of faults
Â·concept of symmetrical fault analysis.
Â·Various Faults levels
Â·the application of series reactors.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.Prove that Zpu(new) = Zpu(old) Ã—(MV A)Base(new)/ (MV A)Base(old)Ã— (KVLL)2Base old / (KVLL)2Base old
2.What are the advantages of p.u system
3.What do you understand by
4.How are reactors classiffied? Explain the merits and demerits of different types of system protection using reactors.
5 . 
Explain the construction and operation of protective reactors. 
6.What are the advantages of using reactors?
7.Explain the impedance and reactance diagrams with an example power system.
8 . 
Prove that Base impedance =KV 2LL(Base) /MV A3(Base) 
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.Obtain pu impedance diagram of the power system of figure . Choose base quantities as 15
MVA and 33 KV.
Generator: 30 MVA, 10.5 KV, X'' = 1.6 ohms.
Transformers T1 & T2: 15 MVA, 33/11 KV, X = 15 ohms referred to HV Transmission line: 20 ohms / phase
Load: 40 MW, 6.6 KV, 0.85 lagging p.f.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
2.For the network shown in figure , draw p.u impedance diagram.
3.A 40 MVA, 20 KV/400 KV single phase transformer has the following impedances. Zp = 0.9 + j1.8 ohms and Zs = 128+j288 ohms. Find:
i.pu impedance of the transformer referred to HV
ii.ii. pu impedance of the transformer referred to LV
4.Draw pu impedance diagram of the network shown
5.Obtain pu impedance diagram of the power system of figure. Choose base quantities in generator circuit.
Generator: 20 MVA, 11 KV, X''= 0.1 pu Transformer: 25 MVA, 11/33 KV, X = 0.1 pu Load: 10 MVA, 33 KV, 0.8 pf lag.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.When the insulation of the system fails at one or more points, a___________ occurs
2.Give two causes of faults______________ and________________
3. 
Calculation of fault current is easily done by 
[ 
] 

a)Theveninâ€™s theorem b)KCL c)KVL d)Compensation theorem 


4.Current of a synchronous motor under fault conditions is phasor sum of motor current during _______________ condition and ___________of motor
5.Sinusoidal steady state current is called______________________
6.In power system technology, unidirectional transient component is called_______________
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
7.A power station consists of two synchronous generators A,B of ratings 250MVA,500MVA with inertia 1.6p.u,1p.u on their own base MVA ratings. Equivalent to p.u inertia constant
for system on 100MVA common base is 
[ 
] 

a)2.6 
b)0.615 
c)1.625 
d)9.0 

8.p.u system leads to great simplification of____________________
9.Voltage, current, impedance of an electric circuit are expressed in p.u of______________
10. 
Base current in amperes is 

[ 
] 

a)Base KVA /v3 Base KV (line to line) 
b)Base KVA /Base KV (line to line) 



c)Base KVA/3 Base KV (line to line) 
d)none 


11. 
Base impedance in Ohms 

[ 
] 

a)[Base voltage in KV(line to line)]*1000/base KVA 




b)[base voltage in KV (line to line)]2*1000/base KVA 




c) )[base voltage in KV (line to line)]2*3/base KVA 
d)none 


12. 
Impedance in Ohms is 

[ 
] 

a)(p.u impedance)[base KV (line to line)]2/base KVA *1000 



b) (p.u impedance)[base KV (line to line)]2*1000/v3 base KVA 



c)(p.u impedance)[base KV (line to line)]2*1000/base KVA 
d)none 

13.The reactors used to limit the short circuit current have low resistance to reactance ratio
[True/False]
14.An alternator is connected to a bus.for a symmetrical fault at the bus ,the fault level is 60MVA.If another similar alternator is connected to the same bus,the new fault level will be
a)120MVA b)60MVA 
c)30MVA d)15MVA 
[ 
] 
15. Ashunt fault is characterized by 
[ 
] 
a)increase in current ,frequency and p.f
b)increase in current , reduction in frequency and p.f
c) increase in current ,frequency and reduction in p.f 
d) none 
16.The p.u impedance value of an alternator corresponding to base values 13.2KV and 30MVA
is 0.2p.u. The p.u value for the base values 13.8KV, 50MVA will be 
[ 
] 

a) 0.306 
b) 0.33 
c) 0.318 
d)0.328 


17.Fault level means_____________
18.A
magnitude of fault current will be 
[ 
] 

a) 3.75 
b)1.54 
c)1.43 
d) 1.25 

18.Zero sequence currents can flow from a line into a transformer bank if the windings are in
a) grounded star/delta b) delra/star c) star/ grounded star d) delta/delta 
[ 
] 
KEY:
1.Fault 2. Lightning,heavy winds 3.) A 4.) Prefault;fault current contribution 5)short circuit current 6) dc offset current 7)b 8) 3 phase network 9)base values 10) a 11)b
12)c 13)true 14) a 15)b 16)a 17) fault MVA 
18) a 




[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 63 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·About the purpose of symmetrical component theory
Â·Definition of positive, negative and zero sequence components.
Â·Use of symmetrical component theory to determine the different types of unsymmetrical faults.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.What are the advantages of symmetrical components?
2.Explain how a L  G fault on a unloaded generator is analysed. Also explain how sequence networks are to be connected for a LG fault.
3.Derive an expression for the fault current for a three phase to ground fault at an unloaded generator.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1, A generator having a solidly grounded neutral and rated 50 MVA, 30 KV has positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of 0.25, 0.15 and 0.05 pu respectively. What reactance must be placed in the generator neutral to limit the fault current of a LG fault to that for a 3 phase fault.
2.The line currents in a 3 phase supply to an un balanced load are respectively
Ia = 10 + j20; Ib = 12  j10; Ic =
3.A balanced 200 V, 3 phase supply feeds balanced resistive load as shown in figure. If the resistance Rbc is disconnected. Determine Ia, Ib and Ic and symmetrical components of Ia, Ib and Ic.
4.A synchronous generator 50 MVA, 13.8 KV has subtransient reactance, negative sequence reactance and zero sequence reactance equal to j0.1, j0.1 and j0.08 respectively. If a LLG fault occurs at the terminals of the generator (neutral solidly grounded) Find fault current.
5.The line currents in a 3 phase supply to an un balanced load are respectively
Ia = 10 + j20; Ib = 12  j10; Ic =
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 64 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
6.The
(a)Using Thevenins theorem, obtain the impedance to the point of fault and the fault current in p.u.
(b)Determine the bus voltages and line currents during fault.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS: 





1. 
For a fault at generator terminals the fault current is maximum for 
[ 
] 


a) 3 phase fault 
c)SLG fault d) DLG fault . 



2. 
A single line to ground fault means 

[ 
] 


a) a fault between phase R and ground. 
b) a fault between phase Y and ground 



c) A fault between phase B and ground 
d) a fault between any one phase and ground. 

3. 
The zero sequence fault currents are absent when the fault is 
[ 
] 


a) SLG 
b) 
c) DLG 
d) none. 


4. 
The method of neutral grounding effects the 

[ 
] 


a) positive sequence network 
b) negative sequence network c) zero sequence network. 


5. 
The symmetrical components are used in the fault analysis because 
[ 
] 


a)then number of equations becomes smaller 



b)the sequence networks do not have mutual coupling.
c)the results are required in terms of symmetrical components.
6. 
Fault calculations using computer are usually done by 


[ 
] 



a)Y bus method 
b)Z bus method 
c)none of the above 
d) any of the above . 



7. 
Y bus as used in the load flow studies and Zbus as used for short circuit studies 
[ 
] 



a)are the same 
b) are inverse of each other c) are not related 
d) none 



8. 
The passive positive and negative sequence bus impedance matrices are 

[ 
] 



a)exactly similar 
b)usually assumed to be similar 
c)completely different . 

9. 
In case of a 
[ 
] 



a)mostly reactive 
b) mostly active. 
c)active and reactive both equal 
d) reactive only. 

10. 
A shunt fault is characterised by 



[ 
] 



a)increase in current,frequency and p.f 
b)Increase in current reduction in frequency 


and p.f c)Increase in current and frequency but reduction in p.f 
d)none of the above. 


















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 




Page 65 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
11.For measuring positive, negative and zero sequence voltages in a system, the refernce is
taken as 



a)neutral of the system only 
b)ground only 
[ 
] 
c) for zero sequence neutral and for positive and negative the ground 
d)none of the above. 
12.The positive,negative and zero sequence impedances of a solidly grounded system under

steady state condition always follow the relation 
[ 
] 


a) Z1>Z2>Z0 b) Z1<Z2<Z0 
c) Z0<Z1<Z2 d)none of the above. 


13. 
The positive sequence component of voltage at the point of fault is zero when it is a:[ 
] 


b) 


14.The negative and zero sequence voltages are maximum at the fault point and decrease
towards the neutral 
[True/False] 
15.For complete protection of a
16.Zero sequence currents can flow from a line into a transformer bank if the windings are
a)grounded star/delta b) delta/star c)star/grounded star d) delta/delta. 
[ 
] 
17.when a line to ground fault occurs the current in a faulted phase is 100A. zero sequence
current in this case is 

[ 
] 

a) 0 
b) 33.3 
c) 66.6 
d) 100 

18.The maximum safe current which a human body can toletrate for greater than few seconds is ______
19.The negative sequence component of voltage is Zero when it is________________
20.When a line to ground fault occurs, the current in a faulted phase is 100A . The zero sequence current in this case will be_______________
KEY: 













1.c 
2.d 
3.b 
4.c 
5.b 
6.b 
7.c 
8.b 
9.a 
10.b 
11.d 
12.a 
13.a 
14.true 
15.two phase and one earth fault relays are required 
16.a 
17.b 
18.9Ma 

19.3 phase fault 
20.33.3A 








[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 66 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·the concept of stability
Â·different types of stability
Â·various parameters of steady state stability
Â·different methods to improve steady state stability
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.Define the expression for steady state stability limit using ABCD parameters.
2. 
Explain: 
i. Steady state stability limit 
ii. Transient stability limit 
3.A salient pole synchronous generator is connected to an infinite bus via a line. Derive an expression for electrical power output of the generator and draw
4.Derive steady state stability limit of a line with generalised circuit constants of A, B, C and D if sending end and receiving end voltages are VS and VR.
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.A 275 KV transmission line has following line constants.
A = 0.85 5â°, B = 200 75â°
The line delivers 150 MW with VS = VR = 275KV . Determine synchronizing power coefficient.
2.A 3 phase 50 Hz transmission line is 200 Km long. The line parameters are r = 0.1ohm /Km; x = 0.25 ohm/km; y = 3 Ã—
3.A 50 Hz generator delivers 1.0 pu power at 0.8 pf lag to an infinite bus as shown in figure?
(a)Determine steady state stability limit.
(b)If load increases by 2% what is the acceleration power
(c)If acceleration power in (ii) is constant for 0.1 secs . Find the rotor angle at the end of this time interval. Inertia constant of the generator is 2.5 MJ / MVA
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
4.A 50 Hz synchronous generator with H = 2.5 MJ / MVA supplies power to infinite bus as shown. Derive an expression for power delivered to infinite bus and plot power angle curve.
5.A synchronous motor is receiving 25 percent of power that is capable of receiving from an infinite bus. If the load on the motor is doubled, determine the maximum value of load angle during the swinging of the rotor around its new equilibrium position.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.For interconnected systems,it is necessary to have _______between various parts of a power system
2. 
Power transfer of a power system is proportional to 
[ 
] 


a)1 
b)d 
c)sind 
d)tand 


3.Stability means______________after subjected to disturbance
4.Asystem
5.Dynamic stability is improved by _____________________
6.Study of steady state stability is based on determination of _____________before loosing synchronism
7.During fault, electric power from ____________generators is reduced and power from
_____________ generations is affected
8.For a non salient pole m/c; per phase induced emf; terminal voltage equation under steady
state is given by 

[ 
] 

a)E=V 
c)E=V+jXd Id +j Xq Iq 
d)none 

9.Steady state stability of a power system is improved by_______
10.Maximum power that can be transmitted to receiving and without loss of synchronism defines_______________
11.From system stability study characteristic equation roots are imaginary when âˆ‚Ïe /âˆ‚do is
_________
12.If âˆ‚Ïe /âˆ‚do is negative ,roots are______________
13.System is unstable for______________
14.âˆ‚Ïe /âˆ‚do is called______________of synchronous m/e
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 68 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
15. 
Maximum power that can be transmitted without loss of stability, occurs for do = [ 
] 


a)00 
b)400 
c)450 
d)1800 

16.Maximum power for d0 =900 is ______________
17.If in per unit the exitattion voltage E=1.2 and the terminal voltage V=1.0 with d=300 and

Xd=0.8 and Xq=0.6 ,the direct axis current id is 
[ 
] 


a)0.4175 
b)0.6250 

c)0.8350 


18. 
In the above question the 
[ 
] 


a)0.4175 
b)0.6250 
c)0.8350 



19. 
For a turbo generator,transient reactance is the order of 
[ 
] 


a)1.5 p.u 
b)0.15 p.u 
c)0.02 p.u 


20.When a synchronous machine is working with 1.1 p.u excitation and is connected to an infinite bus of voltage 1.0 p.u delivering power at a load angle of 300 the power delivered
with xd =0.8 p.u and xq =0.6 p.u 
is 

[ 
] 

a)0.675 
b)0.6875 
c)1.375 




KEY: 







1.synchronism 2.c 
3.ability to return to normal operation 4.dynamically 



5.power system stabilizers 
6.upper limit of machine loadings 7.nearby; remote 
8.c 


9.double circuit line instead of single circuit line 10.steady state stability limit 11.positive 


12.real 13.âˆ‚Ïe /âˆ‚do 
<0 
14.stiffness 
15.b 16. P = 1E1 1V1 /X 
17.a 18. c 
19.a 


20.b 







[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 69 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
UNIT
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to know
Â·the concept of transient stability
Â·Various improvement methods of transient stability .
Â·Concept of numerical solution for the swing equations.
Â·Application of Auto Reclosing and Fast Operating Circuit Breakers.
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.What are the assumptions made in deriving swing equation.
2.Explain point by point method of determine swing curve.
3.Explain methods of improving transient stability.
4.A single machine supplies power to an infinite bus over a double circuit line. Discuss transient stability of the system when one of the circuit is suddenly switched off.
5.Discuss the general characteristics and assumptions that are taken into account while studying transient stability.
6.Derive and explain the equal area criterion for stability of a power system.
7.Explain i. Transfer reactance ii. Inertia constant
8.State the assumptions made in deriving swing equation of single machine connected to infinite bus.
9.Derive swing equation of single machine connected to infinite bus.
10.Give the list of methods to improve transient stability limits and explain.
11.Explain the use of automatic reclosing circuit breakers in improving system stability.
12.Define the relationship for electric power `P', torque `T',moment of inertia`I'.
13.Derive the relationship for Angular momentum, kinetic energy and the inertia constant.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 70 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
1.A 50 Hz, 500 MVA, 400 KV generator (including transformer) is connected to a 400 KV infinite bus bar through on inter connector. The generator has H = 2.5MJ/MVA. Voltage behind transient reactance 420 KV and supplies 460 MW. The transfer reactance between generator and bus bar under various conditions are Prefault = 0.5 pu; During fault = 1.0 pu; Post fault = 0.75 pu. Calculate swing curve using _T = 0.05 sec, with fault cleared at 0.1 secs. The period of study is 0.2 secs.
2.A 50 Hz, 4 pole turbo generator rated 100 MVA, 11 KV has an inertia constant of 8 MJ/MVA. Find
(a)The stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed.
(b)If the mechanical input is suddenly raised to 80 MW for an electrical load of 50MW, Find the
(a)rotor acceleration, neglecting mechanical and electrical losses.
(c)If the acceleration calculated in part (b) is maintained for 10 cycles, find the change in torque angle and rotor speed in revolutions per minute at the end of their period.
3.A 50 Hz
4.A generator having H = 6.0 MJ / MVA is delivering 1.0 pu to an infinite bus via a purely reactive network. When occurrence of a fault reduces the generator output power to zero.
The maximum power that can be delivered is 2.5 pu. When the fault is cleared the original network conditions again exists. Determine critical clearing angle and critical clearing time.
5.A 50 Hz generator is delivering 50 % of the power that is capable of delivering through transmission system to an infinite bus. A fault occurs that increases the reactance between generator and infinite bus to 500 % of the value before the fault. When fault is isolated the maximum power that can be delivered is 75 % of the original maximum value. Determine critical clearing angle.
6.A 50 Hz generator supplies 0.8 pu power to infinite bus via a network as shown. A 3 phase fault occurs at point P. If fault is cleared by simultaneous opening of breakers at both ends of the faulted line at 4.5 cycles after fault occurs. Plot swing curve through t = 0.2 secs. Take H = 4 MJ/MVA.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
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B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
7.A 200 MVA, 2 pole, 50 Hz alternator has a moment of inertia of 50 X 103
8.For the system shown in figure 8, a 3 phase fault occurs at the middle of one of the transmission lines and is cleared by simultaneous opening of circuit breakers at both ends. If initial power of generator is 0.8 pu, determine the critical clearing angle.
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS:
1.The inertia constant of a turbo generator of 200MVA is 6. Value of H corresponding to a
base of 300MVA will be 
[ 
] 
a)9 b) 4 c) 6 d)13.5 


2.The inertia constant of two groups of machines which swing together are M1, M2 . The

inertia constant of the machine is 

[ 
] 


a ) M1M2/ M1+M2 
b) 
c) M1+M2 
d) M1+M2/ M1M2 

3. 
If two synchronous generators are connected, loss of synchronism will result in [ 
] 


a)stalling of generators 
b) 
wild fluctuations in current 



c) wild fluctuations in current and 
voltage 
d) none 

4.A 50hz , 4 pole turbo alternator rated at 20MVA, 13.2KV has an inertia constant
H=4KWsec/KVA. The kinetic energy stored in 
rotor at synchronous speed is 
[ 
] 

a) 80KJ 
b) 80MJ 
c) 40MJ 
d) 
20MJ 


4.The inertia constant of two groups of machines which do not swing together are M1, M2 .
The inertia constant of the machine is 
[ 
] 
a ) M1M2/ M1+M2 b) 
d) M1+M2/ M1M2 

5.The inertia constant of two groups of machines which do not swing together are M1, M2.
such 
That M1 > M2. It is proposed to add some inertia to one of the two groups of 

machines for improving transient stability of the system. It should 
be added 
to 

__________ 


6.The voltages of a generator and an infinite bus are 0.92 10 and 1.0 0 . The active

power will flow from 

[ 
] 

a) generator to infinite bus b) infinite bus to generator 
c) data insufficient 


7. 
The inertia constant H of a synchronous condenser is 
[ 
] 


a) greater than that of hydro generator 
b) greater than that of turbo alternator 



c) equal to that of turbo alternator 
d)n one 


[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 72 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
8.The inertia constant H of a machine of 100MVA,11KV water wheel generator is 4. The
energy stored in rotor at synchronous speed is 
[ 
] 

a) 400MJ 
b) 400KJ 
c) 25MJ 
d) 25KJ 


9.The inertia constant of 100MVA, 50Hz generator is 10MJ/MVA. If the mechanical input to the machine is suddenly raised from 50MW to 75 MW, the rotor acceleration will be

equal to 

b) 22.5 electrical degrees/ s2 
[ 
] 

a) 225 electrical degrees/ 





c) 125 electrical degrees/ s2 

d) 12.5 electrical degrees/ s2 


10. 
The power systems are operated with power angle around 
[ 
] 


a) 10 b) 30 
c)70 
d) 80 


11.The units of inertia constant H are __________
12.A synchronous generator is feeding an infinite bus through a line. At the middle of the line a

shunt capacitor is added. The stability limit will 
[ 
] 


a) increase 
b) decrease 
c) remain same 
d) none 


13. 
The series compensation 



[ 
] 


a) increases stability limit 


b) decreases stability limit 



c) has no effecton stability limit 
d) none 



14. 
Under transient condition , 



[ 
] 


a)Xd>Xq 
b)Xd1 <Xd 
c) Xd1 =Xd 
d)Xd=0 


15.Equal area criterion gives the information regarding_______
16.Equal area criterionfor the determination of transient stability of a synchronous machine
connected to an infinite bus 
[ 
] 
a) ignores line as well as synchronous machine resistances 


b)assumes accelerating power acting on the rotor as constant 


c)ignores the effect of voltage regulator and governor but considers the inherent damping present in the machine
d)all the above
17.Swing equation is a________
18.A 90 MVA,11KV water wheel generator has H=3. Stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed is_______
19. 
The addition of a synchronous compensator in the system 
[ 
] 


a)improves system stability 
c) decrease system stability 



b)no effect on stability 
d) none 


20. 
Which of the following is true? 

[ 
] 
a)steady state stability is greater than transient stability limit
b)steady state stability is equal to transient stability limit
c) steady state stability is lesser than transienr stability limit 
d) none 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 73 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
KEY:
1.B 2. C 3.c 4 .b 5.M2 6.a 7. B 8.a 9.a 10.b 11. MJ/MVA 12. A 13.a 14.b 15.absolute stability 16.a 17.second order non linear differential equation
18. 270MJ 19.a 20.a
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 74 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
NEURAL NETWORKS & FUZZY LOGIC
BY
MR. T. RAVI CHANDRA
Assistant Professor
EEE Department
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 75 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
INTRODUCTION
The course will teach a variety of contemporary approaches to neural networks and Fuzzy logics and introduce the theory underlying these approaches. The approaches to be covered will include such things as biological and statistical foundations of neural networks, Perceptron, MLPs , SVMs, RBFN and competitive learning. This course will provide basic information about fuzzy logics and various blocks of fuzzy logic system. Additionally, applications in neural networks and Fuzzy logics will be given.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 76 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SYLLABUS
Introduction to Neural Networks : Introduction, Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain, Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron Models,
Essentials of Artificial Neural Networks : Artificial Neuron Model, Operations of Artificial Neuron, Types of Neuron Activation Function, ANN Architectures, Classification Taxonomy of ANN â€“ Connectivity, Neural Dynamics (Activation and Synaptic), Learning Strategy (Supervised, Unsupervised, Reinforcement), Learning Rules, Types of Application.
Single Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks : Introduction, Perceptron Models: Discrete, Continuous and
Multilayer Feed forward Neural Networks : Credit Assignment Problem, Generalized Delta Rule, Derivation of Backpropagation (BP) Training, Summary of Backpropagation Algorithm, Kolmogorov Theorem, Learning Difficulties and Improvements.
Associative Memories : Paradigms of Associative Memory, Pattern Mathematics, Hebbian Learning, General Concepts of Associative Memory (Associative Matrix, Association Rules, Hamming Distance, The Linear Associator, Matrix Memories, Content Addressable Memory), Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) Architecture, BAM Training Algorithms: Storage and Recall Algorithm, BAM Energy Function, Proof of BAM Stability Theorem Architecture of Hopfield Network: Discrete and Continuous versions, Storage and Recall Algorithm, Stability Analysis, Capacity of the Hopfield Network Summary and Discussion of Instance/Memory Based Learning Algorithms, Applications.
Classical & Fuzzy Sets : Introduction to classical sets  properties, Operations and relations; Fuzzy sets, Membership, Uncertainty, Operations, properties, fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions.
Fuzzy Logic System Components : Fuzzification, Membership value assignment, development of rule base and decision making system, Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification methods.
Applications : Neural network applications : Process identification, control, fault diagnosis and load forecasting.Fuzzy logic applications : Fuzzy logic control and Fuzzy classification.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 77 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SUGGESTED BOOKS :
TEXT BOOKS :
1 : Rajasekharan and Pai, â€œNeural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and

applicationsâ€ â€“ PHI Publication. 
2 : 
S.N.Sivanandam, S.Sumathi, S.N.Deepa, â€œIntroduction to Nural Networks using MATLAB 

6.0â€ Tata 
REFERENCE BOOKS : 

1 : 
N. Yadaiah and S. Bapi Raju, â€œNeural and Fuzzy Systems: Foundation, Architecture s and 

Applicationsâ€,  Pearson Education 
2 : 
James A Freeman and Davis Skapura, â€œNeural Networksâ€, Pearson, 2002. 
3 : 
Simon Hykins, â€œNeural Networksâ€ , Pearson Education 
4 : 
C.Eliasmith and CH.Anderson, â€œNeural Engineeringâ€, PHI 
5 : 
Bork Kosk, â€œNeural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Systemâ€, PHI P ublications. 
6: 
Jacek M. Zuarda, â€œIntroduction to Artificial Neural Systemsâ€, Jaico Publishing House, 1997. 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 78 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LECTURE PLAN
Topics in each unit as per JNTU syllabus 
No. of 
Method of 
Text Books/ 

Classes 
Teaching 
Reference books 





Introduction and overview of the course. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 1.1,1.2,2.1 




R1: Introduction 




R2: Introduction 

Humans and Computers, Organization of the Brain. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.1,2.2,2.3 

Biological Neuron, Biological and Artificial Neuron 


R1:1.1.1,1.1.2, 1.1.3 

Models 




2 
Chalk & Board 
Internet 

Neuron Model, Spiking Neuron Model. 




Characteristics of ANN. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1:2.4,2.5,2.7, 




R1:1.3 

1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.9, R1:1.4 

Historical Developments. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.8,2.10 

Potential Applications of ANN. 
R1:1.2,8.1,8.2,8.3 
Total Number of Classes 
9 




Essentials of Artificial Neural Networks : Artificial 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.3, R6:1.4 
Neuron Model 



Operations of Artificial Neuron, Types of Neuron 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.3, R1:1.4 
Activation Function 


Internet 
ANN Architectures, Classification, Taxonomy of 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.4,2.7, 
ANN 


R1:1.4,1.5 
Connectivity, Neural Dynamics (Activation and 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R1:2.1,2.2,2.3 
Synaptic). 



Learning Strategy (Supervised, Unsupervised, 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.6,R1:1.6 
Reinforcement), 



Learning Rules 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.6, R1:1.6 
Types of Applications. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.10 



R1:8.1,8.2,8.3,8.4 
Total Number of Classes 
8 










Single Layer Feed Forward Neural Networks : 


T1: 3.1,3.1.1, 

Introduction, Perceptron Models Discrete 
1 
Chalk & Board 
3.1.2,3.1.3 







R1:4.1,4.2 


Perceptron Models Continuous Model 


T1: 3.1.1,3.1.2, 



1 
Chalk & Board 
3.1.3, 






R1: 4.1,4.2,4.3 


Perceptron 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 3.1.3,3.1.4 


R1:4.1,4.2,4.3 










Chalk & Board 
T1:3.1,3.1.1, 

Training Algorithms: Discrete Perceptron networks. 
2 

3.1.2,3.1.3, 







R1:4.1,4.2 


Training Algorithms: Continuous Perceptron 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 3.1.1,3.1.2, 

Networks. 

3.1.3, R1:4.1,4.2,4.3 





Perceptron Convergence theorem. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R1:2.5, Internet 


Limitations of the Perceptron Model, Applications. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1:3.4,R1: 8.3 

Total Number of Classes 
8 




















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 


Page 79 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
Multilayer Feed forward Neural Networks : Credit Chalk & Board T1: 3.1.4, Internet 1
Assignment Problem
Generalized Delta Rule. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 2.6, R1: 1.6,4.4.3 


Derivation of Backpropagation (BP) Training. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1:3.2.1,3.2.2, 3.2.3 


R1: 4.4.4 














Summary of Backpropagation Algorithm. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 3.5,3.6 





R1: 4.4.4,4.5 












Kolmogorov Theorem. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
Internet 






Learning Difficulties and Improvements 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1:3.8, R1: 4.4.4,4.5 

Total Number of Classes 
7 
















Associative Memories : Paradigms of Associative 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 4.1,4.2, R1: 7.2 

Memory, Pattern Mathematics, Hebbian Learning. 

















General Concepts of Associative Memory: 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R3: 

4.1.1,4.1.2, 


Associative Matrix, Association Rules. 

R4:14.7 












Hamming Distance, The Linear Associator, Matrix 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R3: 4.1.1,4.1.2 




Memories, Content Addressable Memory. 

R4:14.7 














Bidirectional Associative Memory (BAM) 

Chalk & Board 
T2: 6.5.1 





Architecture, BAM Training Algorithms: Storage 
2 

R3: 4.2.1,4.2.2, 4.2.3 

and Recall Algorithm, 









BAM Energy Function, Proof of BAM Stability 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 4.3, T2: 6.3, 

Theorem. 

R3: 4.2.4 












Architecture of Hopfield Network: Discrete and 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 4.3 






Continuous versions, Storage and Recall Algorithm. 

R3: 4.3.1,4.3.2 










Stability Analysis, Capacity of the Hopfield 

Chalk & Board 
T1: 4.6, T2: 14.7, 

Network Summary and Discussion of 
2 

R1: 
5.3.3, 
R4: 

Instance/Memory Based Learning Algorithms, 

2.3,14.7 












Applications. 









Total Number of Classes 
10 
















Classical Sets: Introduction to classical sets  
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.1,6.2,6.2.2 

properties. 

R2: P17,18,20 










Classical Sets: Operations. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.2.1, R2: P20 


Classical Sets: relations. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.4, R2: 


Fuzzy sets, Membership functions. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.3.2, 6.3.3, 6.5 


R2: P26,27 












Fuzzy Uncertainty, Operations, properties. 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.3.2, R2: P27,28 


Fuzzy relations, cardinalities, membership functions. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 6.5, R2: 

Total Number of Classes 
8 
















Fuzzy Logic System Components : 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 7.1,7.2,7.3 





R2: 












Fuzzification, 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R2: 





Membership value assignment, 
1 
Chalk & Board 
R2: 




Development of rule base and decision making 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 7.4, 
R2: 
P232 

system. 

246 














Defuzzification to crisp sets, Defuzzification 
3 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 7.5, R2: 134 

methods. 

















Example problems 
2 
Chalk & Board 
Lecture notes 




Total Number of Classes 
9 





























[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 





Page 80 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
Neural network applications : Process identification 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T2: 8.3, R1: 8.2.5 

Neural network applications : process control, fault 
2 
Chalk & Board 
Internet 


diagnosis 











Neural network applications: process load 
2 
Chalk & Board 
Internet 


forecasting. 











Fuzzy logic control 
1 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 7.6, 
R2: 
P475 

477 









Fuzzy logic applications: Fuzzy classification. 
2 
Chalk & Board 
T1: 7.6, 
R2: 
P371 

400 









Total Number of Classes 
8 




Total Number of Classes For this Course 
67 










TEXT BOOKS:
T1 : Rajasekharan and Pai, â€œNeural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithms: synthesis and applicationsâ€ â€“ PHI Publication.
T2: S.N.Sivanandam, S.Sumathi, S.N.Deepa, â€œIntroduction to Nural Networks using MATLAB 6.0â€ Tata
REFERENCE BOOKS:
R1 : B. Yagna Narayana, â€œArtificial neural networksâ€ , Prentice Hall of India, 1999.
R2 : Timothi J . Ross, â€œFuzzy logic with Engineering applicationsâ€,
R3 : Simon Hykins, â€œNeural Networksâ€ , Pearson Education
R4 : C.Eliasmith and CH.Anderson, â€œNeural Engineeringâ€, PHI
R5 : Bork Kosk, â€œNeural Networks and Fuzzy Logic Systemâ€, PHI Publications.
R6: Jacek M. Zuarda, â€œIntroduction to Artificial Neural Systemsâ€, Jaico Publishing House, 1997.
R7 : N. Yadaiah and S. Bapi Raju, â€œNeural and Fuzzy Systems: Foundation, Architecture s and Applicationsâ€,  Pearson Education
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 81 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain the significance of Neural network
Identify the differences between the biological neuron and artificial neuron
Explain the properties of biological neuron
Distinguish between the different types of neuron models
Explain the historical developments in neural networks
List out the applications of neural networks
ESSAY QUESTIONS:
1.i. Give the brief operation of biological neural network.
ii.Explain how biological neural network is superior over a conventional computer system.
2.i. Explain about biological neuron with a neat diagram.
ii.Explain properties of a biological neuron.
iii.Compare biological and artificial neuron.
3.What are the three models of artificial neuron ? Explain them in detail.
4.Compare artificial neural networks with a conventional computer system.
5.Define artificial neural network. What are the characteristics/capabilities of ANN ?
6.What are the elements of a neuron ? Describe the
7.Give a brief historical development of ANN.
8.Write potential applications of ANN.
9.Write short notes on :
(a) Single layer feed forward networks 
(b) 
Stable forward weight. 

10. Write short notes on: 
(a) linear divergence 
(b) Exponential divergence. 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 82 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.An average weight of the brain is ____________
2.The main parts of a neuron is_______
3.The function of dendrites are_________
4.The function of Axon is_________
5.Write any two potential applications of ANN ___________
Ans: 1. About 1.5kg 2.soma,axon,dendrites 3. acts as a input channel to the neuron
4. acts as a output channel 5.prediction, classification
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 83 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain the operation of the artificial neuron model
Classification Taxonomy of ANN
Differentiate between the threshold function &sigmoid function
Explain the requirements of learning laws for effective information
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Describe an artificial neuron model explaining each of the elements which constitute it.
2.Distinguish between unipolar and bipolar activation functions used in artificial neural.
3.What is learning in a neural network ? Describe superivised, unsupervised and reinforcement learning.
4.What is a network architecture ? Describe three network architectures with neat diagrams.
5.Explain Delta learning rule briefly?
6.Explain persceptron learning rule briefly?
7.Explain Winner take all learning rule briefly?
8.Explain Memory based learning rule briefly?
9.An odd sigmoid function is defined by where tanh denotes a hyperbolic tangent. The limiting values of this second sigmoid function are
10.A neuron has an activation function defined by the logistic function of Problem 4 where v is the induced field, and the slope parameter a is available for adjustment. Lex x1,x2,........xm deonote the input signals applied to the source nodes of the neuron, and b denote the bias. For convenience of presentation, we would like to absorb the slope parameter a in the induced local field v by writing . How would you modify the inputs x1,x2,........xm to produce the same output as before? Justify your answer.
11.A neuron j receive inputs from four other neurons whose activity levels are 10,
2. The respective synaptic weights of neuron j are 0.8, 0.2,
a)The neuron is linear
b)The neuron is represented by
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 84 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.Mostly
2.Binary step function is also called as __________
3.Sigmoidal functions are commonly used activation functions in ________ feed forward NN.
4.The activation function which is canâ€™t be used for continuous type of applications is
___________
5.Write the name of three learning methods in NN are ___________
Ans: 1)Binary step 2)threshold function or Heaviside function
4)Hard limiter 5)supervised, unsupervised, reinforced
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 85 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain the perceptron rule for the pattern classification
Differentiate between the feed forward &feedback word neural networks
Explain the distinction between the Continuous and Discrete Perceptron Networks
Derive the perceptron convergence theorem
Explain the limitations of the Perceptron Model
List out applications of perceptron model
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Write and discuss about
2.Write and discuss about single layer continuous perceptron training algorithm.
3. 
Describe a perceptron model. Demonstrate the implementation of binary logic functions, 

AND, OR, NOR, NAND and COMPLEMENT. 
4.A basic limitation of the perceptron is that it cannot implement the EXCLUSIVE OR function. Explain the reasons for this limitation.
5.State and prove perceptron convergence theorem.
6.Describe perceptron training algorithm for discrete and continuous models
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.Types of perceptron are_____________
2.activation function is used in discrete perceptron is __________
3.activation function is used in continuous perceptron is __________
4.pattern classification is a popular application of _________ perceptron.
Ans: 1) discrete perceptron, continuous perceptron 2) Hard limiter 3) sigmoid function 4) discrete
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 86 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able
Explain the significance the credit assignment problem
Derive the back propagation law
Explain the features of backpropgation learning law
Explain the Kolmogorov Theorem
derive the weight update realations
explain the difficulties in learning laws
explain the improvements in learning laws
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Write down the basic steps of the back propagation algorithm as applied on a
2.Write short notes on the following with respect to Back propagation training:
(a)Network sizing
(b)Local and global minima
(c)Use of learning rate parameter and momentum for training
3.Describe the use of the Back propagation technique for the following applications:
(a)The data compression problem
(b)Paint quality inspection
(c)Character recognition
(d)Expert system applications (say disease diagnosis)
4.a). 
What is the significance of mementum term in back propagation learning ? 
b). 
Why convergence is not guaranteed for the back 
5.With suitable diagram, derive the weight update equations in back propagation algorithm for a multilayer feed forward neural network and explain the effect of learning rate, and momentum terms in weight update equations
6.Derive expressions for weight updation in back propagation algorithm when
i. 
The neuron is an output node and 
ii. 
The neuron is a hidden node. 
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 87 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.Back propogation or generalized delta rule is used for ________
2.In Back propogation algorithm the error function is minimized by using ________
method.
3.An input vector is applied to the input nodes of the network and its effect propogates through the network layer by layer, this process is called __________
4.The error terms are first determined at the output layer and these terms are used in the process of determining the error terms in its preceeding layers, this process is called
__________
Ans:
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 88 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain about the linear associate network
Explain the Basic concepts of associate memory
Draw the architecture for the Bidirectional Associative Memory
Explain the meaning of stability
Explain about the association memory
Explain the limitations association memory .
Explain the meaning of the capacity of Hopfield network
List out the applications of Hopfield network algorithm
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.What is an associative memory ? Explain autoassociative, linear interpulative and hetroassociative memories.
2.Explain completely with figures the algorithmic steps involved in BAM processing with a suitable example.
3.The BAM Energy function theorem can be stated (in three parts) as follows:
(a)Any change in the associated vectors x and y during BAM processing results in a decrease in the value of E (the energy function);
(b)E is bounded from below;
(c)When E changes it must change by a finite amount;
Prove the above theorem.
4.Describe the discrete Hopfield model and write down the Energy function when the associated vectors are binary.
5.Describe the continuous Hopfield model. Give a detailed and complete figure.
6.Give a rigorous proof that in the continuous Hopfield model the Energy will have to decrease and hence show that the process is convergent. Draw graphs of the functions involved.
7.Show how the travelling salesman problem can be solved by using the Hopfield model.Write down the â€œEnergy Functionâ€ for the gene ral
8. Show how the Hopfield model can be used for solving the Linear programming 
problem. 
(see Pp 455 to 464 of the book â€œIntroduction to Art ificial Neural Systemsâ€ by 
Jacek M. 
Zurada, Jaico Publishers 2001) 

[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 89 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
9.A Hofield network mode up of five neurons is required to store the following three fundamental memories.
{1} = (1, 1, 1, 1, 1)T {2} = (1,
Evaluate the weight matrix for the same.
10.Construct an energy function for a continuous Hopfield neural network of size NxN neurons. Show that the energy function decreases everytime the neuron output is changed.
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 90 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain about the classical sets
Explain the properties classical sets
Explain the operation of the Fuzzy sets
Give the importance of the membership functions
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Explain the difference between classical and fuzzy sets.
2.Define membership function
3.State and prove fuzzy DeMorgan laws.
4(a) Define classical set
(b)Differentiate fuzzy set from classical set and name the properties of classical (crisp) sets.
5.Give and explain the properties of crisp sets
6. 
Let x = {1, 2, 3, . . . , 10}. Determine the cardinalities and relative cardinalities of the 

following fuzzy sets. 
i.= { (3, 10), (4, 0.2), (5, 0.3), (6, 0.4), (7, 0.6), (8, 0.8), (10,1) (12,0.8), (14,0.6)} ii.= { (2, 0.4), (3, 0.6), (4, 0.8), (5, 1.0), (6, 0.8), (7, 0.6), (8, 0.4)}
iii.= {(2, 0.4), (4, 0.8), (5, 1.0), (7, 0.6)}
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.symbol of cardinality is ___________
2.symbol of membership is ___________
3.if a set is having no members then it is said to be _________
4.A set with single element is called _____________
5.Let A={1,2,3}, B={3,4,5} then A U B is ____________
Ans: 1) E 2) I A I 3) Null set 4) a singleton set 5) {1,2,3,4,5}
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 91 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain the significance of fuzzyfication
List the main components in fuzzy logic
Explain about the about the defuzzification methods
Solve the problems on defuzzification methods
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1.Explain the design procedure of a fuzzy logic controller. Illustrate it with an example.
2.Explain Bell shaped membership function and Triangular membership functions.
3.What is fuzzy ordering ?
4.What is defuzzification ? What are the methods for defuzzification ? Briefly describe one of these.
5.What are the limitations of conventional controllers and how fuzzy controllers over come these limitations explain?
6.What is Fuzzification ? Explain clearly with suitable example.
7.Explain the different shapes of fuzzy membership functions and which one is better to use ?
11.Write short notes on operations of crisp relations.
12.Write short notes on rule  based systems.
13.(a) Compare and contrast fuzzy logic control and classical control system.
(b)Summarize in a point form the design steps of fuzzy logic control
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1.Expression for centre of area occupied by the fuzzy set ( for a continuous membership function) is ____________
2.Expression for centre of area occupied by the fuzzy set ( for a discrete membership function) is ____________

2) X= 
âˆ‘ 

Ans: 1) x = 





âˆ‘ 















[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 

Page 92 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
On the conclusion of this unit, the student must be able to
Explain the need for process identification
Identify the fault diagnosis and load forecasting
Explain the fuzzy logic applications
ESSAY QUESTIONS
1(a).What is the HopÃ»eld network? Explain
(b) Describe how HopÃ»eld network can be used to have analog to digital conversion.
2.Design and develop a pressure process control by FLC model. Formulate necessary membership functions and required fuzzy rules for the application
3.Discuss in detail the pattern recognition tasks that can be solved by feed forward neural
networks. 
(JNTU November 2005) 
4.Design and develop a pressure process control by FLC model. Formulate necessary membership functions and required fuzzy rules for the application
5.Explain how neurocomputing circuits can be modeled using digital and analog circuits.
6.Explain template matching networks in neural processing. Draw a template bit map and the corresponding circuit diagram.
7.What are the various active building blocks of neural networks? Explain the current mirror and inverter based neuron in detail.
8.What are the various active building blocks of neural networks? Explain the current mirror and inverter based neuron in detail.
9.The following raw data were determined in a pair wise comparison of new premium car preferences in a poll of 100 people. When it was compared with a Porsche (P), 79 of those polled preferred a BMW (B), 85 preferred a Mercedes (M), 59 preferred a Lexus (L) and 67 preferred an Infinity (I). When a BMW was compared, the preferences were
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 93 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
NON â€“ CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF
ENERGY
BY
MR. B. ANKAIAH
Assistant Professor
EEE Department
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 94 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
INTRODUCTION
The demand for power is growing rapidly. The problem will be compounded due to fast depletion of fossil fuel deposits, quality of fuels, heavy price to be paid for basic materials plus their transportation cost and above all the environmental degradation caused by the use of conventional energy sources. Under such conditions, environment friendly and
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 95 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
SYLLABUS
UNIT â€“ I PRINCIPLES OF SOLAR RADIATION :
Role and potential of new and renewable source, the solar energy option, Environmental impact of solar power, physics of the sun, the solar constant, extraterrestrial and terrestrial solar radiation, solar radiation on titled surface, instruments for measuring solar radiation andsun shine, solar radiation data.
Flat plate and concentrating collectors, classification of concentrating collectors, orientation and thermal analysis, advanced collectors.
Different methods, Sensible, latent heat and stratified storage, solar ponds. Solar Applications solar heating/cooling technique, solar distillation and drying, photovoltaic energy conversion.
Sources and potentials, horizontal and vertical axis windmills, performance characteristics, Betz criteria
Principles of
Resources, 
types of wells, methods of harnessing the energy, potential in India. 
OCEAN ENERGY : 
OTEC, Principles utilization, setting of OTEC plants, thermodynamic cycles. Tidal and wave energy: Potential and conversion techniques,
Need for DEC, Carnot cycle, limitations, principles of DEC.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Renewable energy resources/ Tiwari and Ghosal/ Narosa. (T1)
2.
REFERENCES:
1.Renewable Energy Sources /Twidell & Weir
2.Solar Energy /Sukhame
3.Splar Power Engineering / B.S Magal Frank Kreith & J.F Kreith.
4.Principles of Solar Energy / Frank Krieth & John F Kreider.
5.
6.
7.Renewable Energy Technologies /Ramesh & Kumar /Narosa
[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 
Page 96 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
LECTURE PLAN
S. 




No. of 
Method of 

Referred 




Topic 


Classes 
Teaching 

Text 
Remarks 

No 












Book 


























1 




1 
PPT & Black 

T 2, 




Role and potential of new and renewable source 

Board 













2 

The solar energy option 
1 
Black Board 

T 2 



3 

Environmental impact of solar power physics of the 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 




sun, The solar constant 


















4 

Extraterrestrial and terrestrial solar radiation, Solar 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 




radiation on titled surface 


















5 

Instruments for measuring solar radiation and sun 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 




shine solar radiation data 




















TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES 
08 



















1 

Flat plate collectors, Concentrating collectors 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



2 

classification of concentrating collectors 
2 
Black Board 

T1 



3 

Orientation analysis 
1 
Black Board 

T 1 



4 

Thermal analysis 
1 
Black Board 

T 1 



5 

Advanced collectors 
1 
Black Board 

T 2 





TOTAL NUMBER OF CLASSES 
07 



















1 

Different methods, Sensible, latent heat 
1 
Black Board 

T 1 



2 

Different methods, stratified storage, solar ponds 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



3 

Solar Applications solar heating technique 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 



4 

Solar cooling technique 
1 
Black Board, 

T 2 








PPT 
















5 

Distillation and drying 
1 
Black Board 

T 2 



6 

Photovoltaic energy conversion 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 





Total Number of Classes 
09 



















1 

Sources and potentials of wind energy 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



2 

Horizontal axis windmills 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



3 

Vertical axis windmills 
1 
Black Board 

T 1 



4 

Performance characteristics of windmills 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



5 

Betz criteria 

2 
Black Board 

T 1 





Total Number of Classes 
08 



















1 

Principles 
of 
2 
Black Board 

T 2 




digestion 






















2 

types of 
3 
Black Board 

T 2 




characteristics of 


















3 

utilization 
for 
cooking, I.C.Engine operation and 
3 
Black Board 

T 2 




economic aspects 




















Total Number of Classes 
08 



















1 

Resources of geothermal energy 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



2 

Types of geothermal energy wells 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



3 

methods of harnessing the energy 
2 
Black Board 

T 1 



























[Vignan Institute of Technology & Science] 





Page 97 
B.Tech IV Year I Sem Course File
4 


potential in India 

2 


Black Board 

T 1 






Total Number of Classes 

08 





















1 

Principles 
utilization OF 
OTEC, Thermodynamic 
2 


Black 
T 2 



cycles 





Board 

















2 

Tidal and wave energy 

2 


Black 
T 2 










Board 



















3 

Potential 
and conversion 
techniques, 
4 


Black 
T 2 



power plants, and their economics. 



Board 



















Total Number of Classes 

08 





















